• Vitamin B12 insufficiency induces cholesterol biosynthesis by limiting s-adenosylmethionine and modulating the methylation of SREBF1 and LDLR genes

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Finer, S; Voyias, P.D; McCarthy, C.M; Vatish, M; Moore, J; Smart-Halajko, M; Bawazeer, N; Al-Daghri, N.M; McTernan, P.G; et al. (BMC, 27/02/2015)
      The dietary supply of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, betaine, methionine, and choline is essential for normal growth, development, and physiological functions through the life course. Both human and animal studies have shown that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with altered lipid profile and play an important role in the prediction of metabolic risk, however, as of yet, no direct mechanism has been investigated to confirm this.
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with adverse lipid profile in Europeans and Indians with type 2 diabetes.

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Jayashri, R; Sukumar, N; Venkataraman, H; Pradeepa, R; Gokulakrishnan, K; Anjana, R.M; McTernan, P.G; Tripathi, G; Patel, V; et al. (BMC, 26/09/2014)
      Metformin, a standard therapy in type 2 diabetes, reduces vitamin B12 levels. Studies linking low vitamin B12 levels and cardiovascular disease are equivocal and suggest improving B12 levels may help in primary prevention. The role of vitamin B12 deficiency on cardiovascular risk factors, especially in type 2 diabetes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in two different ethnic groups in UK and India. Type 2 diabetes patients from two secondary care diabetic centres (Europeans - UK and Indians - India) were studied. Serum vitamin B12, folate and biochemical parameters were measured. The prevalence rates of vitamin B12 deficiency (<191 ng/L) were 27% and 12% in Europeans and Indians, respectively and higher in metformin treated type 2 diabetes patients. In linear regression analysis, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors, vitamin B12 independently associated with triglycerides in both the populations and cholesterol/HDL ratio in Indians. Logistic regression showed type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin B12 deficiency were at significantly higher odds of having coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD) in Europeans with similar but non-significant trend in Indians, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is common in type 2 diabetes patients and is associated with adverse lipid parameters. Type 2 diabetes management guidelines should include the recommendation for regular testing for B12 levels, especially for those on metformin.
    • PWE-254 Is the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) around colorectal cancer really ‘normal’?

      Patel, A; Fang, Y; Moore, J; Williams, N; Tripathi, G; Arasaradnam, R; University of Westminster (BMJ, 22/06/2015)
      Field cancerisation refers to the process whereby cells acquire pro-tumourigenic mutations that predispose to malignant transformation but do not produce morphological change.1Previous colorectal cancer studies have assumed that the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) adjacent to a cancer is biologically unaltered. The aim of this study was to determine if the genetic expression profile of the MNM around a cancer or adenoma is different to that found in healthy controls. 15 patients undergoing colonoscopy were recruited over 12 months; 5 healthy controls, 5 with colorectal adenomas and 5 with adenocarcinoma. Two mucosal pinch biopsies were taken in the rectum, right colon and adjacent to polyp or cancer. mRNA was extracted and gene expression was assessed using standard whole genome micro-array analysis. Differentially expressed genes were identified using three methods of analysis: LIMMA (fold change ratio >1.5 and p value <0.05), Robust Regression (RR) (adjusted p value <0.05) and genes that ‘overlap’ when LIMMA (p value <0.001) and RR (adjusted p value <0.1) are used. Functional analysis was performed using DAVID2software to identify important biological processes that were dysregulated. A large number of genes were dysregulated in the MNM adjacent to cancer or adenoma compared with controls (Table 1). Interestingly, the greatest differences were seen between MNM adjacent to cancer and polyp in chromatin organisation, nucleosome processing, nuclear transport and histone assembly. The most significantly upregulated genes consisted of FUT2, CTSA, MUC2 and SDS and downregulated genes consisted of GREM1, SFRP, HIST1H, IL17B and TFF1.
    • Habitual physical activity is associated with circulating irisin in healthy controls but not in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2

