Recent Submissions

  • Educators Perspectives on the Value of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills for Early Years Foundation Stage Children in England.

    Dobell, Alexandra; Pringle, Andy; Faghy, Mark A; Roscoe, Clare M P; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-04-26)
    There is a lack of information available for physical education (PE) provision in the early years foundation stage (EYFS), prompting concern about what is currently delivered in schools and the values behind the approaches taken. Using semi-structured interviews, this study investigated educators’ perspectives on the value of PE and physical activity (PA) for EYFS children across England in relation to opportunities for, barriers to, and benefits of PA and PE. This study collected important stakeholder views and can help shape the impact and implementation of fundamental movement skills (FMS) and PA interventions at the EYFS.
  • “Upskirting,” Homosociality, and Craftmanship: A Thematic Analysis of Perpetrator and Viewer Interactions

    Hall, Matthew; Hearn, Jeff; Lewis, Ruth; Arden University; British University in Egypt; University of Derby; University of Huddersfield; Örebro University; Hanken School of Economics; Northumbria University (Sage, 2021-05-05)
    “Upskirting” is the action or practice of surreptitiously taking photographs or videos up a female’s skirt or dress. In the United Kingdom, it is an offense. However, internationally, laws are uneven. Understanding how perpetrators account for their actions becomes an important question. Here, we present the findings of our thematic analysis of posts on the “upskirting” website, The Candid Zone. Our analysis shows that posters and respondents frame this activity as artistic and technical, providing each other with advice and guidance on where and how to get the “best” shots. We conceptualize this form of abuse as homosociality and craftsmanship.
  • Pre-competition body mass loss characteristics of Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors in the United Kingdom

    White, Tyler; Kirk, Christopher; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2021-01-05)
    Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling-based combat sport in which competitors engage in pre-competition acute ‘weight’ loss (AWL) and rapid ‘weight’ loss (RWL) to achieve the body mass (BM) required for their desired division. AWL/RWL practices of UK BJJ competitors have not previously been reported. Our aim in this study was to determine the prevalence, magnitude and stakeholder influences of AWL and RWL amongst BJJ participants in the United Kingdom (UK). A secondary aim was to explore whether there is any influence of time spent in the sport or competition frequency on AWL/RWL practices. In this study we used the rapid weight loss questionnaire (RWLQ) adapted for BJJ to determine the prevalence and magnitude of AWL/RWL in UK BJJ, the prevalence of methods used and the key stakeholder influences on these practices. As a secondary investigation we aimed to determine whether there was any effect of age starting BJJ on AWL/RWL. Of 115 completed responses, 59% stated they performed AWL/RWL before competition. Mean BM loss for this competition was 1.9 ± 3.8 kg (2.3 ± 4.6%), with 34% of participants starting BM loss 3–7 days prior and 16% starting 0–2 days prior. Methods used tend to be achieving calorie deficit via exercise and diet rather than hypohydration, with little advice from formally qualified personnel. Participants who perform AWL/RWL started training (BF10 = 199, d = .72) and competing (BF10 = 107, d = .68) in BJJ younger than those who do not perform AWL/RWL. AWL/RWL is prevalent in UK BJJ, but not at the magnitude of other combat sports or countries. Though negative effects of extreme hypohydration are unlikely, there may be a higher chance of eating disorders in BJJ, particularly due to the young age of AWL/RWL commencement.
  • Are Torque-Driven Simulation Models of Human Movement Limited by an Assumption of Monoarticularity?

    Lewis, Martin; Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; University of Derby; Loughborough University (MDPI, 2021-04-24)
    Subject-specific torque-driven computer simulation models employing single-joint torque generators have successfully simulated various sports movements with a key assumption that the maximal torque exerted at a joint is a function of the kinematics of that joint alone. This study investigates the effect on model accuracy of single-joint or two-joint torque generator representations within whole-body simulations of squat jumping and countermovement jumping. Two eight-segment forward dynamics subject-specific rigid body models with torque generators at five joints are constructed—the first model includes lower limb torques, calculated solely from single-joint torque generators, and the second model includes two-joint torque generators. Both models are used to produce matched simulations to a squat jump and a countermovement jump by varying activation timings to the torque generators in each model. The two-joint torque generator model of squat and countermovement jumps matched measured jump performances more closely (6% and 10% different, respectively) than the single-joint simulation model (10% and 24% different, respectively). Our results show that the two-joint model performed better for squat jumping and the upward phase of the countermovement jump by more closely matching faster joint velocities and achieving comparable amounts of lower limb joint extension. The submaximal descent phase of the countermovement jump was matched with similar accuracy by the two models (9% difference). In conclusion, a two-joint torque generator representation is likely to be more appropriate for simulating dynamic tasks requiring large joint torques and near-maximal joint velocities.
  • The effect of the number of interviewers on children’s testimonies

