• Active recovery of the finger flexors enhances intermittent handgrip performance in rock climbers

      Baláš, Jiří; Michailov, Michail; Giles, David; Kodejška, Jan; Panáčková, Michaela; Fryer, Simon; The University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015)
      This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effect of hand shaking during recovery phases of intermittent testing on the time–force characteristics of performance and muscle oxygenation, and (2) assess inter-individual variability in the time to achieve the target force during intermittent testing in rock climbers. Twenty-two participants undertook three finger flexor endurance tests at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction until failure. Performances of a sustained contraction and two intermittent contractions, each with different recovery strategies, were analysed by time–force parameters and near-infrared spectroscopy. Recovery with shaking of the forearm beside the body led to a significantly greater intermittent test time (↑ 22%, P < .05), force–time integral (↑ 28%, P < .05) and faster muscle re-oxygenation (↑ 32%, P < .05), when compared to the hand over hold condition. Further, the ratio of intermittent to continuous test time distinguished specific aerobic muscular adaptations among sport climbers (2.02), boulderers (1.74) and lower grade climbers (1.25). Lower grade climbers and boulderers produced shorter duration contractions due to the slower development of target force during the intermittent test, indicating worse kinaesthetic differentiation. Both the type of recovery and climbing discipline determined muscle re-oxygenation and intermittent performance in rock climbers.
    • Active recovery strategy and lactate clearance in elite swimmers.

      Faghy, Mark A; Lomax, Mitch; Brown, Peter I; Human Science Research Centre; University of Portsmouth; English Institute of Sport (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2018-11-21)
      Swimming requires sustained high performance, with limited recovery between heats, recovery strategies are essential to performance but are often self-regulated and sub- optimal. Accordingly, we investigated a physiologically determined recovery protocol.
    • Affective priming of perceived environmental restorativeness

      Stevens, Paul; The Open University (2013)
      Research into the perceived restorativeness of a given environment has tended to focus on the principles of the Kaplans' Attention Restoration Theory at the expense of the affective considerations of Ulrich's psychoevolutionary model. To better understand the role of emotion, this experiment used contextual text-based primers to manipulate participants' affective state (positive or negative) prior to asking them to rate different environments using the Restorative Components Scale. Sixty-nine participants completed the web-based study, being pseudo-randomly allocated to either the positive- or negative-affect group and then rating three natural and three urban environments. Both groups rated natural environments as more restorative than urban ones, with negative-primed participants tending to give higher mean ratings for all environments. This effect was statistically significant for both the Being Away and Fascination components of perceived restorativeness for all environments, but only Fascination showed a significant interaction of the prior affective state with type of environment, a bigger effect being seen for the nature environments. Results are discussed in terms of current understanding of the interrelationship between attentional and affective processes
    • Age-related shifts in bacterial diversity in a reef coral

      Williams, Alex D.; Putchim, Lalita; Brown, Barbara E.; Sweet, Michael J.; University of Derby (Public Library of Science, 2015-12-23)
      This study investigated the relationship between microbial communities in differently sized colonies of the massive coral Coelastrea aspera at Phuket, Thailand where colony size could be used as a proxy for age. Results indicated significant differences between the bacterial diversity (ANOSIM, R = 0.76, p = 0.001) of differently sized colonies from the same intertidal reef habitat. Juvenile and small colonies (28 cm mean diam). Bacterial diversity increased in a step-wise pattern from juvenilessmallmedium colonies, which was then followed by a slight decrease in the two largest size classes. These changes appear to resemble a successional process which occurs over time, similar to that observed in the ageing human gut. Furthermore, the dominant bacterial ribotypes present in the tissues of medium and large sized colonies of C. aspera, (such as Halomicronema, an Oscillospira and an unidentified cyanobacterium) were also the dominant ribotypes found within the endolithic algal band of the coral skeleton; a result providing some support for the hypothesis that the endolithic algae of corals may directly influence the bacterial community present in coral tissues.
    • Alterations in autonomic cardiac modulation in response to normobaric hypoxia

