• Influence of the COVID-19 Lockdown on the Physical and Psychosocial Well-being and Work Productivity of Remote Workers: Cross-sectional Correlational Study

      Tronco Hernández, Yessica Abigail; Fabio, Parente; Faghy, Mark; Roscoe, Clare M. P.; Maratos, Frances A.; University of Derby; University of Plymouth (JMIR, 2021)
      Background: Lockdowns imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted the living and working habits of millions of people, with potentially important implications for their physical, mental, and social well-being. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on remote workers who were not directly affected by COVID-19. Methods: This was a correlational cross-sectional study (with an additional qualitative component) of 184 remote workers surveyed during the first COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom. Standard measures of mental health (Kessler-6 Distress Scale), productivity (Brief Instrument to Assess Workers’ Productivity During a Working Day), and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were used, and respondents were further surveyed on changes to their dietary, exercise, smoking, drinking, and socialization habits to produce a well-being change index. Results: The results revealed associations between sedentary behavior and poorer mental health (τb=0.14) and between poorer mental health and low work productivity (τb=–0.39). However, both positive and negative lifestyle changes were reported; a self-reported increase in well-being (with respect to diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socialization) since the start of the pandemic was associated with both better mental health (τb=–0.14) and better work productivity (τb=0.14). Of note, among respondents without a mental health diagnosis (137/184, 74.4%), we observed rates of moderate (76/137, 55.5%) and severe (17/137, 12.4%) psychological distress, which were markedly higher than those reported in large prepandemic studies; moreover, 70.1% (129/184) of our respondents reported more sedentary behavior, 41% (129/168) increased their alcohol consumption, and 38.6% (71/184) increased their overall food intake. However, 46% (75/163), 44.8% (39/87) and 51.8% (57/110) of respondents reported spending more time walking and engaging in more moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively. Qualitative analysis revealed many positive adaptations to lockdowns (eg, decreased commuting expenses, flexibility) but also a number of structural obstacles to remote working (eg, lack of support and high expectations from employers, childcare duties). Conclusions: These findings may be of practical importance for policy makers and employers in a world in which work involves long-term remote or hybrid employment arrangements; strategies to promote more sustainable remote working are discussed.
    • Targeting Sedentary Behavior in Minority Populations as a Feasible Health Strategy during and beyond COVID-19: On Behalf of ACSM-EIM and HL-PIVOT

      Lassalle, Patricia Pagan; Meyer, Michelle L.; Conners, Ryan; Zieff, Gabriel; Rojas, Jacklyn; Faghy, Mark A.; Arena, Ross; Vermeesch, Amber; Joseph, Rodney P.; Stoner, Lee; et al. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2021-08-01)
      Increased sedentary behavior has been an unintended consequence of social and physical distancing restrictions needed to limit transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Sedentary behavior is defined as any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 METs while in a sitting, reclining, or lying posture. These restrictions negatively affect peoples’ cardiometabolic and mental health and disproportionately affect certain sectors of the population, including racial/ethnic minorities. In part, the higher risk for complications of COVID-19 could be the result of an increased prevalence of comorbid diseases. Further, regular participation and adherence to current physical activity guidelines, defined as at least 150 min·wk−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity or muscle strengthening activities on 2 or more days a week, is challenging for many and may be especially difficult to achieve during the COVID-19 pandemic. A practical strategy to promote health and well-being during COVID-19 is reducing sedentary behavior. Reducing sedentary behaviors (e.g., breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with light-intensity physical activity) may be more easily achieved than physical activity for all individuals, including individuals of racial/ethnic decent, as it does not require purchasing equipment nor require compromising the physical restrictions necessary to slow the spread of COVID-19. The purpose of this commentary is to argue that sedentary behavior is a feasible, independent target to modify during COVID-19, particularly in minority populations, and to address this behavior we need to consider individual, environmental, and policy-level factors.
    • Evolutionary functional analysis: The study of social mentalities, social rank and caring-compassion