      Al‐Daghri, N.M; Alokail, M.S; Rahman, S; Amer, O.E; Al‐Attas, O.S; Alfawaz, H; Tripathi, G; Sabico, S.; Chrousos, G.P; McTernan, P.G; et al. (Wiley, 22/05/2015)
      Irisin, a novel myokine, has been shown to increase following vigorous exercise, with studies suggesting that it mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise. Irisin might play a role in ‘browning’ of white adipocytes, thus increasing energy expenditure. The role of irisin in exercise and energy expenditure in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating irisin and habitual physical activity in subjects with and without DMT2. In this cross‐sectional study, 164 Saudi adults: 81 non‐DMT2 controls [age: (mean ± SD) 51·6 ± 10·9; BMI: 29·6 ± 4·3 kg/m2] and 83 DMT2 subjects [age: 54·3 ± 10·3 year; BMI: 29·4 ± 4·7 kg/m2] were studied. Anthropometric and fasting serum biochemical data were collected. Circulating irisin was measured using an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Frequency intensity time (FIT) index was used to assess the level of habitual physical activity. We observed significantly higher levels of irisin in DMT2 subjects than in controls (P < 0·001). FIT index was positively associated (r = 0·20, P = 0·03) with circulating irisin in controls only. Additionally, irisin levels were significantly higher in tertile 3 (0·75 ± 0·07 μg/mL) than tertile 1 (0·49 ± 0·06 μg/mL) of the FIT index in healthy controls, whilst no such relation with physical activity was observed in DMT2 subjects. This cross‐sectional study has shown a weak association of irisin with physical activity levels in healthy controls but not in DMT2 subjects, suggesting the possibility of discordant regulation in the condition of DMT2.
    • Telmisartan reverses antiretroviral-induced adipocyte toxicity and insulin resistance in vitro

      Pushpakom, S.P; Adaikalakoteswari, A; Owen, A; Back, D.J; Tripathi, G; Kumar, S; McTernan, P; Pirmohamed, M; University of Warwick (Sage, 21/02/2018)
      Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients leads to insulin resistance which is central to the pathogenesis of various metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease seen in this patient group. We have investigated the dose–response relationship of telmisartan, an antihypertensive, on adipocytes in vitro in order to determine whether it may have metabolic beneficial effects. Using in vitro chronic toxicity models (3T3-F442A murine and primary human adipocytes), we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of telmisartan on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic gene expression using lipid accumulation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Adipokine secretion and expression of insulin signalling mediators were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Telmisartan partially reversed the deleterious effects of antiretrovirals on adipocyte lipid accumulation, expression of adipogenic regulators (peroxisome proliferator receptor-gamma and lipin 1), adipokine secretion and expression of the insulin signalling mediator pAktSer473. The metabolic effects of telmisartan followed a non-monotonic response with the maximal effect observed at 5 µM in the primary human adipocyte model. Telmisartan has beneficial metabolic effects in adipocytes in vitro, but its potential to reduce antiretroviral-induced cardiometabolic disease in HIV-infected individuals needs to be evaluated in a well-designed adequately powered clinical trial.
    • “A gentle balance of pushing, pulling and sitting with”: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of psychological therapists’ experiences of working with goals in adult pluralistic private practice

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Antonino, Raffaello; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis/ Informa UK, 2021-07-27)
      Evidence suggests that working with goals, or goal-based practice (GBP) which is fundamental to several contemporary psychotherapies, can enhance the content, process and outcome of psychotherapeutic work. At present, no qualitative research has explored how psychological therapists experience GBP with their clients. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was selected to explore how eight psychological therapists working in adult pluralistic private practice experienced GBP. Three superordinate themes were constructed during the analysis process. “A pathway through the jungle” highlighted how GBP was variously experienced as aiding the therapeutic partnership by monitoring progress, providing focus and increasing positive affect. “Invalidating the therapeutic journey,” where GBP was felt to potentially detract from the client’s frame of reference, to jeopardise the therapeutic containment of sessions and increase the client’s feeling of failure. Finally, “Maintaining the client-led story,” which resembled an antidote to what was experienced as non-humanistic GBP. This involved practitioners preserving time to reflect on their own goals and agendas for their clients and the ways their own psychological processes might be influencing the use of GBP within the therapeutic relationship. Of particular pertinence was therapists’ acknowledgement that GBP may function to shield therapists from feelings of failure or frustration, and may be used consciously or otherwise. We argue that approaches to GBP that attempt to determine helpful or unhelpful aspects of GBP in isolation are likely to overlook therapeutic processes which are vital to ensuring that GBP is collaborative and meaningful for the client. Results are discussed regarding wider literature and suggestions for further research are made.
    • The perception of biopsychosocial impacts of COVID-19 during lockdown restrictionsover time in the UK –a mixed methods study