      Giles, David; Kelly, John; Draper, Nick; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016)
      Purpose: The present study aimed to determine if autonomic cardiac modulation was influenced by acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia. Method: Ten healthy male lowland dwellers completed five block-randomised single-blinded, crossed-over acute exposures to a normobaric hypoxic environment, each separated by 24 hours’ recovery (20.3%, 17.4%, 14.5%, 12.0% and 9.8% FIO2). Supine recordings were made of arterial oxygen saturation and electrocardiogram (ECG). RR intervals from the ECG trace were analysed for time (SDNN, lnRMSSD), frequency (lnVLF, lnLF, lnHF, lnTP, LFnu, and HFnu), and nonlinear (DFA-α1 and SampEn) heart rate variability components. Results: A significant reduction in arterial SaO2 occurred with reduced FIO2, along with a rise in heart rate (Cohen’s d = 1.16, 95% Confidence Interval [2.64–6.46]), significant at 9.8% FIO2. A decrease in autonomic cardiac modulation was also found as shown by a statistically significant (at 9.8% FIO2) decrease in lnTP (d = 1.84 [1.74–1.94]), and SampEn (d = 0.98 [0.83–1.12]) and an increase in DFA-α1 (d = 0.72 [0.60–0.84]) from normoxia at 9.8% FIO2. Conclusion: The decrease in variability indicated a reduction in autonomic cardiac modulation. There appears to be a threshold ∼9.8% FIO2 (∼6000 m equiv.), below which significant alterations in autonomic control occur.
    • Ambiguity, manageability and the orchestration of organisational change: a case study of an English Premier League Academy Manager

      Gibson, Luke; Groom, Ryan; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor Francis, 2017-04-05)
      An academy is an organisational context operated by professional football clubs, governed by the rules of the English Football Association and the English Premier League. Academies provide coaching and education for youth football players aged from under 9 to under 21. The Academy Manager is responsible for the strategic leadership and operation of the club’s academy. This includes implementing the club’s philosophy, coaching and games programme, player education, and the management of academy staff. The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Simon [pseudonym], an English Premier League Academy Manager, when implementing organisational change within an academy. Data were collected from a work-based diary and four in-depth semi-structured interviews. The notion of orchestration is used as an analytical frame to make sense of Simon’s experiences through the change process and further our understanding of the social complexities of organisational change in elite sporting environments.
    • An analysis of the presentation of art in the British primary school curriculum and its implications for teaching

      Hallam, Jenny; Lee, Helen A. N.; Gupta, Mani Das; Staffordshire Unviersity (Wiley, 2007)
      This paper presents an analysis of the way art is conceptualised in the British Primary School curriculum and provides an historical framework that maps an evolution of ideas that have shaped the way art is presented in the modern day Primary curriculum. In order to achieve this a Foucauldian style genealogical analysis is utilised to trace the discourses (systems of meaning) surrounding the nature of children’s artistic development and how these discourses are used in the present day British Primary Curriculum to construe art in different ways. The analysis in this paper is threefold. It explores the presentation of art in the curriculum as (i) an expressive subject, (ii) a skills based subject, (iii) a subject which focuses on art history and art appreciation. Second the teaching positions associated with each approach are identified as follows (a) the facilitator, (b) the expert and (c) the philosopher; as well as the issues teachers face when adopting these positions. Third, attention is given to how these theoretical principles might be linked to practice. In so doing this paper contributes to the debate surrounding the value of art in the Primary curriculum and the way in which the curriculum serves to shape teaching practice.
    • The antibacterial potency of the medicinal maggot, Lucilia sericata (Meigen): Variation in laboratory evaluation