      Gilbert, Paul; university of Derby (Routledge/Taylor Francis Group, 2020-09-23)
      This chapter looks back over the past 40 years of taking an evolutionary function analytical approach to mental health difficulties. One evolved motivational system that has been strongly implicated in vulnerability to mental health difficulties, especially depression, is the competitive motivational system. This gives rise to an orientation for resource control and sets cognitive systems for social comparison, self-evaluation (inferior versus superior), self-blame/criticism versus other blame/criticism and biases behavioural systems towards either submissive-withdraw or dominant-engaged seeking behaviour. Depression tends to be associated with the unwanted and fearful low rank positions whereas narcissism is associated with assuming up rank and entitled positions. Research has also shown that unwanted low rank, and competitive defeats have major impacts on range of physiological processes associated with depression. One therapeutic approach is to help clients switch out of the competitive motivational system into a caring system which utilises very different psychological and physiological processes that promote being, prosocial behaviour and affect regulation. This is the basis of compassion focused therapy.
    • What Comes First, the Behavior or the Condition? In the COVID-19 Era, It May Go Both Ways

      Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Faghy, Mark A; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-08-12)
      Which came first, the chicken or the egg? This causality dilemma was first proposed by the Greek biographer Plutarch in the 1st century CE. While the cause-effect relationship between lifestyle behaviors and chronic disease is not always a certainty, and genetic predisposition can independently lead to premature chronic disease, the likelihood of developing one or more chronic conditions is significantly higher in those who: (1) lead sedentary lifestyles; (2) consume unhealthy diets; (3) smoke; or (4) have excess body mass. Recently, the Royal College of General Practitioners issued an apology for the title of an online event that suggested the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a lifestyle disease. We feel that this was the correct course of action as leading an unhealthy lifestyle is certainly not the cause for an individual contracting COVID-19 (ie, effect). However, a body of evidence has demonstrated that unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and characteristics as well as being diagnosed with one or more chronic diseases does significantly increase the risk for a complicated medical course in individuals infected with COVID-19. Moreover, the cause-effect relationship between lifestyle behaviors and characteristics and COVID-19 may eventually prove to go both ways, as the pandemic may lead to a higher prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and characteristics over the long term that eventually leads to a higher prevalence of chronic disease. As such, health living medicine must be widely practiced and prescribed to all individuals globally.
    • Incidence, severity and perceived susceptibility of COVID-19 in the UK CrossFit population

      Redwood-Mills, Athalie; Ralston, Grant; Wilson, Jennifer; Nottingham Trent; FiiT for Life Education Ltd, Derby; University of Derby (BioMed Central, 2021-09-06)
      Contemporary literature indicates that a higher body mass index (BMI) serves as a risk factor for metabolic disease and is also correlated with greater disease severity. Subsequently, it has been linked to increased COVID-19 severity. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether regular CrossFit™ participation was associated with lower BMI, decreased COVID-19 severity and susceptibility. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1806 CrossFit™ (CF) participants. Participants were asked about their age (yrs), sex (male vs. female), ethnic group, body height (cm) and weight (kg). Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was computed and consistent with WHO (2018) criteria. Participants self-reported their training history, health and lifestyle history, nutritional customs, present training status and suspected levels of exposure to COVID-19. Once submitted the collected data were coded, cleaned and analysed. The final model comprised of 1806 CF individuals from an online survey response rate of 2086. The participants age ranged from 18 to 65+ yrs. Self-reported mean body mass index (BMI: kg/m2) reported that < 1% were underweight, 41% were healthy, 46% overweight, 10% class I obese, 2% class II obese, and < 1% class III obese. A Kruskal–Wallis H test compared gender and self-reported probability of being infected with COVID-19 with significant differences between subgroups (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 10.86, p = 0.03). Analysis of BMI and perceived severity of COVID-19 revealed a difference however not, significant (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 9.46, p = 0.051). Results on BMI and perceived probability of COVID-19 infection revealed no significant difference (x2 (4, N = 1739) = 2.68, p = 0.61). A separate analysis on BMI and perceived COVID-19 susceptibility revealed no significant difference (x2 (4, N = 1740) = 6.02, p = 0.20). The purpose of the study was to establish whether habitual CrossFit™ participation is associated with reduced BMI, and to further investigate whether habitual participation impacted perceptions of disease. Results of the study indicate that self-reported CrossFit™ participation during the first UK lockdown, measured in minutes of exercise was indicative of a lower BMI. This has been associated with greater host immunity to disease. A history of CrossFit™ participation was not shown to impact perceptions of disease. However, our sample population reported few changes to habitual exercise during lockdown which may be due to the ‘community’ and increased adherence associated with CrossFit™.
    • A Call to Clarify the Intensity and Classification of Standing Behavior

