• A 3-month low fat diet leads to significant lipid profile improvement in obese T2DM Saudi subjects, without substantial weight loss, and the capacity to manage a damaging high-fat meal challenge more appropriately post intervention

      Al-Disi, D; Al-Daghri, N; Khan, N; Alsaif, M; Alfadda, A; Sabico, S; Tripathi, G; McTernan, P; University of Westminster (bioscientifica, 01/03/2014)
      Current evidence highlights that dietary cholesterol, trans-fatty acids and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are all known to increase the levels of systemic atherogenic lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to observe the direct effect of dietary change, via a calorie-restricted diet on i) cardio-metabolic profile and ii) a high-fat meal challenge pre- and post-3-month intervention. T2DM subjects (Saudi female, age: 40.50±6.8years, BMI: 37.28±10.75 kg/m2, n=18) were given a high-fat meal pre- and post-calorie restricted diet (3 months; 500 kcal deficit/day, balanced diet with complex carbohydrate). Baseline (0 h) and post-prandial sera (1–4 h) were taken from subjects, anthropometric and biochemical data was collated at both time points. On baseline comparison of pre- and post-diet interventions, there were modest reductions in anthropometric data, BMI (P<0.001), waist (P<0.001), and waist:hip ratio (WHR; P<0.01). Baseline HDL-cholesterol increased significantly (P<0.01) whilst LDL- and total-cholesterol were significantly reduced (pre-total cholesterol: 5.13 (4.53, 5.93) vs post-total cholesterol: 4.70 (4.01, 5.14); pre-LDL cholesterol: 3.56 (3.07, 4.06) vs post-LDL cholesterol: 2.81 (2.34, 3.56), P<0.05). The findings also showed significant changes in the effects of high-fat meal intake on the metabolic profile pre- and post-diet intervention. At 4 h post-prandially, post-dietary intervention, HDL-cholesterol was 16.6% higher than pre-diet (P<0.05), whilst LDL- and total-cholesterol were 24.2 and 12% lower, respectively, than at the 4 h equivalent pre-diet (P<0.05). These findings suggest that lipid mediators associated with increased cardiometabolic risk can be quickly reversed as a result of a balanced diet, in T2DM subjects without substantial weight loss. As a result, the body is able to cope with the occasional high-fat meal insult, whilst still maintaining a reduced long-term CVD risk. As such, this is a diet that patients with T2DM may be able to adhere to more successfully, longer-term.
    • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels differ between week and weekend ways in British preschool children

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI AG, 2019-09-12)
      Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend days for UK preschool children, using objective measurements. One hundred and eighty-five preschool children (99 boys, 86 girls, aged 4–5 years), from central England wore a triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv) for 4 days to determine PA. The time (min) and percentage (%) of time spent in light, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was determined using specific cut-points for counts per minute related to 3–5 year olds. Of the sample, none of the children met the UK recommended 180 min or more of PA per day. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the amount of time that preschool children spent in sedentary behaviours on weekdays (91.9%) compared to weekend days (96.9%). During weekdays and weekend days, 6.3% and 2.0% of time was spent in MVPA, respectively. Therefore, a substantial proportion of British preschool children’s day is spent in sedentary behaviours, with less MVPA accrued during the weekend. Regular engagement during the weekdays provides opportunities to accrue PA, which may not be present on weekend days.
    • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels, fundamental movement skills and weight status in British preschool children from a deprived area

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (Springer, 2019-04-26)
      Preschool children are recommended to participate in a minimum of 180-min physical activity (PA) per day to enhance their development and overall health. Low PA and increased obesity are thought to be linked to low mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) in preschool children. This study sought to investigate whether FMS influences PA levels and weight status in preschool children, in an area of low socioeconomic status. Secondary aims of this study were to determine whether gender or day of the week affected the primary outcomes. One hundred eighty-five preschool children aged 3–4 years old, participated in the study. FMS proficiency was determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. PA was determined using triaxial accelerometry over a 4-day period. None of the samples met the recommended 180 min of PA. There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium or low FMS mastery (P < 0.05). There were also no significant correlations between overall FMS and moderate to vigorous PA during the week or weekend days. Conclusion: Girls scored significantly greater at the hop, leap, and skip (locomotor skills) and the boys significantly higher at the kick (object control) (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium, or low FMS mastery, possibly because FMS mastery had not developed to a high enough level to affect PA and FMS are considered independent of physical fitness and physical features, such as weight and height.
    • Active recovery of the finger flexors enhances intermittent handgrip performance in rock climbers

      Baláš, Jiří; Michailov, Michail; Giles, David; Kodejška, Jan; Panáčková, Michaela; Fryer, Simon; The University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-12-19)
      This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effect of hand shaking during recovery phases of intermittent testing on the time–force characteristics of performance and muscle oxygenation, and (2) assess inter-individual variability in the time to achieve the target force during intermittent testing in rock climbers. Twenty-two participants undertook three finger flexor endurance tests at 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction until failure. Performances of a sustained contraction and two intermittent contractions, each with different recovery strategies, were analysed by time–force parameters and near-infrared spectroscopy. Recovery with shaking of the forearm beside the body led to a significantly greater intermittent test time (↑ 22%, P < .05), force–time integral (↑ 28%, P < .05) and faster muscle re-oxygenation (↑ 32%, P < .05), when compared to the hand over hold condition. Further, the ratio of intermittent to continuous test time distinguished specific aerobic muscular adaptations among sport climbers (2.02), boulderers (1.74) and lower grade climbers (1.25). Lower grade climbers and boulderers produced shorter duration contractions due to the slower development of target force during the intermittent test, indicating worse kinaesthetic differentiation. Both the type of recovery and climbing discipline determined muscle re-oxygenation and intermittent performance in rock climbers.
    • Active recovery strategy and lactate clearance in elite swimmers.

