• How prepared are healthcare professionals for delivering physical activity guidance to those with diabetes? A formative evaluation

      Kime, Nicky; Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, Stephen; Vishnubala, Dane; Bradford Institute for Health Research, Temple Bank House, Bradford Royal Infirmary; University of Derby; West Yorkshire and Harrogate Cancer Alliance; NHS Vale of York Clinical Commissioning Group (Springer Nature, 2020-03-03)
      Physical activity is recognised as important for diabetes management and improved overall health of individuals with diabetes, yet many adults with diabetes are inactive. Healthcare professionals have been identified as key to promoting physical activity, including individuals with diabetes, but are ill-prepared to deliver this. Our paper evaluates the barriers/facilitators of healthcare professionals’ delivery of physical activity guidance to adults with diabetes and aims to inform efforts to investigate and enhance their preparedness to promote physical activity. A sequential mixed method, two-phase design was adopted involving a purposeful sample of healthcare professionals. Phase one was an online pilot survey designed to test assumptions around healthcare professionals’ knowledge, training and preparedness to deliver physical activity guidance. Phase two comprised eighteen semi-structured interviews, thematically analysed to provide an in-depth exploration of healthcare professionals’ experiences of delivering physical activity guidance to adults with diabetes. Healthcare professionals are committed to promoting physical activity to adults with diabetes and are reasonably confident in giving basic, generic guidance. Yet, significant challenges prevent them from achieving this in their practice, including: lack of education and training around physical activity, diabetes and health; ignorance of recommended physical activity and diabetes guidelines; lack of awareness of referral options; limited time and accessibility to appropriate resources. Nevertheless, healthcare professionals believed discussions around physical activity needed to be an integral part of consultations, incorporating improved communication strategies for conveying key physical activity messages. HCPs have a key role in the promotion of physical activity to people with long-term conditions such as diabetes and they are identified within both the strategic policy context and national interventions for physical activity. Yet, this study indicated that HCPs face multiple and at times complex barriers to physical activity promotion generally and with diabetes patients. Conversely HCPs also reported what works, why and how, when promoting physical activity. Rich information derived from the day-to-day, working healthcare professional is integral to shaping future practices going forward. The bottom up, iterative design adopted in this study provides an approach to tap into this information.
    • Inflammation, lipid (per)oxidation, and redox regulation

      Dias, Irundika H.K.; Milic, Ivana; Heiss, Christian; Ademowo, Opeyemi S.; Polidori, Maria Cristina; Devitt, Andrew; Griffiths, Helen R.; Aston University, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK; University of Surrey; University of Cologne (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2020-02-28)
      Significance: Inflammation increases during the aging process. It is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mitochondrial macromolecules are critical targets of oxidative damage; they contribute to respiratory uncoupling with increased ROS production, redox stress, and a cycle of senescence, cytokine production, and impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Targeting the formation or accumulation of oxidized biomolecules, particularly oxidized lipids, in immune cells and mitochondria could be beneficial for age-related inflammation and comorbidities. Recent Advances: Inflammation is central to age-related decline in health and exhibits a complex relationship with mitochondrial redox state and metabolic function. Improvements in mass spectrometric methods have led to the identification of families of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs), cholesterols, and fatty acids that increase during inflammation and which modulate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), activator protein 1 (AP1), and NF-κB redox-sensitive transcription factor activity. Critical Issues: The kinetic and spatial resolution of the modified lipidome has profound and sometimes opposing effects on inflammation, promoting initiation at high concentration and resolution at low concentration of OxPLs. Future Directions: There is an emerging opportunity to prevent or delay age-related inflammation and vascular comorbidity through a resolving (oxy)lipidome that is dependent on improving mitochondrial quality control and restoring redox homeostasis.
    • Stressed, depressed, and rank obsessed: Individual differences in compassion and neuroticism predispose towards rank‐based depressive symptomatology