      Kowalsky, Robert J; Stoner, Lee; Faghy, Mark A; Barone Gibbs, Bethany; Human Science Research Centre (MDPI, 2021-08-10)
      Public health guidelines for physical activity now include recommendations to break up prolonged sitting with light-intensity activities. Concurrently, interventions to increase standing have emerged, especially within the workplace in the form of sit–stand or standing workstations. Moreover, in short-duration studies, breaking up prolonged sitting with standing has been associated improved cardiometabolic outcomes. Publicly available estimates of the intensity of standing range from 1.5 to 2.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), neatly classifying standing as a light-intensity activity (>1.5 to <3.0 METs). Further delineation between ‘active’ and ‘passive’ standing has been proposed, with corresponding METs of >2.0 METs and ≤2.0 METs, respectively. However, this study reviews data suggesting that some standing (e.g., while performing deskwork) is substantially below the minimum light intensity activity threshold of 1.5 METs. These data bring into question whether standing should be universally classified as a light-intensity behavior. The objectives of this study are to (i) highlight discrepancies in classifying standing behavior in the human movement spectrum continuum, and (ii) to propose a realignment of the ‘active’ vs. ‘passive’ standing threshold to match the light intensity threshold to help provide a clearer research framework and subsequent public health messaging for the expected health benefits from standing.
    • Associations of Sedentary Time with Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

      Alansare, Abdullah Bandar; Bates, Lauren C; Stoner, Lee; Kline, Christopher E; Nagle, Elizabeth; Jennings, J Richard; Hanson, Erik D; Faghy, Mark A; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; et al. (MDPI, 2021-08-12)
      To evaluate if sedentary time (ST) is associated with heart rate (HR) and variability (HRV) in adults we systematically searched PubMed and Google Scholar through June 2020. Inclusion criteria were observational design, humans, adults, English language, ST as the exposure, resting HR/HRV as the outcome, and (meta-analysis only) availability of the quantitative association with variability. After qualitative synthesis, meta-analysis used inverse variance heterogeneity models to estimate pooled associations. Thirteen and eight articles met the criteria for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. All studies were cross-sectional and few used gold standard ST or HRV assessment methodology. The qualitative synthesis suggested no associations between ST and HR/HRV. The meta-analysis found a significant association between ST and HR (β = 0.24 bpm per hour ST; CI: 0.10, 0.37) that was stronger in males (β = 0.36 bpm per hour ST; CI: 0.19, 0.53). Pooled associations between ST and HRV indices were non-significant (p > 0.05). Substantial heterogeneity was detected. The limited available evidence suggests an unfavorable but not clinically meaningful association between ST and HR, but no association with HRV. Future longitudinal studies assessing ST with thigh-based monitoring and HRV with electrocardiogram are needed
    • Current and Future Implications of COVID-19 among Youth Wheelchair Users: 24-Hour Activity Behavior.