    Ferra, Fenia; Blades, Mark; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby; University of Sheffield; De Montfort University (Informa UK Limited, 2021-04-02)
    Many investigative interviews with children who report that they have been victims of crime are carried out by one interviewer. Some interviews, however, may involve more than one interviewer. There has been little research examining the impact upon children’s reports when more than one interviewer (or adult) is present. Over the course of two experimental studies, involving 375 children in total, the effects that the number of adults (present in such interviews) had on children’s recall were investigated. It was found that the number of the adults present during an interview had an effect on the quality and quantity of the information children provided. When children were interviewed by a single interviewer, with no-one else present, the children provided lengthier and more accurate accounts, in comparison to when children were interviewed by an interviewer in the presence of either one or two additional adults. These findings have implications for the conduct of forensic interviews, especially in those countries where several adults are present in forensic interviews.
  • A Critical Discussion of the Clinical Management of Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Chatzinikolaou, Marios Dimitrios; Apeiranthitou., Vasiliki; University of Derby; University College London (ECronicon Open Access, 2021-01-30)
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are both classified as neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting primarily young children and adolescents, stemming from biological/genetic and environmental origins that negatively influence neurobiological structures and leading to gastrointestinal discomforts. More precisely, toxins produced by pathogenic microorganisms’ overgrowth, unnecessary employment of antibiotics, abnormalities in the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes and gut’s mucosal lining disruptions result in alterations in children’s neurological functioning. Central nervous system alterations adversely affect brain maturation, social interactions, and cognitive abilities. In this respect, dietary supplementations such as omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or vitamins can be effectuated, potentially increasing the effectiveness of pharmacological medications. However, research findings divulge an unspecified consensus concerning optimal supplementation duration, exact dosages, consistent utilization of outcome measures, adherence to supplements, and their longterm behavioral and health effects. In addition, dietary supplements do not always enable for corrections of children’s micronutrient deficiencies, contributing to excessive intake. Thus, it can be speculated that they cannot be provided solitarily since they depict developmental insensitivities in addressing all nutritional needs of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder individuals. Accordingly, each individual’s developmental needs and entire dietary patterns should be carefully considered for the elimination of comorbid health conditions. In conjunction with the development and validation of universally accepted dietary plan, this shall allow for the construction of a holistic and multidisciplinary approach to dietary treatment schemes that can fully benefit these populations and are especially adapted to their needs. Future research should further explore gluten/casein-free and other restrictive diets, along with the clarification of effective randomized controlled trials.
  • Creating a compassionate world: addressing the conflicts between sharing and caring versus controlling and holding evolved strategies

    Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-02-10)
    For thousands of years, various spiritual traditions and social activists have appealed to humans to adopt compassionate ways of living to address the suffering of life. Yet, along with our potential for compassion and self-sacrifice, the last few thousand years of wars, slavery, tortures, and holocausts have shown humans can be extraordinarily selfish, callous, vicious, and cruel. While there has been considerable engagement with these issues, particularly in the area of moral psychology and ethics, this paper explores an evolutionary analysis relating to evolved resource-regulation strategies that can be called “care and share” versus “control and hold.” Control and hold are typical of primates that operate through intimidatory social hierarchies. Care and share are less common in non-human primates, but evolved radically in humans during our hunter-gatherer stage when our ancestors lived in relatively interdependent, small, mobile groups. In these groups, individualistic, self-focus, and self-promoting control and hold strategies (trying to secure and accumulate more than others) were shunned and shamed. These caring and sharing hunter-gatherer lifestyles also created the social contexts for the evolution of new forms of childcare and complex human competencies for language, reasoning, planning, empathy, and self-awareness. As a result of our new ‘intelligence’, our ancestors developed agriculture that reduced mobility, increased group size, resource availability and storage, and resource competition. These re-introduced competing for, rather than sharing of, resources and advantaged those who now pursue (often aggressively) control and hold strategies. Many of our most typical forms of oppressive and anti-compassionate behavior are the result of these strategies. Rather than (just) thinking about individuals competing with one another, we can also consider these different resource regulation strategies as competing within populations shaping psychophysiological patterns; both wealth and poverty change the brain. One of the challenges to creating a more compassionate society is to find ways to create the social and economic conditions that regulate control and hold strategies and promote care and share. No easy task.
  • A mixed-methods evaluation of care (cancer and rehabilitation exercise): a physical activity and health intervention, delivered in a community football trust