      Barnes, Kate M.; Dixon, Ron A.; Gennard, Dorothy E.; University of Lincoln (Elsevier, 2010-09)
      Research to quantify the potency of larval excretion/secretion from Lucilia sericata using liquid culture assays has produced contradictory results. In this study, viable counting was used to investigate the effectiveness of excretion/secretion against three marker bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli) and the effects of varying growing conditions in assays. Results demonstrate that factors such as number of larvae, species of bacteria and addition of nutrient influence its antibacterial potency. Therefore a standardised method should be employed for liquid culture assays when investigating the antibacterial activity of larval excretion/secretion from L. sericata.
    • Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on carrion, a note of the behaviour and a review of the literature.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; Dye, Alex; University of Derby; Rothamsted Research (Andrew Smith Print Ltd., 2017-11-25)
      The Honeybee Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) traditionally feeds on the nectar of flowers (Núñez, 1977). A number of workers of A. mellifera were observed on whole pig carrion in woodland in Riseholme Lincoln (Grid reference SK978754) on 10 of October 2017. This paper aims to look at this odd behaviour in context of the literature.
    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal community structure on co-existing tropical legume trees in French Guiana

      Brearley, Francis Q.; Elliott, David R.; Iribar, Amaia; Sen, Robin; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural SciencesUniversity of Derby (Springer, 2016-02-10)
      Aims We aimed to characterise the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure and potential edaphic determinants in the dominating, but poorly described, root-colonizing Paris-type AMF community on co-occurring Amazonian leguminous trees. Methods Three highly productive leguminous trees (Dicorynia guianensis, Eperua falcata and Tachigali melinonii were targeted) in species-rich forests on contrasting soil types at the Nouragues Research Station in central French Guiana. Abundant AMF SSU rRNA amplicons (NS31-AM1 & AML1-AML2 primers) from roots identified via trnL profiling were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone library sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Classical approaches targeting abundant SSU amplicons highlighted a diverse root-colonizing symbiotic AMF community dominated by members of the Glomeraceae. DGGE profiling indicated that, of the edaphic factors investigated, soil nitrogen was most important in influencing the AMF community and this was more important than any host tree species effect. Conclusions Dominating Paris-type mycorrhizal leguminous trees in Amazonian soils host diverse and novel taxa within the Glomeraceae that appear under edaphic selection in the investigated tropical forests. Linking symbiotic diversity of identified AMF taxa to ecological processes is the next challenge ahead.
    • Arthropod-microbe interactions on vertebrate remains: Potential applications in the forensic sciences.

      Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Benbow, M. Eric; Barnes, Kate M.; Jordan, Heather R.; Texas A&M University; Michigan State University; University of Derby; Mississippi State University (John Wiley and Sons, 2017-04-08)
      Understanding the process of insect colonization of human remains is a core area of research by forensic entomologists, with several recent studies suggesting that microbial communities influence the process and timing of colonization. Such information is crucial for determining when colonization occurred as related to the postmortem interval (PMI). This chapter reviews the basic field of forensic entomology; the phases of insect behavior associated with their detection, location, and utilization of the remains as postulated by Matuszewski (Matuszewski, S. (2011) Estimating the pre-appearance interval from temperature in Necrodes littoralis L. (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Forensic Science International, 212, 180–188) and Tomberlin et al. (Tomberlin, J. K., R. Mohr, M. E. Benbow, et al. 2011. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology. Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 401–421.); and how microbes play a key role mediating this process. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential future directions related to microbe–insect interactions in association with vertebrate remains decomposition, and this is potentially important to forensics.
    • An assessment of the antibacterial activity in larval excretion/secretion of four species of insects recorded in association with corpses, using Lucilia sericata Meigen as the marker species