      Grimwood, Samuel; Stuart, Kaz; Browning, Ruth; Winn-Reed, Thea; Bidmead, Elaine; University of Derby; University of Cumbria (Journal of Ideas in Health, 2021-07-20)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted the health of individuals physically, mentally, and socially. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of this impact across the pandemic from a biopsychosocial stance. A survey created by the research team was employed between November 2020 and February 2021 across social media, relevant organizations, and networks. The survey incorporated 5-time points across the different stages of the pandemic, covering biological, psychological, and social. There were 5 items for each survey (Very Positive affect to Very Negative affect), and analysis was undertaken using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon Tests, as well as correlations between the three domains, were implemented. This study included 164 participants (77.0% female and 35.0% male) across 24 out of 38 counties in the UK. The impact of COVID-19 on biological domain was significant across the five data points χ2(4) = 63.99, p < 0.001, psychological χ2(4) = 118.939, p <0.001 and socially χ2(4) = 186.43, p <0.001. Between the 5 data points, 4 out of 5 had a negative impact, however between the first stage of lockdown and the easing of restrictions, findings for biological (Z=-2.35, p <0.05), psychological (Z=-6.61, p < 0.001), and socially (Z = -8.61, p <0.001) were positive. Negative correlations between the three domains across the pandemic are apparent, but in later stages, the biological domain had a positive correlation r = 0.52, p < 0.001. The data shows a negative impact from the self-reported perception of wellbeing from a biopsychosocial stance over time, as well as perceiving the three domains to interact negatively. To address these biopsychosocial issues, the research implies a place-based integrated recovery effort is needed, addressing biological, psychological, and social issues simultaneously. Further research should investigate biopsychosocial health among a more generalizable population.
    • Mapping Stories of Cause and Cure Using Story Stem Completion: Mental Distress in the Evangelical Christian Community. A Study Protocol

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-07-11)
      Recent qualitative evidence suggests Christian communities can hold specific religious and cultural beliefs regarding mental illness, which can influence how psychological illness is experienced, perceived and managed on both an idiographic and community level. There are, however, no studies which explore the implicit wider social discourses and narratives Christians may draw upon when making sense of mental illness. Objective: This study protocol paper presents a novel pilot study, which aims to collect qualitative data using story completion. Study design: Story completion is an innovative qualitative method which presents participants with a fictional story stem, or cue, and asks participants to continue the story in their own words. This study will explore evangelical Christians perceptions, representations and views of depression (story stem 1) and self-harm (story stem 2), as well as, the wider social, religious and cultural narratives they utilise. Analysis: A critical realist informed thematic analysis will be carried out on the data. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are examined, with specific cognisance towards characteristics of the target sample.
    • COVID-19 infection and cardiometabolic complications: short- and long-term treatment and management considerations

      Stoner, Lee; Faghy, Mark; Conners, Ryan; University of Derby (IMR Press, 2021-06-30)
    • Multi-Component Physical Activity Interventions in the UK Must Consider Determinants of Activity to Increase Effectiveness.

      Faghy, Mark A; Armstrong-Booth, Kirsty E; Staples, Vicki; Duncan, Micheal J; Roscoe, Clare M P; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI, 2021-06-23)
      Interventions to increase physical activity in children have adopted broad approaches and achieved varying success. There is a need to adopt approaches underpinned with a theoretical basis. Accordingly, the aim here was to implement and evaluate a 12-week intervention designed using the concepts of the COM-B model to determine the effect this has on physical activity levels. One hundred and forty-seven school-age children (mean age 8.9 ± 1.3 years) took part in a 12-week program delivered in a school setting. Topics included physical activity, healthy eating, sleep quality and reducing screen time/sedentary activities when not in school. A sample of participants wore a wrist-worn accelerometer for seven days pre-and post-intervention (N = 11). The physical activity frequency was unchanged (2.9 ± 1.0 AU) when compared with post-intervention values (3.1 ± 0.8 AU, mean increase 6.8 ± 3.7%, p > 0.05). Changes were observed in the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables (pre-intervention 44.6% vs. post-intervention 60.2%, p < 0.05). Sedentary time, light activity, moderate activity and vigorous activity were unchanged post-intervention (p > 0.05). There is a need to adopt a broader approach that incorporates a theoretical basis and considers the complex ways by which physical activity behaviours are influenced.
    • Shelter from the cytokine storm: Healthy living is a vital preventative strategy in the COVID-19 era

