• The Effects of a Nutrition Education Intervention on Sports Nutrition Knowledge during a Competitive Season in Highly Trained Adolescent Swimmers.

      Foo, Wee Lun; Faghy, Mark A; Sparks, Andy; Newbury, Josh W; Gough, Lewis A; Birmingham City University; University of Derby; University of Illinois at Chicago; Edge Hill University (MDPI, 2021-08-06)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a seven-week nutrition education intervention on the sports nutrition knowledge (SNK) of highly trained UK adolescent swimmers. Fifteen national and international adolescent swimmers (males = 5; females = 10, 15.5 ± 1.1 years, 170.2 ± 7.5 cm, 60.3 ± 5.7 kg) participated in the study during seven consecutive weeks of the competitive swimming season. The participants received 30 min of nutrition education once per week in a classroom-based setting after they had completed their regular swim training. An undergraduate sports nutrition student delivered all nutrition education sessions and SNK questionnaires were administered to the participants pre- and post-intervention. The mean total SNK score improved by 8.3% (SD = 8.4%, 95% CI = 4.1-12.6; p = 0.006; ES = 1.0) following the nutrition education sessions. On an individual basis, ten swimmers significantly improved their total SNK score, whereas four swimmers did not improve, and one swimmer performed significantly worse after the intervention. Moreover, the swimmers' knowledge of hydration improved by 22.2% (SD = 20.6%, 95% CI = 11.8-32.6, p = 0.004, ES = 1.1) over the seven-week timeframe, which was the only nutrition topic to have a significantly increased knowledge score. The current study therefore suggests that a nutrition education intervention can positively influence the SNK of highly trained adolescent swimmers.
    • Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) following a fatiguing bout of exercise accelerates post-exercise acid-base balance recovery and improves subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion.

      Gough, Lewis A.; Rimmer, Steven; Osler, Callum J.; Higgins, Matthew F.; Edge Hill University; University of Derby; Department of Sport and Physical Activity, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, United Kingdom; Department of Life Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom.; Department of Life Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom.; Department of Life Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom. (Human Kinetics, 2017-05-22)
      This study evaluated the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on post-exercise acid-base balance recovery kinetics and subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, nine healthy and active males (age: 23±2 years, height: 179±5 cm, body mass: 74±9 kg, peak mean minute power (WPEAK) 256±45 W, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2PEAK) 46±8 ml.kg-1.min-1) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarisation and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1) at 100% WPEAK on two occasions (TLIM1 and TLIM2) interspersed by a 90 min passive recovery period. Using a double blind approach, 30 min into a 90 min recovery period participants ingested either 0.3 g.kg-1 body mass sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a placebo (PLA) containing 0.1 g.kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (NaCl) mixed with 4 ml.kg-1 tap water and 1 ml.kg-1 orange squash. The mean differences between TLIM2 and TLIM1 was larger for PLA compared to NaHCO3 (-53±53 vs. -20±48 s; P=0.008, d=0.7, CI=-0.3, 1.6), indicating superior subsequent exercise time to exhaustion following NaHCO3. Blood lactate [BLa-] was similar between treatments post TLIM1, but greater for NaHCO3 post TLIM2 and 5 min post TLIM2. Ingestion of NaHCO3 induced marked increases (P<0.01) in both blood pH (+0.07±0.02, d=2.6, CI=1.2, 3.7) and bicarbonate ion concentration [HCO3-] (+6.8±1.6 mmo.l-1, d=3.4, CI=1.8, 4.7) compared to the PLA treatment, prior to TLIM2. It is likely both the acceleration of recovery and the marked increases of acid-base after TLIM1 contributed to greater TLIM2 performance compared to the PLA condition.
    • Sodium bicarbonate ingestion improves time-to-exhaustion cycling performance and alters estimated energy system contribution: a dose-response investigation

      Gurton, William H.; Gough, Lewis A.; Sparks, S. Andy; Faghy, Mark; Reed, Katharine E.; University of Essex; Birmingham City University; Edge Hill University; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-09-08)
      This study investigated the effects of two sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) doses on estimated energy system contribution and performance during an intermittent high-intensity cycling test (HICT), and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) exercise. Twelve healthy males (stature: 1.75 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 67.5 ± 6.3 kg; age: 21.0 ± 1.4 years; maximal oxygen consumption: 45.1 ± 7.0 ml.kg.min−1) attended four separate laboratory visits. Maximal aerobic power (MAP) was identified from an incremental exercise test. During the three experimental visits, participants ingested either 0.2 g.kg−1 BM NaHCO3 (SBC2), 0.3 g.kg−1 BM NaHCO3 (SBC3), or 0.07 g.kg−1 BM sodium chloride (placebo; PLA) at 60 min pre-exercise. The HICT involved 3 × 60 s cycling bouts (90, 95, 100% MAP) interspersed with 90 s recovery, followed by TTE cycling at 105% MAP. Blood lactate was measured after each cycling bout to calculate estimates for glycolytic contribution to exercise. Gastrointestinal (GI) upset was quantified at baseline, 30 and 60 min post-ingestion, and 5 min post-exercise. Cycling TTE increased for SBC2 (+20.2 s; p = 0.045) and SBC3 (+31.9 s; p = 0.004) compared to PLA. Glycolytic contribution increased, albeit non-significantly, during the TTE protocol for SBC2 (+7.77 kJ; p = 0.10) and SBC3 (+7.95 kJ; p = 0.07) compared to PLA. GI upset was exacerbated post-exercise after SBC3 for nausea compared to SBC2 and PLA (p < 0.05), whilst SBC2 was not significantly different to PLA for any symptom (p > 0.05). Both NaHCO3 doses enhanced cycling performance and glycolytic contribution, however, higher doses may maximize ergogenic benefits.