      Kim, Jeffrey J.; Gerrish, Ruby; Gilbert, Paul; Kirby, James N.; School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Compassionate Mind Research Group, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Centre for Compassion Research and Training, College of Health and Social Care Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Wiley, 2020-02-13)
      As social creatures, we monitor our relative rank and/or status with others via social comparisons. Whilst research has identified perceptions of inferiority or ‘low rank’ relative to others is a robust predictor of depressive, anxious, and stress symptomology, to date individual differences have been ignored. We wish to provide empirical evidence to outline how differences across personality traits may interact with social rank variables to buffer or predispose towards depressive symptomology. Across three independent samples (N = 595), we replicated a social rank model of mental health, and with our third sample (N = 200), we sought to investigate attenuating roles for neuroticism versus compassion with multiple moderated regression models. Neuroticism predicted greater levels of rank‐associated depression, and compassion failed to function as a protective factor for rank‐associated depression. However, a closer inspection of the original Big‐5 factor structure positions this scale as a measure of ‘interpersonal submissiveness’ or ‘conflict appeasement’ rather than genuine compassion. Whilst it is necessary to delineate the conditions where compassion is appropriate and able to lead to positive mental health outcomes, we argue this cannot be addressed with the Big‐5 measure of trait compassion. We call for future work to consider valid and reliable measures for compassion, such as the self‐compassion scale, submissive compassion scale, and fears of compassion scale, to more fully address how compassion may protect against both rank‐based comparisons and severity of depression. Social rank mechanisms are robustly implicated in depression, anxiety, and stress. Clients who present as higher in neuroticism, inferiority, or submissiveness may be more prone towards rank‐associated depression symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests cultivation of genuine compassion can shift clients from a rank‐focussed to a compassionate‐focussed mentality, which aids mental health and fosters well‐being.
    • Social gradients in the receipt of medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and young people in Sheffield

      Nunn, Samuel P.T.; Kritsotakis, Evangelos I.; Harpin, Val; Parker, Jack; University of Derby (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2020-02-07)
      Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity that can affect people throughout their life course. A social gradient exists in the prevalence of ADHD in the UK. Studies in other countries have shown that social gradients also exist in the receipt of medication for ADHD. Socioeconomic position is potentially an unrecognised and modifiable factor in children and young people’s receipt of medication for ADHD in the UK. Aim The aim of the study was to investigate if socioeconomic position could explain in part whether or not children and young people in Sheffield are receiving medication for ADHD. We used multivariate logistic regression modelling to investigate whether socioeconomic position could explain variation in receipt of medication for ADHD in children and young people in a cross-sectional study. We collected data from 1354 children and young people with a diagnosis of ADHD across three Sheffield centres between January and December 2016. Independent variables were age, gender, religion, ethnicity, comorbidities, and Index of Multiple Deprivation decile (derived from home postcode). Our results showed a social gradient in the receipt of medication for ADHD (P<0.01); an increase in one decile of the Index of Multiple Deprivation was associated with 10% lower odds of receipt of medication for ADHD (adjusted odds ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.84–0.97). Children and young people from more deprived backgrounds are more likely to receive medication for ADHD. This is the first time that a social gradient in children and young people’s receipt of medication for ADHD has been shown in a UK sample.
    • Clinical change in psychopathic traits after the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP program: preliminary findings of a controlled trial with male detained youth

      Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Rijo, Daniel; Salekin, Randall T.; Paulo, Marlene; Miguel, Rita; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; university of Alabama; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-02-04)
      To assess the preliminary efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP in reducing psychopathic traits among male detained youth. In this controlled trial, a treatment group (n = 24) and a control group (n = 22) answered the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short at baseline and post-treatment. Treatment participants attended the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP, in addition to the Treatment As Usual (TAU); controls only received TAU. The treatment effects were tested both at a group level (2 × 2 mixed ANOVA) and at an individual level (Reliable Change Index; RCI). ANOVAs showed medium to large effect sizes (η2p), while RCIs revealed strong to moderate effect sizes (Cramer’s V). Despite the limitations, this study offered preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP, suggesting that interventions targeting psychopathic traits should be considered in the rehabilitation of detained youth, as the absence of tailored interventions may increase the levels of psychopathic traits and its associated risks.
    • Cross validation of actigraph derived accelerometer cut‐points for assessment of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in children aged 8‐11 years