      Bond, Samantha; Calvo, Isabel Romero; Lebowicz, Leah; Ozemek, Cemal; Severin, Richard; Laddu, Deepika; Faghy, Mark A.; Lavie, Carl J.; Carbone, Salvatore; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-06-18)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to have a devastating effect on a global scale. COVID-19 variants continue to arise and counteract vaccination efficacy. As such, preventative health measures, such as social distancing and stay at home mandates, will continue for the foreseeable future. Evidence on those at greatest risk for poor outcomes if infected with COVID-19 has rapidly come to light. It has become clear that those with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, chronic disease risk factors and/or a confirmed diagnosis of one or more chronic conditions are at greatest risk for hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and death if infected with COVID-19. The cytokine storm is a phenomenon that has been posited as a pathophysiologic response to COVID-19 infection that leads to poor outcomes. The current graphical review illustrates the association between unhealthy lifestyle characteristics and increased vulnerability to the cytokine storm as well as the physiologic mechanisms healthy living behaviors elicit and decrease risk for the cytokine storm. Through this graphical review, we will demonstrate unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, chronic disease risk factors and diagnoses, and COVID-19 outcomes are intricately linked, creating a new global syndemic. It is also clear that a primary way to uncouple this syndemic is through increasing healthy living behaviors, as illustrated in this graphical review. Moving forward, healthy living medicine should be practiced with renewed vigor to improve human resiliency to health threats posed by both chronic disease and viral infections.
    • Mental Distress, Stigma and Help-Seeking in the Evangelical Christian Church: Study Protocol

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; Kotera, Yasuhiro; University of Derby (Concurrent Disorders Society, 2021-05-25)
      A large body of research supports the central importance of religious and spiritual belief systems for personal wellbeing. Many religious communities hold beliefs about the causes and suitable treatments for mental health conditions, which can influence how an individual experiences their mental health, as well as the likelihood of seeking professional or religious help for their psychological difficulties. Research suggests that this is especially the case for evangelical Christians, who are more likely to view mental illness as caused by demons, sin, diminished faith, or generational curses. Whilst recent qualitative evidence suggests that such beliefs can hold negative effects for evangelical Christians, there is little research exploring quantitative pathways. This study protocol paper presents a pilot study, which aims to explore how beliefs about the causes of mental illness, religious fundamentalism, help-seeking, stigma and mental health are related in evangelical Christian communities. Whilst there is some existing research exploring this area, most is drawn from a US context. The findings of the present study, therefore, will uniquely apply to a UK context. A quantitative design is proposed, which will involve statistical analyses such as correlation, regression, moderation and path analysis, to explore associations between these variables. Ethical considerations and dissemination plans are discussed, with awareness of characteristics of our target sample.
    • Customised pressure profiles of made-to-measure sports compression garments

      Ashby, Jack; Lewis, Martin; Sanchis-Sanchis, Roberto; Sunderland, Caroline; Barrett, Laura A.; Morris, John G.; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby; University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Loughborough University (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-05-22)
      The purpose of this study was to make made-to-measure compression garments that elicit pressures within and below clinical standards. The study also examined whether pressures and gradients can be replicated within and between participants’ legs, and between separate compression garment conditions. Ten males volunteered to participate. Based on three-dimensional scans of the participants’ lower body, three different made-to-measure garments were manufactured: control, symmetrical and asymmetrical. Garment pressures were assessed from the malleolus to the gluteal fold using a pressure monitoring device. A root mean squared difference analysis was used to calculate the in vivo linear graduation parameters. Linear regression showed that peak pressure at the ankle in the left and right leg were: control garment, 13.5 ± 2.3 and 12.9 ± 2.6; asymmetrical garment, 12.7 ± 2.5 and 26.3 ± 3.4; symmetrical garment, 27.7 ± 2.2 and 27.5 ± 1.6 (all mmHg, mean ± standard deviation). Pressure reduction from the ankle to the gluteal fold in the left and right leg were: control, 8.9 ± 3.5 and 7.4 ± 3.0; asymmetrical, 7.8 ± 3.9 and 21.9 ± 3.2; symmetrical, 25.0 ± 4.1 and 22.3 ± 3.6 (all mmHg, mean ± standard deviation). Made-to-measure compression garments can be made to elicit pressures within and below clinical standards, and to elicit equivalent pressures and gradients in different participants.
    • Theorising Organisational Resilience for Sport Management Research and Practice