    Rutherford, Zoe; Zwolinsky, Stephen; Kime, Nicky; Pringle, Andy; University of Queensland; Yorkshire and Harrogate Cancer Alliance; Bradford Institute for Health Research; University of Derby (MDPI, 2021-03-23)
    With increasing cancer survivorship has come an increased necessity to support people living with cancer (PLWC) to have a good quality of life including being physically active. Using mixed methods, the current study aimed to use the RE-AIM evaluation framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) to determine how the football community trust delivered CARE (Cancer and Rehabilitation Exercise) intervention was able to increase participants’ physical activity in order to improve their quality of life and regain physiological and psychological function. Quantitative outcome data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months using the Cancer Physical Activity Standard Evaluation Framework questionnaire. Semi-structured focus groups (n = 5) captured participants’ (n = 40) lived experience of the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of CARE. Questionnaire data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVAs and qualitative data were thematically analysed. Following diagnosis, CARE was successful in providing participants with a unique and accessible opportunity to become or restart physically activity, by providing a local, socially supportive, and inclusive environment. This resulted in significant increases in physical activity (F(1.58, 23) = 5.98, p = 0.009), quality of life (QoL) (F(2,36) = 13.12, p = 0.000) and significant reductions in fatigue (F(1.57,31) = 11.19, p = 0.000) over 6 months. Participants also reported becoming more active, recovering physical function, regaining independence, and enhanced psychological well-being as a result of attending CARE. Key design features of CARE were also identified across RE-AIM. CARE, a football community trust delivered physical activity intervention was successful in significantly improving participants’ QoL and in regaining the physical and psychological functioning of people living with cancer. Results suggest that maintaining engagement in CARE for 6 months and beyond can support people to maintain these changes. Engaging in robust evaluations such as this can help organizations to successfully secure future funding for their programs.
  • Foresee the glory and train better: Narcissism, goal-setting and athlete training

    Zhang, Shuge; Roberts, Ross; Woodman, Tim; Pitkethly, Amanda; English, Cedric; Nightingale, David; University of Derby; Bangor University; Edinburgh Napier University (American Psychological Association, 2021-03)
    Grandiose narcissism may be debilitative to athlete training because the opportunity for self-enhancement that motivates narcissists to strive is normally absent in training environments. However, this view ignores the divergent influences of the self-inflated (reflecting over-confidence) and dominant (reflecting willingness for dominance) facets of grandiose narcissism. We expected that self-inflated narcissism would undermine athlete training, but only when dominant narcissism was low. This is because dominant narcissism may serve as the catalyst that drives those with self-inflated narcissism to train well. We further considered goal-setting as a practical means of alleviating the negative influence of self-inflated narcissism in training. Goal-setting provides athletes with an exciting vision of the future and thus can be an important self-enhancement strategy to engage narcissistic athletes in training. In the present study, 321 athletes completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-40) and the goal-setting subscale in the Test of Performance Strategies-3 (TOPS-3). Coaches of these athletes assessed training behaviors using the Quality of Training Inventory (QTI). Self-inflated narcissism predicted higher levels of (coach-rated) distractibility and poorer quality of preparation only when both dominant narcissism and goal-setting were low (and not when either was high). The findings suggest that dominant narcissism and goal-setting protect against the adverse influences of self-inflated narcissism on athlete training. The work underscores the importance of considering grandiose narcissism as a multidimensional construct and supports goal-setting as a useful self-enhancement strategy.
  • Unethical practices within medical research and publication – An exploratory study.