      Duncan, Michael J.; Eyre, Emma L.J.; Cox, Val; Roscoe, Clare M.P.; Faghy, Mark; Tallis, Jason; Dobell, Alexandra; Coventry University; University of Derby (Wiley, 2020-01-27)
      To cross-validate previously calibrated Actigraph cut points in children. Twenty eight children (50%boys) aged between 8 and 11 years of age (9.4 ± 1.4 years) performed a series of 5 minute bouts of activity reflective of different levels of PA from sedentary behaviour (SB) to moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); V˙ O2 was assessed using breath by breath indirect calorimetry and activity was assessed using Actigraph accelerometers worn on the hip and non-dominant wrist. The V˙ O2 values were then converted into age-specific METs (measured METs) and coded as SB, light PA and MVPA. Accelerometer data was analysed using previously calibrated cut-points at different epochs i.e. 5, 15 30 and 60 seconds. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that there was excellent discrimination of SB using the Evenson et al (15sec), Romanzini (15sec), Treuth et al (30sec), Freedson et al (60sec), Treuth et al (60sec) and Troiano et al (60sec) cut points. ROC analysis indicated poor discrimination for LPA irrespective of the cut-points used. Good discrimination of MVPA was evident for all existing cut-points using a 60sec epoch. There is considerable variation in the performance of existing cut-points for assessment of SB, LPA and MPA in children.
    • Retrospective analysis of plagiaristic practices within a cinematic industry in india – a tip in the ocean of icebergs

      Sivasubramaniam, Shiva D; Paneerselvam, Umamaheswaran; Ramachandran, Sharavan; News7-Tamil Tamil Television; Health Sciences Centre, University of Texas (Springer, 2020-01-24)
      Music plagiarism is defined as using tune, or melody that would closely imitate with another author’s music without proper attributions. It may occur either by stealing a musical idea (a melody or motif) or sampling (a portion of one sound, or tune is copied into a different song). Unlike the traditional music, the Indian cinematic music is extremely popular amongst the public. Since the expectations of the public for songs that are enjoyable are high, many music directors are seeking elsewhere to “borrow” tunes. Whilst a vast majority of Indian cinemagoers may not have noticed these plagiarised tunes, some journalists and vigilant music lovers have noticed these activities. This study has taken the initiative to investigate the extent of plagiaristic activities within one Indian cinematic music industry. A list of plagiarised songs was produced by using YouTube® searches for “comparative videos” made by the vigilant music lovers about accused/detected music plagiarism. Some of these individuals were also interviewed to understand their views on this. During the investigation, it was possible to identify a vast number of plagiarised tunes, snippets, or even the full songs. In fact, some of these examples’ dates to 1954, during the era when no one would have noticed plagiarism. The paper would highlight the similarities of these music files. It will also show some examples of the excuses/denial given by the composers and would try to highlight the attitudes of general public towards these types of activities.
    • Partial mitigation of oxidized phospholipid-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in neuronal cells by oxocarotenoids

      Ademowo, Opeyemi S.; Dias, Irundika H.K.; Diaz-Sanchez, Lorena; Sanchez-Aranguren, Lissette; Stahl, Wilhelm; Griffiths, Helen R.; Aston University, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK; Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Germany; University of Surrey (IOS Press, 2020-01-20)
      Mitochondria are important (patho)physiological sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate mitochondrial dysfunction and phospholipid oxidation; an increase in mitochondrial content of oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) associates with cell death. Previously we showed that the circulating OxPL 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) increases in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and associates with lower plasma antioxidant oxocarotenoids, zeaxanthin, and lutein. Since oxocarotenoids are metabolized in mitochondria, we propose that during AD, lower concentrations of mitochondrial zeaxanthin and lutein may result in greater phospholipid oxidation and predispose to neurodegeneration. Here, we have investigated whether non-toxic POVPC concentrations impair mitochondrial metabolism in differentiated (d)SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and whether there is any protective role for oxocarotenoids against mitochondrial dysfunction. After 24 hours, glutathione (GSH) concentration was lower in neuronal cells exposed to POVPC (1-20μM) compared with vehicle control without loss of viability compared to control. However, mitochondrial ROS production (determined by MitoSOX oxidation) was increased by 50% only after 20μM POVPC. Following delivery of lutein (0.1-1μM) and zeaxanthin (0.5-5μM) over 24 hours in vitro, oxocarotenoid recovery from dSH-SY5Y cells was > 50%. Co-incubation with oxocarotenoids prevented loss of GSH after 1μM but not 20μM POVPC, whereas the increase in ROS production induced by 20μM POVPC was prevented by lutein and zeaxanthin. Mitochondrial uncoupling increases and ATP production is inhibited by 20μM but not 1μM POVPC; carotenoids protected against uncoupling although did not restore ATP production. In summary, 20μM POVPC induced loss of GSH and a mitochondrial bioenergetic deficit in neuronal cells that was not mitigated by oxocarotenoids.
    • Effectiveness of upper limb wearable technology for improving activity and participation in adult stroke survivors: Systematic review