      Bostock, James; Breese, Richard; University of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-05-20)
      Helping individuals and teams achieve their goals by being resilient is an established research field in sport. How sport organisations can be resilient in adversity is comparatively neglected, so the purpose is to provide firm foundations for conceptualising organisational resilience in sport management. “How can organisational resilience best be theorised for sport management research and practice?” From a critique of the resilience literature, a new Framework for Organisational Resilience Management (FfORM) is developed, based on the theory of organisational resource conversion and the separation of normative and descriptive levels. The FfORM is applied to sport management contexts, including the resilience of National Governing Bodies of Sport (NGBs) to reductions in UK Sport funding. Organisational resilience is conceptualised as a means to an end, to achieve externally generated goals, emphasising its dynamic, temporal nature. The FfORM illuminates the challenges for NGBs in developing organisational resilience because of trade-offs in the actions they take. As well as being an evaluation tool, the FfORM will be of utility to sport organisations addressing the unprecedented challenges arising from COVID-19. Development of theory on organisational resilience, for use in both sport and other contexts.
    • Contending with Spiritual Reductionism: Demons, Shame, and Dividualising Experiences Among Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress

      Lloyd, Christopher E. M.; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-05-15)
      The belief that mental distress is caused by demons, sin, or generational curses is commonplace among many evangelical Christian communities. These beliefs may have positive or negative effects for individuals and groups. Phenomenological descriptions of these experiences and the subjective meanings associated with them, however, remain somewhat neglected in the literature. The current study employed semi-structured interviews with eight evangelical Christians in order to idiographically explore their experiences of mental distress in relation to their faith and wider communities. Through an interpretative phenomenological analysis, two superordinate themes were constructed: negative spiritualisation and negotiating the dialectic between faith and the lived experience of mental distress. Participants variously experienced a climate of negative spiritualisation, whereby their mental distress was demonised and dismissed, and they were further discouraged from seeking help in secular institutions and environments. Participants often considered such dismissals of their mental distress as unhelpful and stigmatising and experienced heightened feelings of shame and suffering as a result. Such discouragement also contributed to the process of othering and relational disconnection. Alongside a rejection of church teachings, which exclusively spiritualised psychological distress, participants negotiated a nuanced personal synthesis of faith, theology, and distress, which assumed a localised and idiographic significance. This synthesis included advocating for the uptake of aetiological accounts, which contextualised mental distress in terms of the whole person and resisted de-politicised, dichotomised, and individualistic narratives. Results are discussed in relation to a broad range of literature in the field, while further research suggestions are provided.
    • “Upskirting,” Homosociality, and Craftmanship: A Thematic Analysis of Perpetrator and Viewer Interactions

      Hall, Matthew; Hearn, Jeff; Lewis, Ruth; Arden University; British University in Egypt; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield; Örebro University; Hanken School of Economics; Northumbria University (Sage, 2021-05-05)
      “Upskirting” is the action or practice of surreptitiously taking photographs or videos up a female’s skirt or dress. In the United Kingdom, it is an offense. However, internationally, laws are uneven. Understanding how perpetrators account for their actions becomes an important question. Here, we present the findings of our thematic analysis of posts on the “upskirting” website, The Candid Zone. Our analysis shows that posters and respondents frame this activity as artistic and technical, providing each other with advice and guidance on where and how to get the “best” shots. We conceptualize this form of abuse as homosociality and craftsmanship.
    • An Evolving Approach to Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Muscle Function and Bone and Joint Health in the COVID-19 Era