      Conners, Ryan T; Bates, Lauren C; Lassalle, Patricia Pagan; Zieff, Gabriel; Whitehead, Paul N; Stevens, Sandra; Killen, Lauren; Cochrum, Robert; Rodebaugh, Kathryn L; Stoner, Lee; et al. (MDPI, 2021-08-11)
      Preventative measures taken worldwide to decrease the transmission of COVID-19 have had a tremendous impact on youth. Following social restrictions, youth with and without physical disabilities are engaging in less physical activity, more increased sedentary behavior, and poor sleep habits. Specifically, youth wheelchair users (YWU) are likely disproportionately affected by COVID- 19 and have a higher risk of contraction due to underlying comorbidities. While we cannot control all of the negative long-term implications of COVID-19 for YWU, participation in positive 24-h activity behaviors can decrease chronic disease risk and the likelihood of long-term complications resulting from infection. This commentary is to extend the discourse on the importance of 24-h activity behaviors by focusing on YWU. Specifically, we discuss the importance of chronic disease prevention, provide a brief overview of 24-h activity behaviors, and outline some of the lessons that can be learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • The Effects of a Nutrition Education Intervention on Sports Nutrition Knowledge during a Competitive Season in Highly Trained Adolescent Swimmers.

      Foo, Wee Lun; Faghy, Mark A; Sparks, Andy; Newbury, Josh W; Gough, Lewis A; Birmingham City University; University of Derby; University of Illinois at Chicago; Edge Hill University (MDPI, 2021-08-06)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a seven-week nutrition education intervention on the sports nutrition knowledge (SNK) of highly trained UK adolescent swimmers. Fifteen national and international adolescent swimmers (males = 5; females = 10, 15.5 ± 1.1 years, 170.2 ± 7.5 cm, 60.3 ± 5.7 kg) participated in the study during seven consecutive weeks of the competitive swimming season. The participants received 30 min of nutrition education once per week in a classroom-based setting after they had completed their regular swim training. An undergraduate sports nutrition student delivered all nutrition education sessions and SNK questionnaires were administered to the participants pre- and post-intervention. The mean total SNK score improved by 8.3% (SD = 8.4%, 95% CI = 4.1-12.6; p = 0.006; ES = 1.0) following the nutrition education sessions. On an individual basis, ten swimmers significantly improved their total SNK score, whereas four swimmers did not improve, and one swimmer performed significantly worse after the intervention. Moreover, the swimmers' knowledge of hydration improved by 22.2% (SD = 20.6%, 95% CI = 11.8-32.6, p = 0.004, ES = 1.1) over the seven-week timeframe, which was the only nutrition topic to have a significantly increased knowledge score. The current study therefore suggests that a nutrition education intervention can positively influence the SNK of highly trained adolescent swimmers.
    • Predictors of poor 6-week outcome in a cohort of major depressive disorder patients treated with antidepressant medication: the role of entrapment

      Carvalho, Serafim; Caetano, Filipa; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Mota-Pereira, Jorge; Maia, Dulce; Pimentel, Paulo; Priscila, Cátia; Gilbert, Paul; Hospital de Magalhães Lemos, Porto, Portugal; Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2020-07-10)
      Only a small number of consistent processes predict which depressed patients will achieve remission with antidepressant medication. One set of processes is that of social ranking strategies/variables that are related to life events and severe difficulties. Particularly, defeat and entrapment predict poorer response to antidepressants. However, results are inconsistent. The current study aimed to evaluate evolutionary strategies, childhood maltreatment, neglect and life events and difficulties (LEDs) as predictors of remission in depressed patients undergoing pharmacological treatment in a psychiatric outpatient sample. A cohort of 139 depressed outpatients undergoing pharmacological treatment was followed prospectively in a naturalistic study for 6 weeks. Two major evaluations were considered at baseline and 6 weeks. We allocated patients to a pharmacological treatment algorithm for depression – the Texas Medication Algorithm Project. Variables evaluated at baseline and tested as predictors of remission included demographic and clinical data, severity of depression, social ranking, evolution informed variables, LEDs and childhood maltreatment. Of the 139 patients, only 24.5% were remitted at week 6. In univariate analyses, non-remitted patients scored significantly higher in all psychopathology and vulnerability scales except for submissive behaviour and internal entrapment. For the logistic regression, a higher load of LEDs of the entrapment and humiliation dimension in the year before the index episode (OR = 6.62), and higher levels external entrapment in the Entrapment Scale (OR = 1.10) predicted non-remission. These variables accounted for 28.7% of the variance. Multivariate analysis revealed that external entrapment was the only predictor of non-remission.
    • Fear leads to suffering: Fears of compassion predict restriction of the moral boundary