      Parker, Jack; Powell, Lauren; Mawson, Susan; Parker, Jack; University of Derby (JMIR Publications Inc., 2020-01-08)
      With advances in technology, the adoption of wearable devices has become a viable adjunct in poststroke rehabilitation. Upper limb (UL) impairment affects up to 77% of stroke survivors impacting on their ability to carry out everyday activities. However, despite an increase in research exploring these devices for UL rehabilitation, little is known of their effectiveness. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of UL wearable technology for improving activity and participation in adult stroke survivors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and randomized comparable trials of UL wearable technology for poststroke rehabilitation were included. Primary outcome measures were validated measures of activity and participation as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Databases searched were MEDLINE, Web of Science (Core collection), CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs and the Downs and Black Instrument for the quality of non RCTs. In the review, we included 11 studies with collectively 354 participants at baseline and 323 participants at final follow-up including control groups and participants poststroke. Participants’ stroke type and severity varied. Only 1 study found significant between-group differences for systems functioning and activity (P≤.02). The 11 included studies in this review had small sample sizes ranging from 5 to 99 participants at an average (mean) age of 57 years. This review has highlighted a number of reasons for insignificant findings in this area including low sample sizes and the appropriateness of the methodology for complex interventions. However, technology has the potential to measure outcomes, provide feedback, and engage users outside of clinical sessions. This could provide a platform for motivating stroke survivors to carry out more rehabilitation in the absence of a therapist, which could maximize recovery.
    • I am great, but only when I also want to dominate: Maladaptive narcissism moderates the relationship between adaptive narcissism and performance under pressure

      Zhang, Shuge; Roberts, Ross; Woodman, Tim; Cooke, Andrew; Bangor University; University of Derby (Human Kinetics, 2020)
      Narcissism-performance research has focused on grandiose narcissism but has not examined the interaction between its so-called adaptive (reflecting over-confidence) and maladaptive (reflecting a domineering orientation) components. In this research, we tested interactions between adaptive and maladaptive narcissism using two motor tasks (basketball and golf in Experiments 1-2, respectively) and a cognitive task (letter transformation; Experiment 3). Across all experiments, adaptive narcissism predicted performance under pressure only when maladaptive narcissism was high. In the presence of maladaptive narcissism, adaptive narcissism also predicted decreased pre-putt time in Experiment 2 and an adaptive psychophysiological response in Experiment 3, reflecting better processing efficiency. Findings suggest that individuals high in both aspects of narcissism perform better under pressure thanks to superior task processing. In performance contexts, the terms “adaptive” and “maladaptive” – adopted from social psychology – are over-simplistic and inaccurate. We believe that self-inflated narcissism and dominant narcissism are better monikers for these constructs.
    • Run, jump, throw and catch: How proficient are children attending English schools at the fundamental motor skills identified as key within the school curriculum?

      Duncan, Michael J; Roscoe, Clare M. P.; Noon, Mark; Clark, Cain CT; O’Brien, Wesley; Eyre, Emma LJ; Coventry University; University of Derby; University College Cork, Ireland (SAGE, 2019-12-23)
      This study examined proficiency levels in fundamental motor skills (FMS) in children within Key Stage 1 and 2 of the English school system. Four hundred and ninety-two children aged 6–9 Years old (245 boys, 247 girls) from school Years Two (n = 130), Three (n = 154) and Four (n = 208) participated in this study. FMS for the run, jump, throw and catch were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development – 2. The proportion of children who achieved mastery or near mastery of the skills was determined. For the whole sample, 18.5% (n = 91) did not achieve mastery in any of the four skills. A similar proportion (18.7%, n = 92) achieved mastery in all four of the FMS examined in this study. The proportion of children achieving mastery of all four skills was lower for Year Two children (0%) compared to children in years Three (24%) and Four (25%). More boys (25.7%) achieved mastery in all four of the FMS compared to girls (11.7%). Individual behavioural components in skill performance were also examined. The results of the present study highlight that less than one-fifth of children aged 6–9 years old have mastered the four key FMS identified by the physical education (PE) curriculum despite having the developmental potential to become fundamentally competent by six years of age. Fostering positive trajectories of FMS development presents a challenge for PE specialists given the association between FMS mastery in childhood and physical activity, weight status and health.
    • The eastern French Pyrenees: from mountain belt to foreland basin

