• A 3-month low fat diet leads to significant lipid profile improvement in obese T2DM Saudi subjects, without substantial weight loss, and the capacity to manage a damaging high-fat meal challenge more appropriately post intervention

      Al-Disi, D; Al-Daghri, N; Khan, N; Alsaif, M; Alfadda, A; Sabico, S; Tripathi, G; McTernan, P; University of Westminster (bioscientifica, 01/03/2014)
      Current evidence highlights that dietary cholesterol, trans-fatty acids and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are all known to increase the levels of systemic atherogenic lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to observe the direct effect of dietary change, via a calorie-restricted diet on i) cardio-metabolic profile and ii) a high-fat meal challenge pre- and post-3-month intervention. T2DM subjects (Saudi female, age: 40.50±6.8years, BMI: 37.28±10.75 kg/m2, n=18) were given a high-fat meal pre- and post-calorie restricted diet (3 months; 500 kcal deficit/day, balanced diet with complex carbohydrate). Baseline (0 h) and post-prandial sera (1–4 h) were taken from subjects, anthropometric and biochemical data was collated at both time points. On baseline comparison of pre- and post-diet interventions, there were modest reductions in anthropometric data, BMI (P<0.001), waist (P<0.001), and waist:hip ratio (WHR; P<0.01). Baseline HDL-cholesterol increased significantly (P<0.01) whilst LDL- and total-cholesterol were significantly reduced (pre-total cholesterol: 5.13 (4.53, 5.93) vs post-total cholesterol: 4.70 (4.01, 5.14); pre-LDL cholesterol: 3.56 (3.07, 4.06) vs post-LDL cholesterol: 2.81 (2.34, 3.56), P<0.05). The findings also showed significant changes in the effects of high-fat meal intake on the metabolic profile pre- and post-diet intervention. At 4 h post-prandially, post-dietary intervention, HDL-cholesterol was 16.6% higher than pre-diet (P<0.05), whilst LDL- and total-cholesterol were 24.2 and 12% lower, respectively, than at the 4 h equivalent pre-diet (P<0.05). These findings suggest that lipid mediators associated with increased cardiometabolic risk can be quickly reversed as a result of a balanced diet, in T2DM subjects without substantial weight loss. As a result, the body is able to cope with the occasional high-fat meal insult, whilst still maintaining a reduced long-term CVD risk. As such, this is a diet that patients with T2DM may be able to adhere to more successfully, longer-term.
    • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels differ between week and weekend ways in British preschool children

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI AG, 2019-09-12)
      Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend days for UK preschool children, using objective measurements. One hundred and eighty-five preschool children (99 boys, 86 girls, aged 4–5 years), from central England wore a triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv) for 4 days to determine PA. The time (min) and percentage (%) of time spent in light, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was determined using specific cut-points for counts per minute related to 3–5 year olds. Of the sample, none of the children met the UK recommended 180 min or more of PA per day. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the amount of time that preschool children spent in sedentary behaviours on weekdays (91.9%) compared to weekend days (96.9%). During weekdays and weekend days, 6.3% and 2.0% of time was spent in MVPA, respectively. Therefore, a substantial proportion of British preschool children’s day is spent in sedentary behaviours, with less MVPA accrued during the weekend. Regular engagement during the weekdays provides opportunities to accrue PA, which may not be present on weekend days.
    • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels, fundamental movement skills and weight status in British preschool children from a deprived area

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (Springer, 2019-04-26)
      Preschool children are recommended to participate in a minimum of 180-min physical activity (PA) per day to enhance their development and overall health. Low PA and increased obesity are thought to be linked to low mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) in preschool children. This study sought to investigate whether FMS influences PA levels and weight status in preschool children, in an area of low socioeconomic status. Secondary aims of this study were to determine whether gender or day of the week affected the primary outcomes. One hundred eighty-five preschool children aged 3–4 years old, participated in the study. FMS proficiency was determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. PA was determined using triaxial accelerometry over a 4-day period. None of the samples met the recommended 180 min of PA. There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium or low FMS mastery (P < 0.05). There were also no significant correlations between overall FMS and moderate to vigorous PA during the week or weekend days. Conclusion: Girls scored significantly greater at the hop, leap, and skip (locomotor skills) and the boys significantly higher at the kick (object control) (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium, or low FMS mastery, possibly because FMS mastery had not developed to a high enough level to affect PA and FMS are considered independent of physical fitness and physical features, such as weight and height.
    • Active recovery of the finger flexors enhances intermittent handgrip performance in rock climbers