      Crimston, Charlie R.; Blessing, Sarah; Gilbert, Paul; Kirby, James N.; The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; University of Derby, UK (Wiley, 2021-07-19)
      Empirical investigations into the psychological drivers of more or less expansive moral thinking are lacking from the psychological literature. One potential driver that warrants deeper investigation is compassion – a prosocial motivation to both identity and alleviate suffering. The current research examined the extent to which compassion, and fears of compassion, act as a driver and inhibitor, respectively, of a morally expansive mindset. We tested these associations across three studies (N = 749) and found robust support for our predictions. Specifically, stronger compassion to others, and greater fears of extending compassion to others, were linked to enhanced and reduced moral expansiveness, respectively. Moreover, over and above empathy and mindfulness, fears of compassion and compassion uniquely predicted moral expansiveness. Finally, compassion was found to consistently mediate the relationship between fears of compassion to others and moral expansiveness. Our findings further our understanding of the psychological factors that may drive and restrict morally expansive mindsets and hold implications for the broader domains of moral decision-making and prosocial motivation as well as the application of practices that are designed to facilitate a compassionate mindset (e.g., Compassionate Mind Training).
    • The experience of loneliness: The role of fears of compassion and social safeness

      Best, Talitha; Herring, Lee; Clarke, Chantelle; Kirby, James; Gilbert, Paul; University of Queensland; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-07-31)
      There are multiple factors associated with an increasing rate of loneliness. One common thread may be social disconnection and a reduced ability to feel safe in social settings for fear of giving to and receiving help from others. This study used an online survey to explore loneliness and its relationship with related psychological constructs of social connectedness, social safeness, subjective happiness, and fears of compassion in 177 adults (Female = 126), aged 18–70 years. The results showed that those with high loneliness reported significantly higher fears of expressing compassion for others and self, and receiving compassion from others, as well as lower reported social safeness, subjective happiness and social connection compared to those with reported low loneliness. Those with moderate levels of loneliness were not significantly different from the high loneliness group on fears of compassion towards others or measures of positive affect. The findings show that social safeness, and fears of receiving compassion from others or self are highly related to those with high levels of loneliness.
    • The efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP program in reducing psychopathic traits: A controlled trial with male detained youth

      Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Rijo, Daniel; Brazão, Nélio; Paulo, Marlene; Miguel, Rita; Castilho, Paula; Vagos, Paula; Gilbert, Paul; Salekin, Randall T.; university of Alabama; et al. (American Psychological Association (APA), 2021-06)
      To assess the efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP program in reducing psychopathic traits among male detained youth. In this controlled trial, a treatment group (n = 58) and a control group (n = 61) answered the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short (YPIS) and the Proposed Specifiers for Conduct Disorder (PSCD) at baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Treatment participants attended the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP; controls only received Treatment As Usual (TAU). Treatment effects were tested with latent growth curve models (LGCM). At baseline, no significant differences between groups were found. Results from LGCM showed that condition was a significant predictor of change over time observed in almost all outcome measures. Concerning the YPIS, treatment participants presented a significant decrease both in the total score and in the YPIS factors scores when compared with the controls (medium/large effect sizes; growth modeling analysis—GMA d ranging from .58 to 1.12). Considering the PSCD, treatment participants also showed a significant decrease both in the total score and in the PSCD factors scores (except for the grandiose-manipulative factor) when compared with controls (medium effect sizes; GMA d ranging from .53 to .72). Results also showed that treatment effects were maintained 6 months after the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP completion. Findings indicate that the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP is a promising treatment approach to reduce psychopathic traits among male detained youth, suggesting that interventions targeting these traits should be considered in their rehabilitation, as the absence of tailored interventions may increase the levels of psychopathic traits and their associated risks.
    • Enhancing Primary School Children's Knowledge of Online Safety and Risks with the CATZ Cooperative Cross-Age Teaching Intervention: Results from a Pilot Study