    Sivasubramaniam, shivadas; Consetino, M; Ribeiro, L; Marino, F; University of Derby; University of Insubria, Via Ravasi, 2, 21100, Varese, VA, Italy (Springer Nature, 2021-04-01)
    The data produced by the scientific community impacts on academia, clinicians, and the general public; therefore, the scientific community and other regulatory bodies have been focussing on ethical codes of conduct. Despite the measures taken by several research councils, unethical research, publishing and/or reviewing behaviours still take place. This exploratory study considers some of the current unethical practices and the reasons behind them and explores the ways to discourage these within research and other professional disciplinary bodies. These interviews/discussions with PhD students, technicians, and academics/principal investigators (PIs) (N=110) were conducted mostly in European higher education institutions including UK, Italy, Ireland, Portugal, Czech Republic and Netherlands. Through collegiate discussions, sharing experiences and by examining previously published/reported information, authors have identified several less reported behaviours. Some of these practices are mainly influenced either by the undue institutional expectations of research esteem or by changes in the journal review process. These malpractices can be divided in two categories relating to (a) methodological malpractices including data management, and (b) those that contravene publishing ethics. The former is mostly related to “committed bias”, by which the author selectively uses the data to suit their own hypothesis, methodological malpractice relates to selection of out-dated protocols that are not suited to the intended work. Although these are usually unintentional, incidences of intentional manipulations have been reported to authors of this study. For example, carrying out investigations without positive (or negative) controls; but including these from a previous study. Other methodological malpractices include unfair repetitions to gain statistical significance, or retrospective ethical approvals. In contrast, the publication related malpractices such as authorship malpractices, ethical clearance irregularities have also been reported. The findings also suggest a globalised approach with clear punitive measures for offenders is needed to tackle this problem.
  • Investigating the delivery of health improvement interventions through professional football club community trusts-strengths and challenges

    Pringle, Andy; Lozano, Lorena; Zwolinsky, Stephen; University of Derby; West Yorkshire and Harrogate Cancer Alliance; Leeds Beckett University (Elsiever, 2021-03-19)
    This study audits health improvement provision delivered in/by English professional Football Club Community Trusts and reports the strengths and challenges around the implementation of interventions. Multi-methods design: Data were collected through (i) a review of trust websites (n ​= ​72), (ii) an online survey (n ​= ​34/47.2%) and (iii) semi-structured interviews (n ​= ​11/32.3%) with a sub-sample of trust managers. The review of websites confirms all trusts provided physical activity-led interventions. The online survey showed most managers were male (n ​= ​23/67.7%) and white British (n ​= ​30/88.2%). Two thirds held management roles, (n ​= ​23/67.6%) and represented Championship (n ​= ​12/35.2%), League 1 (n ​= ​13/38.2%) and League 2 clubs (n ​= ​9/26.5%). Trusts provided physical activity and most provided diet (n ​= ​31/91.2%) as well as smoking (n ​= ​20/58.8%) and alcohol (n ​= ​19/55.9%) interventions. Weight management, (n ​= ​25/73.5%), mental health interventions (n ​= ​28/82.4%) were offered. Trusts provided male-specific (n ​= ​20/58.8%), with fewer providing female-specific interventions (n ​= ​15/44.1%). Most trusts (n ​= ​30/88.2%) evaluated interventions. 80.8% (n ​= ​21/26) used public health guidance for programme design, 69.2% (n ​= ​18/26) delivery, 57.7% (n ​= ​15/26) needs assessment and 50% (n ​= ​13/26) evaluation. Interviews and qualitative reports identified strengths including, using football, the ‘club brand’, ‘meeting health needs’ and ‘working as a strategic collaboration with partners’. Challenges included ‘short-term funding staffing, mainstreaming, and evaluating interventions’. Football Community Trusts deliver interventions, but challenges were encountered when implementing these programmes.
  • Initiating count down - gamification of academic integrity