      Baláš, Jiří; Michailov, Michail; Giles, David; Kodejška, Jan; Panáčková, Michaela; Fryer, Simon; The University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-12-19)
      This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effect of hand shaking during recovery phases of intermittent testing on the time–force characteristics of performance and muscle oxygenation, and (2) assess inter-individual variability in the time to achieve the target force during intermittent testing in rock climbers. Twenty-two participants undertook three finger flexor endurance tests at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction until failure. Performances of a sustained contraction and two intermittent contractions, each with different recovery strategies, were analysed by time–force parameters and near-infrared spectroscopy. Recovery with shaking of the forearm beside the body led to a significantly greater intermittent test time (↑ 22%, P < .05), force–time integral (↑ 28%, P < .05) and faster muscle re-oxygenation (↑ 32%, P < .05), when compared to the hand over hold condition. Further, the ratio of intermittent to continuous test time distinguished specific aerobic muscular adaptations among sport climbers (2.02), boulderers (1.74) and lower grade climbers (1.25). Lower grade climbers and boulderers produced shorter duration contractions due to the slower development of target force during the intermittent test, indicating worse kinaesthetic differentiation. Both the type of recovery and climbing discipline determined muscle re-oxygenation and intermittent performance in rock climbers.
    • Active recovery strategy and lactate clearance in elite swimmers.

      Faghy, Mark A; Lomax, Mitch; Brown, Peter I; Human Science Research Centre; University of Portsmouth; English Institute of Sport (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2018-11-21)
      Swimming requires sustained high performance, with limited recovery between heats, recovery strategies are essential to performance but are often self-regulated and sub- optimal. Accordingly, we investigated a physiologically determined recovery protocol.
    • Affective priming of perceived environmental restorativeness

      Stevens, Paul; The Open University (2013)
      Research into the perceived restorativeness of a given environment has tended to focus on the principles of the Kaplans' Attention Restoration Theory at the expense of the affective considerations of Ulrich's psychoevolutionary model. To better understand the role of emotion, this experiment used contextual text-based primers to manipulate participants' affective state (positive or negative) prior to asking them to rate different environments using the Restorative Components Scale. Sixty-nine participants completed the web-based study, being pseudo-randomly allocated to either the positive- or negative-affect group and then rating three natural and three urban environments. Both groups rated natural environments as more restorative than urban ones, with negative-primed participants tending to give higher mean ratings for all environments. This effect was statistically significant for both the Being Away and Fascination components of perceived restorativeness for all environments, but only Fascination showed a significant interaction of the prior affective state with type of environment, a bigger effect being seen for the nature environments. Results are discussed in terms of current understanding of the interrelationship between attentional and affective processes
    • Age-related shifts in bacterial diversity in a reef coral

      Williams, Alex D.; Putchim, Lalita; Brown, Barbara E.; Sweet, Michael J.; University of Derby (Public Library of Science, 2015-12-23)
      This study investigated the relationship between microbial communities in differently sized colonies of the massive coral Coelastrea aspera at Phuket, Thailand where colony size could be used as a proxy for age. Results indicated significant differences between the bacterial diversity (ANOSIM, R = 0.76, p = 0.001) of differently sized colonies from the same intertidal reef habitat. Juvenile and small colonies (28 cm mean diam). Bacterial diversity increased in a step-wise pattern from juvenilessmallmedium colonies, which was then followed by a slight decrease in the two largest size classes. These changes appear to resemble a successional process which occurs over time, similar to that observed in the ageing human gut. Furthermore, the dominant bacterial ribotypes present in the tissues of medium and large sized colonies of C. aspera, (such as Halomicronema, an Oscillospira and an unidentified cyanobacterium) were also the dominant ribotypes found within the endolithic algal band of the coral skeleton; a result providing some support for the hypothesis that the endolithic algae of corals may directly influence the bacterial community present in coral tissues.
    • Alterations in autonomic cardiac modulation in response to normobaric hypoxia