      Satterfield, Dorothy; Rollinson, Hugh; Suthren, Roger; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-12-09)
      The Pyrenees is a young mountain belt formed as part of the larger Alpine collision zone. This excursion explores the development of the Pyrenean Mountain Belt in southern France, from its early extensional phase in the mid‐Cretaceous and subsequent collisional phase, through its uplift and erosion in the Late Cretaceous and again in the Eocene, which led to the development of the Aquitaine‐Languedoc foreland basin. One of the complexities of the Pyrenean Belt is that thrusting, uplift and erosion during the Pyrenean orogeny exposed older Variscan basement rocks in the central core of the mountains, rocks which were metamorphosed during an earlier event in the late Carboniferous. Thus, this orogenic belt also tells the story of an earlier collision between Laurussia in the north and Gondwana in the south at c. 300 Ma, prior to the onset of the Pyrenean events at c. 100 Ma. Here we seek to unravel these two separate orogenic stories.
    • Effect of adding a compassion-focused intervention on emotion, eating and weight outcomes in a commercial weight management programme

      Duarte, Cristiana; Gilbert, Paul; Stalker, Carol; Catarino, Francisca; Basran, Jaskaran; Scott, Sarah; Horgan, Graham; Stubbs, R James; University of Derby; University of Leeds; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2019-12-05)
      This study examined whether adding a compassion-focused light touch digital intervention into a commercial multicomponent weight management programme improved eating behaviour, self-evaluation and weight-related outcomes. The compassion intervention significantly reduced binge eating symptomatology and dropout, and improved psychological adjustment and self-evaluation, but did not affect weight outcomes. Compassion, self-reassurance and reductions in shame and self-criticism mediated the effect of the intervention on reductions of binge eating symptomatology. Negative self-evaluation, binge eating symptomatology, susceptibility to hunger and eating guilt were significant predictors of dropout. Findings suggest that compassion-based digital tools may help participants better manage binge eating symptomatology and self-evaluation in weight management interventions.
    • Distribution of plasma oxidised phosphatidylcholines in chronic kidney disease and periodontitis as a co-morbidity

      Ademowo, Opeyemi Stella; Sharma, Praveen; Cockwell, Paul; Reis, Ana; Chapple, Iain L.; Griffiths, Helen R.; Dias, Irundika H.K.; Aston University, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK (Elsevier BV, 2019-10-20)
      Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and periodontitis as a co-morbidity have a higher mortality rate than individuals with CKD and no periodontitis. The inflammatory burden associated with both diseases contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We previously demonstrated that periodontitis is associated with increasing circulating markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. We propose that inflammatory oxidised phosphocholines may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD. However, the analysis of oxidised phospholipids has been limited by a lack of authentic standards for absolute quantification. Here, we have developed a comprehensive quantification liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based multiple reaction monitoring method for oxidised phospholipids (including some without available authentic species) that enables us to simultaneously measure twelve oxidised phosphatidylcholine species with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. The standard curves for commercial standards 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PGPC); 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PONPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PAzPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POVPC), were linear with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99 for all analytes. The method is reproducible, with intra- and inter-day precision <15%, and accuracy within ±5% of nominal values for all analytes. This method has been successfully applied to investigate oxidised phosphatidylcholine in plasma from CKD patients with and without chronic periodontitis and the data that was obtained has been compared to plasma from healthy controls. Comparative analysis demonstrates altered chain fragmented phosphatidylcholine profiles in the plasma samples of patients with CKD and periodontitis as a co-morbidity compared to healthy controls.
    • Lung clearance index in detection of post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome

      Driskel, Madeleine; Horsley, Alex; Fretwell, Laurice; Clayton, Nigel; Al-Aloul, Mohamed; Lung Function Laboratory, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; Cardiothoracic Transplant Unit, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; School of Human Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK (European Respiratory Society, 2019-10-15)
      Long-term outcomes after lung transplantation are often limited by the development of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), which is clinically defined using spirometry as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Lung clearance index (LCI), derived from multiple breath washout (MBW) testing, is a global measure of ventilation heterogeneity that has previously been shown to be a more sensitive measure of obstructive small airway diseases than spirometry. We aimed to assess the feasibility of LCI in adult lung transplant patients and to compare LCI to BOS grade. 51 stable adult double-lung transplant recipients performed sulfur hexafluoride MBW in triplicate on a single occasion, using a closed-circuit Innocor device. BOS grades were derived from serial spirometry according to International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria and, where available, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) evidence of OB was recorded. LCI was successfully performed in 98% of patients. The within-visit coefficient of variation for repeat LCI measurements was 3.1%. Mean LCI increased significantly with BOS grades: no BOS (n=15), LCI 7.6; BOS-0p (n=16), LCI 8.3; BOS-1 (n=11), LCI 9.3; BOS-2–3 (n=9), LCI 13.2 (p<0.001). 27 patients had HRCT within 12 months. LCI in those with HRCT evidence of OB was higher than those without OB (11.1 versus 8.2, p=0.006). 47% patients displayed abnormal LCI (>7) despite a normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (>80% of baseline). LCI measurement in lung transplant recipients is feasible and reproducible. LCI increased with increasing BOS grade. A significant proportion of this cohort had abnormal LCI with preserved FEV1, suggesting early subclinical small airway dysfunction, and supporting a role for MBW in the early identification of BOS.
    • Surface stability in drylands is influenced by dispersal strategy of soil bacteria

      Elliott, David R.; Thomas, Andrew D.; Strong, Craig L.; Bullard, Joanna; Environmental sustainability Research Centre, University of Derby (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019-10-09)
      Microbial adaptations for survival and dispersal may directly influence landscape stability and potential for dust emission in drylands where biological soil crusts (biocrusts) protect mineral soil surfaces from wind erosion. In the Lake Eyre basin of central Australia we operated a wind tunnel on sandy soils and collected the liberated material, which was subjected to DNA sequencing to identify the microbial community composition. Microbial composition of entrained dust was compared with that of the source sand dune soil in addition to nearby claypan and nebkha soils, and water channels which together form a recycling sediment transport system. Wind was found to preferentially liberate 359 identified taxa from sand dunes whereas 137 identified taxa were found to resist wind erosion. Water channel communities included many taxa in common with the soil samples. We hypothesise that the ease with which soil microbes become airborne is often linked to whether the organism is adapted for dispersal by wind or vegetative growth, and that biocrust organisms found in water channels may sometimes use a fluvial dispersal strategy which exploits rare flooding events to rapidly colonise vast pans which are common in drylands. We explain likely geomorphic implications of microbial dispersal strategies which are a consequence of organisms engineering the environment to provide their particular needs. By identifying microbes fitting expectations for these dispersal strategies based on differential abundance analyses, we provide a new perspective for understanding the role of microbiota in landscape stability.
    • Developing a professional leadership identity during organisational change in professional youth football

      Gibson, Luke; Groom, Ryan; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor Francis, 2019-10-09)
      The purpose of this paper is to investigate the construction of a professional leadership identity of an outsider appointed to implement organisational change within the academy of a professional football club. Data were collected through field notes, informal observations and meetings, formal academy team meetings, three in-depth co-worker interviews and four semi-structured in-depth participant interviews, which were subjected to an iterative analysis. Findings highlighted how the appraisal of others and their appraisal of the participant were affected by employment vulnerability, and that ‘identity work’ when leading organisational change was intertwined with micro-political literacy and micro-political action. This study furthers understanding of the development of a leadership identity as a fluid and fragmented struggle, by demonstrating that the process of identity construction is emotional work and is entwined in a complex interplay of micro-political literacy and action, and employment vulnerability.
    • The influence of caffeine expectancies on simulated soccer performance in recreational individuals