    Reza Khan, Zeenath; Dyer, Jarret; Bjelobaba, Sonja; Gomes, Sandra F.; Dlabolová, Dita Henek; Sivasubramaniam, Shivadas; University of Wollongong, Dubai, UAE; College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, USA; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-03-18)
    Any problem is a problem until a solution is designed and implemented. This paper reports on a workshop that highlights preliminary work done by the working group on Gamification in the scope of European Network for Academic Integrity (ENAI), which aims to explore the possibility of developing and testing a gamified learning module on academic integrity values. In this paper, the group aims to look at proposing steps we are currently using to develop storyboards of scenarios for the first phase of the project, which were presented at the 6th International Conference Plagiarism Across Europe and Beyond 2020 held virtually in Dubai as a workshop. The study also presents updated findings and scenarios drawn from the workshop conducted and audience feedback, in the following sections that pave the way for the future stages of the gamification process. This serves as a guide to academics and researchers in academic integrity who may wish to study gamification and apply it to develop their own modules for their learning modules.
  • Cardiorespiratory and skeletal muscle damage due to COVID-19: making the urgent case for rehabilitation

    Silva, Rebeca Nunes; Goulart, Cássia da Luz; Oliveira, Murilo Rezende; Tacao, Guilherme Yassuyuki; Back, Guilherme Dionir; Severin, Richard; Faghy, Mark A.; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2021-03-04)
    It has become increasingly evident that COVID-19 contributes to multiorgan pathophysiology. The systemic inflammatory response increases both pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels, leading to immune dysregulation and increasing the likelihood of incurring cardiac and pulmonary injuries. Longer periods of hospitalization (~20 days) increase susceptibility to ICU-acquired muscle weakness and deconditioning, which decreases muscle function and functional capacity. These conditions affect the quality of life in the post-COVID-19 period and require multi-disciplinary approaches to rehabilitate the cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal systems of these patients. In this context, this narrative review, which included articles published in the Embase, PEDro and PubMed databases up to December 2020, is focused on discussing the essential role of exercise and rehabilitation health professionals in the COVID-19 recovery process, from hospitalization to hospital discharge, addressing strategies for professionals to mitigate the cardiac and pulmonary impairments associated with hospitalization to home or ambulatory rehabilitation, purposing ways to conduct rehabilitation programs to restore their functional status and quality of life after the infection. In the current environment, these findings further point to the vital role of rehabilitation health professionals in the coming years and the urgent need to develop strategies to assist COVID-19 survivors.
  • Current activities centered on healthy living and recommendations for the future: a position statement from the HL-PIVOT network

    Arena, Ross; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Williams, Mark; Sabbahi, Ahmad; Popovic, Dejana; Axtell, Robert; Faghy, Mark; Hills, Andrew P.; Olivares Olivares, Silvia Lizett; Lopez, Mildred; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-02-27)
    We continue to increase our cognizance and recognition of the importance of healthy living (HL) behaviors and HL medicine (HLM) to prevent and treat chronic disease. The continually unfolding events precipitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have further highlighted the importance of HL behaviors, as indicated by the characteristics of those who have been hospitalized and died from this viral infection. There has already been recognition that leading a healthy lifestyle, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, may have a substantial protective effect in those who become infected with the virus. Now more than ever, HL behaviors and HLM are essential and must be promoted with a renewed vigor across the globe. In response to the rapidly evolving world since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clear need to change lifestyle behaviors to promote human resilience and quality of life, the Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) network was established. The four major areas of focus for the network are: 1) knowledge discovery and dissemination; 2) education; 3) policy; 4) implementation. This HL-PIVOT network position statement provides a current synopsis of the major focus areas of the network, including leading research in the field of HL behaviors and HLM, examples of best practices in education, policy, and implementation, and recommendations for the future.
  • The feasibility and tolerability of using inspiratory muscle training with adults discharged from the hospital with community-acquired pneumonia