      Myers, Jonathan; Ozemek, Cemal; Hall, Grenita; Severin, Richard; Laddu, Deepika; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Stoner, Lee; Conners, Ryan T.; Faghy, Mark A.; University of Illinois at Chicago, USA; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-05-04)
      Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is now an established vital sign. CRF, along with muscle function and bone and joint health is related to functional independence and a higher quality of life. Wasserman and colleagues proposed a gear model illustrating the integrated role of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle systems during aerobic exercise; in 2015, a revision to the original model was proposed. Our understanding of the effects and challenges associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rapidly evolving. Initial evidence indicates higher levels of CRF, and muscle function protect individuals infected with COVID-19 from a complicated medical course. Moreover, for those individuals infected with COVID-19, there are initial signs of a reduction in CRF following the initial phase of recovery. We are also gaining an understanding of long COVID syndrome, where individuals who have recovered from the acute phase of viral infection present with lasting symptoms, which include but are not limited to reduced CRF, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Clearly, these individuals will require rehabilitation to restore and/or improve CRF, muscle function, bone and joint health, functional capacity (ie, the ability to perform activities of daily living), and quality of life. The importance of assessing the synergistic function of systems essential to performing activities that require physical exertion is a health care imperative. This graphical narrative provides an update to the gear model initially proposed by Wasserman and updated to a gear and circuit in 2015. External CRF, muscle function, and bone and joint health influencers and an approach to clinical assessment are also introduced.
    • Educators Perspectives on the Value of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England.

      Dobell, Alexandra; Pringle, Andy; Faghy, Mark A; Roscoe, Clare M P; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-04-26)
      There is a lack of information available for physical education (PE) provision in the early years foundation stage (EYFS), prompting concern about what is currently delivered in schools and the values behind the approaches taken. Using semi-structured interviews, this study investigated educators’ perspectives on the value of PE and physical activity (PA) for EYFS children across England in relation to opportunities for, barriers to, and benefits of PA and PE. This study collected important stakeholder views and can help shape the impact and implementation of fundamental movement skills (FMS) and PA interventions at the EYFS.
    • Are Torque-Driven Simulation Models of Human Movement Limited by an Assumption of Monoarticularity?

      Lewis, Martin; Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; University of Derby; Loughborough University (MDPI, 2021-04-24)
      Subject-specific torque-driven computer simulation models employing single-joint torque generators have successfully simulated various sports movements with a key assumption that the maximal torque exerted at a joint is a function of the kinematics of that joint alone. This study investigates the effect on model accuracy of single-joint or two-joint torque generator representations within whole-body simulations of squat jumping and countermovement jumping. Two eight-segment forward dynamics subject-specific rigid body models with torque generators at five joints are constructed—the first model includes lower limb torques, calculated solely from single-joint torque generators, and the second model includes two-joint torque generators. Both models are used to produce matched simulations to a squat jump and a countermovement jump by varying activation timings to the torque generators in each model. The two-joint torque generator model of squat and countermovement jumps matched measured jump performances more closely (6% and 10% different, respectively) than the single-joint simulation model (10% and 24% different, respectively). Our results show that the two-joint model performed better for squat jumping and the upward phase of the countermovement jump by more closely matching faster joint velocities and achieving comparable amounts of lower limb joint extension. The submaximal descent phase of the countermovement jump was matched with similar accuracy by the two models (9% difference). In conclusion, a two-joint torque generator representation is likely to be more appropriate for simulating dynamic tasks requiring large joint torques and near-maximal joint velocities.
    • Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates the antioxidant status of 1,2–dimethyl hydrazine-induced colon cancer rat model

      Venkataraman Deepak; Arputha Sundar, William; Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva D.; Hariharan, Nellaiah; Sundar, Krishnan; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-04-19)
      The aim of the current study is to ascertain the anticancer activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus in the 1, 2 – dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer rat model and to determine the antioxidant status. Rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group I served as control, group II served as cancer control (DMH alone administered), group III as standard drug control [Fluorouracil (5-FU) along with DMH} and group IV and V received EPS in two doses (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight along with DMH). EPS administration was found to reduce the number of polyps formed (Group IV - 8.25±1.258 & Group V - 8.50±1.732 vs Group II - 14.50±2.380) and to increase the levels of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and antioxidants like vitamin C (Vit. C), reduced glutathione (GSH) which was found to be reduced in colon cancer control rats. The status of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also evaluated. All the values which were affected by the supplementation of DMH were brought to near normal levels by the treatment with EPS. The well preserved histology of colon and the biochemical evaluation also show that EPS could be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.