      Boulton, Michael J.; Boulton, Louise; Camerone, Eleonora; Down, James; Hughes, Joanna; Kirkbride, Chloe; Kirkham, Rachel; Macaulay, Peter; Sanders, Jessica; University of Chester (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2016-10-01)
      Children are heavy users of the Internet and prior studies have shown that many of them lack a good understanding of the risks of doing so and how to avoid them. This study examined if the cross-age teaching zone (CATZ) intervention could help children acquire important knowledge of online risks and safety. It allowed older students to act as CATZ tutors to design and deliver a lesson to younger schoolmates (tutees), using content material about online risks and safety provided by adults. Students in Year 6 (mean age = 11.5 years) were randomly assigned to act as either CATZ tutors (n = 100) or age-matched controls (n = 46) and students in Year 4 (mean age = 9.5 years) acted as either CATZ tutees (n = 117) or age-matched controls (n = 28) (total N = 291). CATZ tutors, but not matched controls scored significantly higher on objective measures of knowledge of both online risks and safety, and CATZ tutees, but not matched controls did so for online safety. Effect sizes were moderate or large. CATZ was highly acceptable to participants. The results suggest that CATZ is a viable way to help school students learn about online dangers and how to avoid them.
    • Perceptions and responses towards cyberbullying: A systematic review of teachers in the education system

      Macaulay, Peter; Betts, Lucy R.; Stiller, James; Kellezi, Blerina; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier BV, 2018-11-23)
      The rise and availability of digital technologies for young people have presented additional challenges for teachers in the school environment. One such challenge is cyberbullying, an escalating concern, associated with wide-reaching negative consequences for those involved and the surrounding community. The present systematic review explored teachers' perceptions and responses towards cyberbullying in the education system. Once the search strategy was applied across the six databases, 20 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The studies were reviewed and examined for common themes. Five themes were identified: (a) Cyberbullying characteristics and student involvement, (b) Cyberbullying training and guidance for teachers, (c) School commitment and strategies to manage cyberbullying, (d) The impact and extent of cyberbullying prevalence and consequences, and (e) Teachers' confidence and concern towards cyberbullying. The themes are discussed in a narrative synthesis with reference to implications for teachers and for the continued development and review of anti-cyberbullying initiatives.
    • “It’s so fluid, it’s developing all the time”: pre-service teachers’ perceptions and understanding of cyberbullying in the school environment

      Macaulay, Peter; Betts, Lucy R.; Stiller, James; Kellezi, Blerina; Nottingham Trent University (Informa UK Limited, 2019-05-24)
      To gain an insight into how those entering the teaching profession regard cyberbullying, two focus groups were conducted with nine pre-service teachers (PSTs). Thematic analytical approach revealed three themes: (a) evolving nature of bullying, (b) involvement in cyberbullying and (c) management of cyberbullying. PSTs discussed how cyberbullying was evolving and becoming socially acceptable in the modern world. Participants addressed features of victimisation and perpetration associated with cyberbullying. PSTs reflected on the responsibility to address cyberbullying, discussing effective strategies to manage the issue. Participants considered the extent to which their initial teacher training course prepared prospective teachers to manage cyberbullying.
    • Understanding child and adolescent cyberbullying

      Steer, Oonagh L.; Macaulay, Peter; Betts, Lucy R.; Nottingham Trent University; Staffordshire University (Elsevier, 2020-11-27)
      Global development of digital technologies has provided considerable connectivity benefits. However, connectivity of this scale has presented a seemingly unmanageable number of potential risks to psychological harm especially experienced by children and adolescents; one such risk is cyberbullying. This chapter will initially address the origins of bullying, leading into an overview of cyberbullying. A review of the unique characteristics of online communication will shed light on the ongoing debate concerning cyberbullying being potentially more than an extension of traditional bullying. Current research findings encompassing prevalence, types of behavior, consequences, and the roles within cyberbullying activity will be discussed to guide future interventions to reduce the risk of vulnerability for children and adolescents. In parallel, this chapter also considers the relative and perhaps distorted risk perception that young people have of becoming a cybervictim. Finally, this chapter acknowledges current understanding to support future digital and social evolvement.
    • Comparing Early Adolescents’ Positive Bystander Responses to Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying: the Impact of Severity and Gender