      Giles, David; Kelly, John; Draper, Nick; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016)
      Purpose: The present study aimed to determine if autonomic cardiac modulation was influenced by acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia. Method: Ten healthy male lowland dwellers completed five block-randomised single-blinded, crossed-over acute exposures to a normobaric hypoxic environment, each separated by 24 hours’ recovery (20.3%, 17.4%, 14.5%, 12.0% and 9.8% FIO2). Supine recordings were made of arterial oxygen saturation and electrocardiogram (ECG). RR intervals from the ECG trace were analysed for time (SDNN, lnRMSSD), frequency (lnVLF, lnLF, lnHF, lnTP, LFnu, and HFnu), and nonlinear (DFA-α1 and SampEn) heart rate variability components. Results: A significant reduction in arterial SaO2 occurred with reduced FIO2, along with a rise in heart rate (Cohen’s d = 1.16, 95% Confidence Interval [2.64–6.46]), significant at 9.8% FIO2. A decrease in autonomic cardiac modulation was also found as shown by a statistically significant (at 9.8% FIO2) decrease in lnTP (d = 1.84 [1.74–1.94]), and SampEn (d = 0.98 [0.83–1.12]) and an increase in DFA-α1 (d = 0.72 [0.60–0.84]) from normoxia at 9.8% FIO2. Conclusion: The decrease in variability indicated a reduction in autonomic cardiac modulation. There appears to be a threshold ∼9.8% FIO2 (∼6000 m equiv.), below which significant alterations in autonomic control occur.
    • Ambiguity, manageability and the orchestration of organisational change: a case study of an English Premier League Academy Manager

      Gibson, Luke; Groom, Ryan; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor Francis, 2017-04-19)
      An academy is an organisational context operated by professional football clubs, governed by the rules of the English Football Association and the English Premier League. Academies provide coaching and education for youth football players aged from under 9 to under 21. The Academy Manager is responsible for the strategic leadership and operation of the club’s academy. This includes implementing the club’s philosophy, coaching and games programme, player education, and the management of academy staff. The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Simon [pseudonym], an English Premier League Academy Manager, when implementing organisational change within an academy. Data were collected from a work-based diary and four in-depth semi-structured interviews. The notion of orchestration is used as an analytical frame to make sense of Simon’s experiences through the change process and further our understanding of the social complexities of organisational change in elite sporting environments.
    • An analysis of the presentation of art in the British primary school curriculum and its implications for teaching

      Hallam, Jenny; Lee, Helen A. N.; Gupta, Mani Das; Staffordshire Unviersity (Wiley, 2007)
      This paper presents an analysis of the way art is conceptualised in the British Primary School curriculum and provides an historical framework that maps an evolution of ideas that have shaped the way art is presented in the modern day Primary curriculum. In order to achieve this a Foucauldian style genealogical analysis is utilised to trace the discourses (systems of meaning) surrounding the nature of children’s artistic development and how these discourses are used in the present day British Primary Curriculum to construe art in different ways. The analysis in this paper is threefold. It explores the presentation of art in the curriculum as (i) an expressive subject, (ii) a skills based subject, (iii) a subject which focuses on art history and art appreciation. Second the teaching positions associated with each approach are identified as follows (a) the facilitator, (b) the expert and (c) the philosopher; as well as the issues teachers face when adopting these positions. Third, attention is given to how these theoretical principles might be linked to practice. In so doing this paper contributes to the debate surrounding the value of art in the Primary curriculum and the way in which the curriculum serves to shape teaching practice.
    • The antibacterial potency of the medicinal maggot, Lucilia sericata (Meigen): Variation in laboratory evaluation

      Barnes, Kate M.; Dixon, Ron A.; Gennard, Dorothy E.; University of Lincoln (Elsevier, 2010-09)
      Research to quantify the potency of larval excretion/secretion from Lucilia sericata using liquid culture assays has produced contradictory results. In this study, viable counting was used to investigate the effectiveness of excretion/secretion against three marker bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli) and the effects of varying growing conditions in assays. Results demonstrate that factors such as number of larvae, species of bacteria and addition of nutrient influence its antibacterial potency. Therefore a standardised method should be employed for liquid culture assays when investigating the antibacterial activity of larval excretion/secretion from L. sericata.
    • Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on carrion, a note of the behaviour and a review of the literature.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; Dye, Alex; University of Derby; Rothamsted Research (Andrew Smith Print Ltd., 2017-11-25)
      The Honeybee Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) traditionally feeds on the nectar of flowers (Núñez, 1977). A number of workers of A. mellifera were observed on whole pig carrion in woodland in Riseholme Lincoln (Grid reference SK978754) on 10 of October 2017. This paper aims to look at this odd behaviour in context of the literature.
    • Apparitions of Black Dogs.