      Shabir, Akbar; Hooton, Andy; Spencer, George; Storey, Mitch; Ensor, Olivia; Sandford, Laura; Tallis, Jason; Saunders, Bryan; Higgins, Matthew F.; University of Derby; et al. (MDPI AG, 2019-09-25)
      Caffeine (CAF) has been reported to improve various facets associated with successful soccer play, including gross motor skill performance, endurance capacity and cognition. These benefits are primarily attributed to pharmacological mechanisms. However, evidence assessing CAF’s overall effects on soccer performance are sparse with no studies accounting for CAF’s potential psychological impact. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess CAF’s psychological vs. pharmacological influence on various facets of simulated soccer performance. Utilising a double-dissociation design, eight male recreational soccer players (age: 22 ± 5 years, body mass: 78 ± 16 kg, height: 178 ± 6 cm) consumed CAF (3 mg/kg/body mass) or placebo (PLA) capsules, 60 min prior to performing the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) interspersed with a collection of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood glucose and lactate, heart rate and performing the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Whole-body dynamic reaction time (DRT) was assessed pre- and post- LIST, and endurance capacity (TLIM) post, time-matched LIST. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS (v24) whilst subjective perceptions were explored using template analysis. Mean TLIM was greatest (p < 0.001) for synergism (given CAF/told CAF) (672 ± 132 s) vs. placebo (given PLA/told PLA) (533 ± 79 s). However, when isolated, TLIM was greater (p = 0.012) for CAF psychology (given PLA/told CAF) (623 ± 117 s) vs. pharmacology (given CAF/told PLA) (578 ± 99 s), potentially, via reduced RPE. Although DRT performance was greater (p = 0.024) post-ingestion (+5 hits) and post-exercise (+7 hits) for pharmacology vs. placebo, psychology and synergism appeared to improve LSPT performance vs. pharmacology. Interestingly, positive perceptions during psychology inhibited LSPT and DRT performance via potential CAF over-reliance, with the opposite occurring following negative perceptions. The benefits associated with CAF expectancies may better suit tasks that entail lesser cognitive-/skill-specific attributes but greater gross motor function and this is likely due to reduced RPE. In isolation, these effects appear greater vs. CAF pharmacology. However, an additive benefit may be observed after combining expectancy with CAF pharmacology (i.e., synergism).
    • Investigating homicide offender typologies based on their clinical histories and crime scene behaviour patterns

      Abreu Minero, Valeria; Barker, Edward; Dickson, Hannah; Husson, Francois; Flynn, Sandra; Shaw, Jennifer; University of Derby; Kings College London; Agrocampus Ouest, Rennes, France; The University of Manchester (Emerald, 2019-09-16)
      The purpose of this paper is to identify offender typologies based on aspects of the offenders’ psychopathology and their associations with crime scene behaviours using data derived from the National Confidential Enquiry into Suicide and Safety in Mental Health concerning homicides in England and Wales committed by offenders in contact with mental health services in the year preceding the offence (n=759). The authors used multiple correspondence analysis to investigate the interrelationships between the variables and hierarchical agglomerative clustering to identify offender typologies. Variables describing: the offenders’ mental health histories; the offenders’ mental state at the time of offence; characteristics useful for police investigations; and patterns of crime scene behaviours were included. Results showed differences in the offenders’ histories in relation to their crime scene behaviours. Further, analyses revealed three homicide typologies: externalising, psychosis and depression. These typologies may assist the police during homicide investigations by: furthering their understanding of the crime or likely suspect; offering insights into crime patterns; provide advice as to what an offender’s offence behaviour might signify about his/her mental health background. Findings suggest information concerning offender psychopathology may be useful for offender profiling purposes in cases of homicide offenders with schizophrenia, depression and comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder and alcohol/drug dependence. Empirical studies with an emphasis on offender profiling have almost exclusively focussed on the inference of offender demographic characteristics. This study provides a first step in the exploration of offender psychopathology and its integration to the multivariate analysis of offence information for the purposes of investigative profiling of homicide by identifying the dominant patterns of mental illness within homicidal behaviour.
    • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels differ between week and weekend ways in British preschool children

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI AG, 2019-09-12)
      Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend days for UK preschool children, using objective measurements. One hundred and eighty-five preschool children (99 boys, 86 girls, aged 4–5 years), from central England wore a triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv) for 4 days to determine PA. The time (min) and percentage (%) of time spent in light, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was determined using specific cut-points for counts per minute related to 3–5 year olds. Of the sample, none of the children met the UK recommended 180 min or more of PA per day. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the amount of time that preschool children spent in sedentary behaviours on weekdays (91.9%) compared to weekend days (96.9%). During weekdays and weekend days, 6.3% and 2.0% of time was spent in MVPA, respectively. Therefore, a substantial proportion of British preschool children’s day is spent in sedentary behaviours, with less MVPA accrued during the weekend. Regular engagement during the weekdays provides opportunities to accrue PA, which may not be present on weekend days.