      Barnes, Kate M.; Gennard, Dorothy E.; Dixon, Ron A.; University of Lincoln (Cambridge University Press, 2010-03-22)
      The relative antibacterial activities of excretion/secretion (ES) from two carrion-feeding insects, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Dermestes maculatus DeGeer, and a detritivore, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, were compared to that of Lucilia sericata Meigen, a species with ES of known antibacterial capacity, in order to explore the antimicrobial potential of other carrion and detritivore species. Viable counts were used to assess time-kill of ES against five bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. Antibacterial activity was recorded in all four insect species although T. molitor and D. maculatus were the most effective in controlling growth of P. mirabilis. The blowflies were more effective in controlling a wider range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The larval ES from all species was shown to reduce bacterial growth rate although differences in antibacterial spectrum were noted and the degree of potency varied between the four species. These differences may be explained ecologically by the different colonisation times of each insect species on the corpse. Overall, this study demonstrates that research into other carrion-feeding insect species has potential to provide an increased source of antimicrobial chemicals to broaden the range of bacterial species beyond that currently controlled using L. sericata.
    • Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation

      Elliott, David R.; Caporn, Simon; Nwaishi, Felix; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Sen, Robin; Manchester Metropolitan University (Public Library of Science, 2015-05)
      The UK hosts 15–19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare peat oligotrophy, re-vegetation recalcitrance, rhizosphere-microbe-soil interactions, C, N and P cycling, trajectory of restoration, and ecosystem service implications for peatland restoration.
    • Becoming a performance analyst: autoethnographic reflections on agency, and facilitated transformational growth

      Butterworth, Andrew D.; Turner, David J.; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2014-04-09)
      This paper features an autoethnographic approach in presenting and reflecting upon the story of one higher education student's rapid vocational and academic transformation. Initially an inconspicuous undergraduate student, Andrew experienced an accelerated development that catapulted him to working in elite sport performance analysis (PA) environments, within a year. PA is a sub-discipline of sports coaching that involves using the latest technological advances to influence sporting performance, through the objective analysis of performance data. This autoethnographic piece is partly Andrew’s personal reflection upon that journey towards his newfound profession, which initially grew out of his experience of a generic sports degree at a university. Through stepping out of his comfort zone, and analysing sports previously unknown to him, extraordinary progress was made, and various vocational and academic opportunities arose. The initial catalyst for this developmental journey was facilitated by coaching lecturer David, who reflects upon how Andrew’s story links to his own educational philosophies. Andrew and David explore what these stories might mean to them personally, including potential links to the metaphor of learning as becoming, and notions around the concepts of learner agency, and educational facilitation. The paper ends by exploring the theoretical frameworks that guided this paper’s structure and focus.
    • Book Review: Jonathan Skinner (ed.) Writing the dark side of travel

      Johnston, Tony; University of Derby (2013-05-08)
    • Calibration of GENEActiv accelerometer wrist cut-points for the assessment of physical activity intensity of preschool aged children

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; Coventry University; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-07-03)
      This study sought to validate cut-points for use of wrist worn GENEActiv accelerometer data, to analyse preschool children’s (4 to 5 year olds) physical activity (PA) levels via calibration with oxygen consumption values (VO2). This was a laboratory based calibration study. Twenty-one preschool children, aged 4.7 ± 0.5 years old, completed six activities (ranging from lying supine to running) whilst wearing the GENEActiv accelerometers at two locations (left and right wrist), these being the participants’ non-dominant and dominant wrist, and a Cortex face mask for gas analysis. VO2 data was used for the assessment of criterion validity. Location specific activity intensity cut points were established via Receiver Operator Characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. The GENEActiv accelerometers, irrespective of their location, accurately discriminated between all PA intensities (sedentary, light, and moderate and above), with the dominant wrist monitor providing a slightly more precise discrimination at light PA and the non-dominant at the sedentary behaviour and moderate and above intensity levels (Area Under the Curve (AUC) for non-dominant = 0.749-0.993, compared to AUC dominant = 0.760-0.988). Conclusion: This study establishes wrist-worn physical activity cut points for the GENEActiv accelerometer in pre-schoolers.
    • Can MOOCs meet your learning needs?

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-09-19)
      This paper looks at the role of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in fulfilling your learning needs; from looking at what MOOCs are through to examples of courses from different Universities and advice for completing a course. The sequence of activities takes you from looking at your learning needs, to finding a course, thinking about how to plan and prepare for learning using a MOOC then writing a review or reflecting on the impact of your learning.
    • Catastrophes in sport: a test of the hysteresis hypothesis.