      Sherwood, Simon J.; University of Northampton, Centre for the Study of Anomalous Psychological Processes (CSAPP) (McFarland, 2010)
    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal community structure on co-existing tropical legume trees in French Guiana

      Brearley, Francis Q.; Elliott, David R.; Iribar, Amaia; Sen, Robin; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural SciencesUniversity of Derby (Springer, 2016-02-10)
      Aims We aimed to characterise the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure and potential edaphic determinants in the dominating, but poorly described, root-colonizing Paris-type AMF community on co-occurring Amazonian leguminous trees. Methods Three highly productive leguminous trees (Dicorynia guianensis, Eperua falcata and Tachigali melinonii were targeted) in species-rich forests on contrasting soil types at the Nouragues Research Station in central French Guiana. Abundant AMF SSU rRNA amplicons (NS31-AM1 & AML1-AML2 primers) from roots identified via trnL profiling were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone library sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Classical approaches targeting abundant SSU amplicons highlighted a diverse root-colonizing symbiotic AMF community dominated by members of the Glomeraceae. DGGE profiling indicated that, of the edaphic factors investigated, soil nitrogen was most important in influencing the AMF community and this was more important than any host tree species effect. Conclusions Dominating Paris-type mycorrhizal leguminous trees in Amazonian soils host diverse and novel taxa within the Glomeraceae that appear under edaphic selection in the investigated tropical forests. Linking symbiotic diversity of identified AMF taxa to ecological processes is the next challenge ahead.
    • Arthropod-microbe interactions on vertebrate remains: Potential applications in the forensic sciences.

      Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Benbow, M. Eric; Barnes, Kate M.; Jordan, Heather R.; Texas A&M University; Michigan State University; University of Derby; Mississippi State University (John Wiley and Sons, 2017-04-08)
      Understanding the process of insect colonization of human remains is a core area of research by forensic entomologists, with several recent studies suggesting that microbial communities influence the process and timing of colonization. Such information is crucial for determining when colonization occurred as related to the postmortem interval (PMI). This chapter reviews the basic field of forensic entomology; the phases of insect behavior associated with their detection, location, and utilization of the remains as postulated by Matuszewski (Matuszewski, S. (2011) Estimating the pre-appearance interval from temperature in Necrodes littoralis L. (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Forensic Science International, 212, 180–188) and Tomberlin et al. (Tomberlin, J. K., R. Mohr, M. E. Benbow, et al. 2011. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology. Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 401–421.); and how microbes play a key role mediating this process. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential future directions related to microbe–insect interactions in association with vertebrate remains decomposition, and this is potentially important to forensics.
    • Assessing the roles of the sender and experimenter in dream ESP research.

      Roe, Chris A.; Sherwood, Simon J.; Farrell, Louise; Savva, Louie; Baker, Ian; University of Northampton, Centre for the Study of Anomalous Psychological Processes (CSAPP) (European Journal of Parapsychology, 2007)
      This study explored the role of the sender in a dream ESP task by considering the effects of presence of a sender (sender, no sender) and the receiver’s expectancy that a sender was present. Forty participants each completed a sender and a no sender trial on consecutive nights by keeping a dream diary of all mentation they could recall when they awoke. The order of trials was randomised across participants. On no-sender nights a randomly selected video clip was played repeatedly from 2:00 until 6:30am; on sender nights a sender would also watch the clip between 6:00 and 6:30am and attempt to communicate its content. Both sender and no sender conditions produced above chance hit rates (30% and 35% respectively), but z scores for similarity ratings did not deviate significantly from chance (sender night: t(39) = 0.92, p = .18; no sender night: t(39) = 1.11, p = .14, one-tailed). There was no difference in performance in terms of sender conditions (z = -0.22, p = .41, one-tailed) or sender expectancy (z = -0.18, p = .46, one-tailed), failing to support the proposal that senders play an active role in dream ESP success. Possible improvements in the manipulation of participant expectancy are discussed.
    • An assessment of the antibacterial activity in larval excretion/secretion of four species of insects recorded in association with corpses, using Lucilia sericata Meigen as the marker species

      Barnes, Kate M.; Gennard, Dorothy E.; Dixon, Ron A.; University of Lincoln (Cambridge University Press, 2010-03-22)
      The relative antibacterial activities of excretion/secretion (ES) from two carrion-feeding insects, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Dermestes maculatus DeGeer, and a detritivore, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, were compared to that of Lucilia sericata Meigen, a species with ES of known antibacterial capacity, in order to explore the antimicrobial potential of other carrion and detritivore species. Viable counts were used to assess time-kill of ES against five bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. Antibacterial activity was recorded in all four insect species although T. molitor and D. maculatus were the most effective in controlling growth of P. mirabilis. The blowflies were more effective in controlling a wider range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The larval ES from all species was shown to reduce bacterial growth rate although differences in antibacterial spectrum were noted and the degree of potency varied between the four species. These differences may be explained ecologically by the different colonisation times of each insect species on the corpse. Overall, this study demonstrates that research into other carrion-feeding insect species has potential to provide an increased source of antimicrobial chemicals to broaden the range of bacterial species beyond that currently controlled using L. sericata.
    • Association of vitamin B12 with pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers related to cardiometabolic risk in Saudi subjects