      Macaulay, Peter; Boulton, Michael J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Nottingham Trent University; University of Chester (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-12-28)
      Young people are frequently exposed to bullying events in the offline and online domain. Witnesses to these incidents act as bystanders and play a pivotal role in reducing or encouraging bullying behaviour. The present study examined 868 (47.2% female) 11–13-year-old early adolescent pupils’ bystander responses across a series of hypothetical vignettes based on traditional and cyberbullying events. The vignettes experimentally controlled for severity across mild, moderate and severe scenarios. The findings showed positive bystander responses (PBRs) were higher in cyberbullying than traditional bullying incidents. Bullying severity impacted on PBRs, in that PBRs increased across mild, moderate and severe incidents, consistent across traditional and cyberbullying. Females exhibited more PBRs across both types of bullying. Findings are discussed in relation to practical applications within the school. Strategies to encourage PBRs to all forms of bullying should be at the forefront of bullying intervention methods.
    • Factors leading to cyber victimization

      Macaulay, Peter; Steer, Oonagh L.; Betts, Lucy R.; Staffordshire University; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2019-11-01)
      The proliferation of digital technologies in the past years has seen the adaptation of lifestyles merge between the online and offline domain. The introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has provided numerous beneficial opportunities for individuals, groups and wider organizations. However, the digital world can also lead to online risks and vulnerabilities. This chapter will first discuss definitions of cyber victimization across perspectives of cyber aggression, cyberbullying and cybercrime. The chapter will then go on to consider key features of cyber victimization across these three perspectives. In particular, an overview will be provided on the roles of efficiency of ICTs, the unique facet of anonymity in the digital world, bystanders of cyber victimization and a brief consideration of the bully–victim cycle. This will provide a unique insight into key features of cyber victimization, to provide recommendations for strategies to reduce risks of vulnerability. Finally, key factors leading to cyber victimization across cyber aggression, cyberbullying and cybercrimes will be explored. Specifically, individual demographics, time spent online and wider group influences across the school, home and family structure. A review of contemporary issues surrounding cyber victimization and current security measures are recommended in order to aid vulnerable groups and organizations, contributing to a safer online environment. This chapter offers a current and unique insight into the factors leading to cyber victimization which will provide an important contribution to help guide future researchers, organizations and policymakers addressing this global concern.
    • 'The more public it is, the more severe it is’: teachers’ perceptions on the roles of publicity and severity in cyberbullying

      Macaulay, Peter; Betts, Lucy R.; Stiller, James; Kellezi, Blerina; Staffordshire University; Nottingham Trent University (Informa UK Limited, 2020-05-18)
      Those in the teaching profession are facing additional challenges when responding to cyberbullying due to the unique features of publicity and severity. Such features are known to negatively impact on young people’s cyberbullying experiences. Teachers’ views on publicity and severity of cyberbullying are currently unknown. The current research draws on data from 10 focus groups with 63 teachers (10 males) who taught across primary, secondary, and college educational levels in the UK. Reflexive thematic analysis identified three themes: (a) role of severity, (b) differential roles of publicity, and (c) bystander intentions. Participants discussed the role of severity, where visual acts of cyberbullying were perceived more severe than written forms, suggesting the type of cyberbullying is an important indicator in perceived severity. Participants acknowledged how cyberbullying can transition from private, semi-public, and public incidents, which influenced their perceived intervention strategies. Finally, levels of publicity were discussed regarding young people’s bystander intentions, with public incidents of cyberbullying instigating positive and negative bystander intervention. The findings are discussed in relation to practical implications, especially the need to promote awareness for teachers on the issues of publicity and severity in cyberbullying.