      Hardy, L.; Parfitt, C. Gaynor; Pates, John; University of Wales, Bangor (Taylor and Francis Ltd, 1994-04-20)
    • Categorization of occupation in documented skeletal collections: Its relevance for the interpretation of activity-related osseous changes.

      Perréard Lopreno, Geneviève; Alves Cardoso, Francisca; Assis, Sandra; Milella, Marco; Speith, Nivien; University of Geneva; Nova University; University of Coimbra; University of Zurich; Bournemouth University; Laboratory of prehistoric archaeology and anthropology, F.A. Forel Institut - Earth Sciences and Environment; University of Geneva; Geneva; Switzerland; CRIA - Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas; Universidade Nova de Lisboa; Lisbon; Portugal; CIAS - Research Centre for Anthropology and Health; University of Coimbra; Coimbra; Portugal; Anthropological Institute and Museum; University of Zurich; Zurich; Switzerland; Archaeological Sciences; University of Bradford; Bradford; England (Wiley, 2013-03)
      Studies on identified skeletal collections yield discordant results about the association between osseous changes and activity. These dissonances can be ascribed to several factors: the variability of the osseous changes selected for observation, the inconsistency of their interpretative criteria and the inhomogeneous classification of occupation, here used as synonym of profession, within each study. The need to standardize the concept of occupation in its biomechanical and socio-cultural expression is currently addressed by the authors, as members of a working group created after the workshop ‘Musculoskeletal Stress Markers (MSM): limitations and achievements in the reconstruction of past activity patterns’ (Coimbra University, 2009). Within this framework, the authors reviewed the literature dedicated to entheseal changes and functional adaptation of long bones, focusing their research on studies based on European identified skeletal collections and on the criteria used in each study to classify occupations. The aim of this research was to (i) assess agreements and disagreements between authors with regard to the criteria used to categorize occupation, and (ii) highlight the steps needed to build a classification system permitting future comparisons between collections of different chronological and geographical contexts. Data from the literature were exported to a table including the assessment criteria used to classify the occupation for each profession and the assignment of specific occupations to occupational categories. Overall, our results revealed two main issues: an ambiguous historical interpretation of occupation and a marked influence of the researcher's perspective on the criteria used to classify occupations. Therefore, although the table allows basic comparisons between collections, further research is needed in order to obtain shared classifications based on each profession's specifics.
    • Chain-loaded variable resistance warm-up improves free-weight maximal back squat performance.

      Mina, Minas A.; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Giakas, Giannis; Seitz, Laurent B.; Kay, Anthony D.; University of Derby; Edith Cowan University; University of Thessaly; French Rugby League Academy; University of Northampton (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-18)
      The acute influence of chain-loaded variable resistance exercise on subsequent free-weight one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat performance was examined in 16 recreationally active men. The participants performed either a free-weight resistance (FWR) or chain-loaded resistance (CLR) back squat warm-up at 85% 1-RM on two separate occasions. After a 5-min rest, the participants attempted a free-weight 1-RM back squat; if successful, subsequent 5% load additions were made until participants failed to complete the lift. During the 1-RM trials, 3D knee joint kinematics and knee extensor and flexor electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously. Significantly greater 1-RM (6.2 ± 5.0%; p < .01) and mean eccentric knee extensor EMG (32.2 ± 6.7%; p < .01) were found after the CLR warm-up compared to the FWR condition. However, no difference (p > .05) was found in concentric EMG, eccentric or concentric knee angular velocity, or peak knee flexion angle. Performing a CLR warm-up enhanced subsequent free-weight 1-RM performance without changes in knee flexion angle or eccentric and concentric knee angular velocities; thus a real 1-RM increase was achieved as the mechanics of the lift were not altered. These results are indicative of a potentiating effect of CLR in a warm-up, which may benefit athletes in tasks where high-level strength is required.