    Pick, H.J.; Faghy, Mark; Creswell, G; Ashton, D; Bolton, C.E.; McKeever, T; Shen Lim, W; Bewick, T; Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust; University of Derby; et al. (Via Medica, 2021-02-17)
    Patients experience substantial morbidity following discharge from hospital and during recovery from communi-ty-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has demonstrated improved functional capacity and reduced patient-reported symptoms. To date the safety and tolerability of these methods have not been determined in CAP patients recovering following hospitalization. Accordingly, this study aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of IMT in adults discharged from hospital with CAP. Participants received an IMT device (POWERbreathe KHP2) and completed 9-weeks IMT training with weekly follow-up. Frequency (twice daily) and load (50% PImax) were fixed throughout, but training volume increased incre-mentally (2-week habituation phase, 7-week training phase). Primary outcomes of interest included IMT safety and tolerability. Twenty-two participants were recruited; 16 were male, mean age 55.2 years (range 27.9–77.3). From 1183 possible training days, side effects were reported on 15 occasions by 10 individual participants. All reported side-effects were assessed as grade 1 and did not prevent further training. Participant-reported IMT acceptability was 99.4%. Inspiratory muscle training is safe and tolerable in patients following hospitalisation for CAP. Patient satisfaction with IMT is high and it is viewed by patients as being helpful in their recovery. Distinguishing CAP-related symptoms and device-related side effects is challenging. Symptom prevalence declined during follow-up with concurrent improvements in spirometry observed. Further research is required to determine the efficacy of IMT interventions following CAP and other acute respiratory infections.
  • The need for exercise sciences and an integrated response to COVID-19: A position statement from the international HL-PIVOT network

    Arena, Ross; Stoner, Lee; Haraf, Rebecca H.; Josephson, Richard; Hills, Andrew P.; Dixit, Snehil; Popovic, Dejana; Smith, Andy; Myers, Jonathan; Bacon, Simon L.; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-02-04)
    COVID-19 is one of the biggest health crises that the world has seen. Whilst measures to abate transmission and infection are ongoing, there continues to be growing numbers of patients requiring chronic support, which is already putting a strain on health care systems around the world and which may do so for years to come. A legacy of COVID-19 will be a long-term requirement to support patients with dedicated rehabilitation and support services. With many clinical settings characterized by a lack of funding and resources, the need to provide these additional services could overwhelm clinical capacity. This position statement from the Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) Network provides a collaborative blueprint focused on leading research and developing clinical guidelines, bringing together professionals with expertise in clinical services and the exercise sciences to develop the evidence base needed to improve outcomes for patients infected by COVID-19.
  • A multilevel multidimensional finite mixture item response model to cluster respondents and countries: the forms of self-criticising/attacking and self-reassuring scale

    Kanovský, Martin; Halamová, Júlia; Zuroff, David C.; Troop, Nicholas A.; Gilbert, Paul; Shahar, Ben; Petrocchi, Nicola; Hermanto, Nicola; Krieger, Tobias; Kirby, James N.; et al. (Hogrefe Publishing Group, 2020-12-30)
    The aim of this study was to test the multilevel multidimensional finite mixture item response model of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS) to cluster respondents and countries from 13 samples (N = 7,714) and from 12 countries. The practical goal was to learn how many discrete classes there are on the level of individuals (i.e., how many cut-offs are to be used) and countries (i.e., the magnitude of similarities and dissimilarities among them). We employed the multilevel multidimensional finite mixture approach which is based on an extended class of multidimensional latent class Item Response Theory (IRT) models. Individuals and countries are partitioned into discrete latent classes with different levels of self-criticism and self-reassurance, taking into account at the same time the multidimensional structure of the construct. This approach was applied to the analysis of the relationships between observed characteristics and latent trait at different levels (individuals and countries), and across different dimensions using the three-dimensional measure of the FSCRS. Results showed that respondents’ scores were dependent on unobserved (latent class) individual and country membership, the multidimensional structure of the instrument, and justified the use of a multilevel multidimensional finite mixture item response model in the comparative psychological assessment of individuals and countries. Latent class analysis of the FSCRS showed that individual participants and countries could be divided into discrete classes. Along with the previous findings that the FSCRS is psychometrically robust we can recommend using the FSCRS for measuring self-criticism.
  • Supported progressive resistance exercise training to counter the adverse side effects of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Ashton, Ruth E; Aning, Jonathan J; Tew, Garry A; Robson, Wendy A; Saxton, John M; University of Derby; Bristol Urological Institute, North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol; University of Northumbria; Freeman Hospital, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Springer, 2021-01-23)
    To investigate the effects of a supported home-based progressive resistance exercise training (RET) programme on indices of cardiovascular health, muscular strength and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients after treatment with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). This study was a single-site, two-arm randomised controlled trial, with 40 participants randomised to either the intervention or control group over a 10-month period. In addition to receiving usual care, the intervention group completed three weekly RET sessions using resistance bands for 6 months. Participants performed 3 sets of 12–15 repetitions for each exercise, targeting each major muscle group. The control group received usual care only. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was the primary outcome and assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included body weight, body fat, aerobic fitness, strength and blood-borne biomarkers associated with cardiometabolic risk. There was no significant difference between the groups in FMD at 3 or 6 months. However, there were improvements in aerobic exercise capacity (P < 0.01) and upper- (P < 0.01) and lower-limb (P = 0.01) strength in favour of the RET group at 6 months, accompanied by greater weight loss (P = 0.04) and a reduction in body fat (P = 0.02). Improvements in HRQoL were evident in the RET group at 3 and 6 months via the PCa-specific component of the FACT-P questionnaire (both P < 0.01). Five adverse events and one serious adverse event were reported throughout the trial duration. This study demonstrates that home-based RET is an effective and safe mode of exercise that elicits beneficial effects on aerobic exercise capacity, muscular strength and HR-QoL in men who have undergone RARP.
  • UK University staff experience high levels of sedentary behaviour during work and leisure time

