• A Critical Discussion of the Clinical Management of Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

      Chatzinikolaou, Marios Dimitrios; Apeiranthitou., Vasiliki; University of Derby; University College London (ECronicon Open Access, 2021-01-30)
      Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are both classified as neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting primarily young children and adolescents, stemming from biological/genetic and environmental origins that negatively influence neurobiological structures and leading to gastrointestinal discomforts. More precisely, toxins produced by pathogenic microorganisms’ overgrowth, unnecessary employment of antibiotics, abnormalities in the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes and gut’s mucosal lining disruptions result in alterations in children’s neurological functioning. Central nervous system alterations adversely affect brain maturation, social interactions, and cognitive abilities. In this respect, dietary supplementations such as omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or vitamins can be effectuated, potentially increasing the effectiveness of pharmacological medications. However, research findings divulge an unspecified consensus concerning optimal supplementation duration, exact dosages, consistent utilization of outcome measures, adherence to supplements, and their longterm behavioral and health effects. In addition, dietary supplements do not always enable for corrections of children’s micronutrient deficiencies, contributing to excessive intake. Thus, it can be speculated that they cannot be provided solitarily since they depict developmental insensitivities in addressing all nutritional needs of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder individuals. Accordingly, each individual’s developmental needs and entire dietary patterns should be carefully considered for the elimination of comorbid health conditions. In conjunction with the development and validation of universally accepted dietary plan, this shall allow for the construction of a holistic and multidisciplinary approach to dietary treatment schemes that can fully benefit these populations and are especially adapted to their needs. Future research should further explore gluten/casein-free and other restrictive diets, along with the clarification of effective randomized controlled trials.
    • A pilot study evaluating the effects of a 12 week exergaming programme on body mass, size and composition in postpartum females.

      Elliott-Sale, Kirsty Jayne; Hannahm Ricci; Bussell, Christopher David; Parsons, Alan; Woodrow Jones, Peter Gordon; Sale, Craig; Nottingham Trent University; University College London; University of Derby; Staffordshire University (International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, 2014-02-10)
      Introduction: Pregnancy is associated with weight gain, the retention of which contributes to the prevalence of obesity and overweight in adult females. Many new mothers do not achieve the recommendations for physical activity (PA), citing factors such as a lack of time and access to childcare. Exergaming may address some of the barriers to PA and offer an alternative to traditional exercise, thus aiding in weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of an exergaming intervention on body composition in postpartum females. Methods: Eight females who had given birth within 1 year completed a 12 week exergaming intervention, which required them to exercise at home for 45 minutes on alternate days, using the Wii Fit. Participants self-reported their pre-pregnancy body weight, and visited the laboratory prior to and following the intervention for evaluation of body weight, size (height, regional circumferences, body mass index [BMI]) and composition (fat mass [FM], lean mass [LM] and bone mineral content [BMC]). Body composition was evaluated via full body full-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Participants completed a three-day weighed food intake at three time-points. Results: Baseline body mass was 8.2 kg greater than self-reported pre-pregnancy values (56.8 ± 5.1 kg). Following the intervention, body mass was significantly lower than baseline values and was similar to pre-pregnancy levels (59.9 ± 7.9 kg). Reductions in BMI (~2 kg·m2), waist, hip and bust circumference (3-6%) accompanied the loss of body mass. Food diaries confirmed participants had not altered their energy intake. Discussion: The results of this pilot study indicate that exergaming may offer an alternative to traditional exercise for preventing the retention of gestational weight gain and reducing associated health risks, whilst also maintaining lean mass and bone mineral content.