      Al-Daghri, N.M; Rahman, S; Sabico, S; Yakout, S; Wani, K; Al-Attas, O.S; Saravanan, P; Tripathi, G; McTernan, P.G; Alokail, M.S; et al. (MDPI, 06/09/2016)
      his study aimed to examine the relationship between changes in systemic vitamin B12 concentrations with pro-inflammatory cytokines, anthropometric factors and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risk in a Saudi population. Methods: A total of 364 subjects (224 children, age: 12.99 ± 2.73 (mean ± SD) years; BMI: 20.07 ± 4.92 kg/m2 and 140 adults, age: 41.87 ± 8.82 years; BMI: 31.65 ± 5.77 kg/m2) were studied. Fasting blood, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected. Serum cytokines were quantified using multiplex assay kits and B12 concentrations were measured using immunoassay analyzer. Results: Vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = −0.14, p < 0.05), insulin (r = −0.230, p < 0.01) and HOMA-IR (r = −0.252, p < 0.01) in all subjects. In children, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with serum resistin (r = −0.160, p < 0.01), insulin (r = −0.248, p < 0.01), HOMA-IR (r = −0.261, p < 0.01). In adults, vitamin B12 was negatively associated with TNF-α (r = −0.242, p < 0.01) while positively associated with resistin (r = 0.248, p < 0.01). Serum resistin was the most significant predictor for circulating vitamin B12 in all subjects (r2 = −0.17, p < 0.05) and in children (r2 = −0.167, p < 0.01) while HDL-cholesterol was the predictor of B12 in adults (r2 = −0.78, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risks in adults. Maintaining adequate vitamin B12 concentrations may lower inflammation-induced cardiometabolic risk in the Saudi adult population.
    • Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation

      Elliott, David R.; Caporn, Simon; Nwaishi, Felix; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Sen, Robin; Manchester Metropolitan University (Public Library of Science, 2015-05-13)
      The UK hosts 15–19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare peat oligotrophy, re-vegetation recalcitrance, rhizosphere-microbe-soil interactions, C, N and P cycling, trajectory of restoration, and ecosystem service implications for peatland restoration.
    • Basaltic maar-diatreme volcanism in the Lower carboniferous of the Limerick Basin (SW Ireland)

      Gernon, T. M.; Roberts, S.; Hewson, C.; Elliott, Holly; University of Southampton (Springer, 2015-04-16)
      Lead-zinc exploration drilling within the Limerick Basin (SW Ireland) has revealed the deep internal architecture and extra-crater deposits of five alkali-basaltic maar-diatremes. These were emplaced as part of a regional north-east south-west tectonomagmatic trend during the Lower Carboniferous Period. Field relationships and textural observations suggest that the diatremes erupted into a shallow submarine environment. Limerick trace element data indicates a genetic relationship between the diatremes and extra-crater successions of the Knockroe Formation, which records multiple diatreme filling and emptying cycles. Deposition was controlled largely by bathymetry defined by the surrounding Waulsortian carbonate mounds. An initial non-diatreme forming eruption stage occurred at the water-sediment interface, with magma-water interaction prevented by high magma ascent rates. This was followed by seawater incursion and the onset of phreatomagmatic activity. Magma-water interaction generated poorly vesicular blocky clasts, although the co-occurrence of plastically deformed and highly vesicular clasts indicate that phreatomagmatic and magmatic processes were not mutually exclusive. At a later stage, the diatreme filled with a slurry of juvenile lapilli and country rock lithic clasts, homogenised by the action of debris jets. The resulting extra-crater deposits eventually emerged above sea level, so that water ingress significantly declined, and late-stage magmatic processes became dominant. These deposits, largely confined to the deep vents, incorporate high concentrations of partially sintered globular and large ‘raggy’ lapilli showing evidence for heat retention. Our study provides new insights into the dynamics and evolution of basaltic diatremes erupting into a shallow water (20–120 m) submarine environment.