    Faghy, Mark A; Roscoe, Clare MP; Pringle, Andy; Duncan, Mike; Buchanan Meharry, John; University of Derby; Coventry University (Taylor and Francis Online, 2021-01-11)
    Reducing sedentary behaviours at work is imperative. Before effective strategies can be developed there is a need to understand profiles of activity within particular roles and organisations. This study aimed to determine activity profiles of staff by job title at a UK University. Three-hundred and seventeen participants completed the short form International Physical Activity Questionnaire to determine physical activity profiles. Fifty-one participants also wore a wrist worn GENEActiv accelerometer for seven days and completed a self-report diary denoting work and leisure hours. Twenty-one per cent of respondents were categorised as inactive and achieved 298 ± 178 metabolic equivalent minutes per week (MET-min/week). Those in administrative roles were most sedentary (501 ± 161 minutes/day). Accelerometer data highlighted that sedentary time was identical between job roles (pooled mean 8746 ± 823 counts) and equated to 84 ± 9% of total time. During working hour’s management, professional and specialist job roles had the highest level of sedentary time (2066 ± 416 counts). Time spent undertaking sedentary activities during working hours contributes to reduced overall activity and can impede productivity, performance, and health. Interventions encouraging regular movement and preventing sedentary behaviours at work are therefore required.
  • The Inclusion of a Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Responsive Sequence in Self-assembled Peptide-based Brain-Targeting Nanoparticles Improves the Efficiency of Nanoparticles Crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier at Elevated MMP-9 Levels

    Islam, Yamir; Ehtezazi, Parinaz; Cashmore, Andrew; Marinsalda, Elena; Leach, Andrew G.; Coxon, Christopher R.; Fatokun, Amos A.; Sexton, Darren W.; Khan, Iftikhar; Downing, James; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-12-14)
    This study investigated whether the inclusion of a matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) responsive sequence in self-assembled peptide-based brain-targeting nanoparticles (NPs) would enhance the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration when MMP-9 levels are elevated both in the brain and blood circulation. Brain-targeting peptides were conjugated at the N-terminus to MMP-9-responsive peptides, and these were conjugated at the N-terminus to lipid moiety (cholesteryl chloroformate or palmitic acid). Two constructs did not have MMP-9-responsive peptides. NPs were characterised for size, charge, critical micelle concentration, toxicity, blood compatibility, neural cell uptake, release profiles, and in vitro BBB permeability simulating normal or elevated MMP-9 levels. The inclusion of MMP-9-sensitive sequences did not improve the release of a model drug in the presence of active MMP-9 from NPs compared to distilled water. 19F NMR studies suggested the burial of MMP-9-sensitive sequences inside the NPs making them inaccessible to MMP-9. Only cholesterol-GGGCKAPETALC (responsive to MMP-9) NPs showed <5% haemolysis, <1 pg/mL release of IL-1β at 500 μg/mL from THP1 cells, with 70.75 ± 5.78% of NPs crossing the BBB at 24 h in presence of active MMP-9. In conclusion, brain-targeting NPs showed higher transport across the BBB model when MMP-9 levels were elevated and the brain-targeting ligand was responsive to MMP-9.

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