• Automatic extraction and detection of characteristic movement patterns in children with adhd based on a convolutional neural network (cnn) and acceleration images

      Muñoz-Organero, Mario; Powell, Lauren; Heller, Ben; Harpin, Val; Parker, Jack; Telematics Engineering Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av. Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Spain; University of Sheffield; Sheffield Hallam University; Ryegate Children’s Centre, Sheffield (MDPI AG, 2018-11-14)
      Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviors. In particular, children have difficulty keeping still exhibiting increased fine and gross motor activity. This paper focuses on analyzing the data obtained from two tri-axial accelerometers (one on the wrist of the dominant arm and the other on the ankle of the dominant leg) worn during school hours by a group of 22 children (11 children with ADHD and 11 paired controls). Five of the 11 ADHD diagnosed children were not on medication during the study. The children were not explicitly instructed to perform any particular activity but followed a normal session at school alternating classes of little or moderate physical activity with intermediate breaks of more prominent physical activity. The tri-axial acceleration signals were converted into 2D acceleration images and a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was trained to recognize the differences between non-medicated ADHD children and their paired controls. The results show that there were statistically significant differences in the way the two groups moved for the wrist accelerometer (t-test p-value <0.05). For the ankle accelerometer statistical significance was only achieved between data from the non-medicated children in the experimental group and the control group. Using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to automatically extract embedded acceleration patterns and provide an objective measure to help in the diagnosis of ADHD, an accuracy of 0.875 for the wrist sensor and an accuracy of 0.9375 for the ankle sensor was achieved.
    • Using recurrent neural networks to compare movement patterns in adhd and normally developing children based on acceleration signals from the wrist and ankle

      Munoz-Organero, Mario; Powell, Lauren; Heller, Ben; Harpin, Val; Parker, Jack; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid; Ryegate Childen's Centre, Sheffield Children's NHS FT; Sheffield Hallam University; University of Sheffield (MDPI, 2019-07-03)
      Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects, among other things, the movement patterns of children suffering it. Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviors, major symptoms characterizing ADHD, result not only in differences in the activity levels but also in the activity patterns themselves. This paper proposes and trains a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to characterize the moment patterns for normally developing children and uses the trained RNN in order to assess differences in the movement patterns from children with ADHD. Each child is monitored for 24 consecutive hours, in a normal school day, wearing 4 tri-axial accelerometers (one at each wrist and ankle). The results for both medicated and non-medicated children with ADHD, and for different activity levels are presented. While the movement patterns for non-medicated ADHD diagnosed participants showed higher differences as compared to those of normally developing participants, those differences were only statistically significant for medium intensity movements. On the other hand, the medicated ADHD participants showed statistically different behavior for low intensity movements.
    • What is the level of evidence for the use of currently available technologies in facilitating the self-management of difficulties associated with ADHD in children and young people? A systematic review

      Powell, Lauren; Parker, Jack; Harpin, Valerie; University of Sheffield (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2017-12-08)
      A number of technologies to help self-manage attention defcit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and young people (YP) have been developed. This review will assess the level of evidence for the use of such technologies. The review was undertaken in accordance with the general principles recommended in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. 7545 studies were screened. Fourteen studies of technology that aim to self-manage difculties associated with ADHD in children and YP were included. Primary outcome measures were measures that assessed difculties related to ADHD. Databases searched were MEDLINE, Web of Science (Core collection), CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, ProQuest ASSIA, PsycINFO and Scopus. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed. This review highlights the potential for the use of technology in paediatric ADHD management. However, it also demonstrates that current research lacks robustness; using small sample sizes, non-validated outcome measures and little psychoeducation component. Future research is required to investigate the value of technology in supporting children and YP with ADHD and a focus psychoeducation is needed.