      Faghy, Mark; Lomax, Mitch; Brown, Peter I; Human Science Research Centre; University of Portsmouth; English Institute of Sport (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2018-11-21)
      Swimming requires sustained high performance, with limited recovery between heats, recovery strategies are essential to performance but are often self-regulated and sub- optimal. Accordingly, we investigated a physiologically determined recovery protocol.
    • ADHD: Is there an app for that? A suitability assessment of apps for the parents of children and young people with ADHD

      Powell, Lauren; Parker, Jack; Harpin, Valerie; University of Sheffield; Sheffield Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ryegate Children's Centre (JMIR Publications Inc., 2017-10-13)
      Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly comorbid disorder that can impact significantly on the individual and their family. ADHD is managed via pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. Parents also gain support from parent support groups, which may include chat rooms, as well as face-to-face meetings. With the growth of technology use over recent years, parents have access to more resources that ever before. A number of mobile apps have been developed to help parents manage ADHD in their children and young people. Unfortunately many of these apps are not evidence-based, and little is known of their suitability for the parents or whether they are helpful in ADHD management. The aim of this study was to explore the (1) parents’ views of the suitability of the top ten listed apps for parents of children and young people with ADHD and (2) the views of clinicians that work with them on the suitability and value of the apps. The top 10 listed apps specifically targeted toward the parents of children and young people with ADHD were identified via the Google Play (n=5) and iTunes store (n=5). Interviews were then undertaken with 7 parents of children or young people with ADHD and 6 clinicians who specialize in working with this population to explore their opinions of the 10 apps identified and what they believe the key components are for apps to be suitable and valuable for this population. Four themes emerged from clinician and parent interviews: (1) the importance of relating to the app, (2) apps that address ADHD-related difficulties, (3) how the apps can affect family relationships, and (4) apps as an educational tool. Two additional themes emerged from the clinician interviews alone: monitoring ADHD symptoms and that apps should be practical. Parents also identified an additional theme: the importance of the technology. Overall, the characteristics of the current top 10 listed apps did not appear to match well to the views of our sample. Findings suggest that these apps may not fully meet the complex needs of this parent population. Further research is required to explore the value of apps with this population and how they can be tailored to their very specific needs.
    • Affective priming of perceived environmental restorativeness

      Stevens, Paul; The Open University (2013)
      Research into the perceived restorativeness of a given environment has tended to focus on the principles of the Kaplans' Attention Restoration Theory at the expense of the affective considerations of Ulrich's psychoevolutionary model. To better understand the role of emotion, this experiment used contextual text-based primers to manipulate participants' affective state (positive or negative) prior to asking them to rate different environments using the Restorative Components Scale. Sixty-nine participants completed the web-based study, being pseudo-randomly allocated to either the positive- or negative-affect group and then rating three natural and three urban environments. Both groups rated natural environments as more restorative than urban ones, with negative-primed participants tending to give higher mean ratings for all environments. This effect was statistically significant for both the Being Away and Fascination components of perceived restorativeness for all environments, but only Fascination showed a significant interaction of the prior affective state with type of environment, a bigger effect being seen for the nature environments. Results are discussed in terms of current understanding of the interrelationship between attentional and affective processes
    • Age-related shifts in bacterial diversity in a reef coral

      Williams, Alex D.; Putchim, Lalita; Brown, Barbara E.; Sweet, Michael J.; University of Derby (Public Library of Science, 2015-12-23)
      This study investigated the relationship between microbial communities in differently sized colonies of the massive coral Coelastrea aspera at Phuket, Thailand where colony size could be used as a proxy for age. Results indicated significant differences between the bacterial diversity (ANOSIM, R = 0.76, p = 0.001) of differently sized colonies from the same intertidal reef habitat. Juvenile and small colonies (28 cm mean diam). Bacterial diversity increased in a step-wise pattern from juvenilessmallmedium colonies, which was then followed by a slight decrease in the two largest size classes. These changes appear to resemble a successional process which occurs over time, similar to that observed in the ageing human gut. Furthermore, the dominant bacterial ribotypes present in the tissues of medium and large sized colonies of C. aspera, (such as Halomicronema, an Oscillospira and an unidentified cyanobacterium) were also the dominant ribotypes found within the endolithic algal band of the coral skeleton; a result providing some support for the hypothesis that the endolithic algae of corals may directly influence the bacterial community present in coral tissues.
    • Alterations in autonomic cardiac modulation in response to normobaric hypoxia

      Giles, David; Kelly, John; Draper, Nick; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016)
      Purpose: The present study aimed to determine if autonomic cardiac modulation was influenced by acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia. Method: Ten healthy male lowland dwellers completed five block-randomised single-blinded, crossed-over acute exposures to a normobaric hypoxic environment, each separated by 24 hours’ recovery (20.3%, 17.4%, 14.5%, 12.0% and 9.8% FIO2). Supine recordings were made of arterial oxygen saturation and electrocardiogram (ECG). RR intervals from the ECG trace were analysed for time (SDNN, lnRMSSD), frequency (lnVLF, lnLF, lnHF, lnTP, LFnu, and HFnu), and nonlinear (DFA-α1 and SampEn) heart rate variability components. Results: A significant reduction in arterial SaO2 occurred with reduced FIO2, along with a rise in heart rate (Cohen’s d = 1.16, 95% Confidence Interval [2.64–6.46]), significant at 9.8% FIO2. A decrease in autonomic cardiac modulation was also found as shown by a statistically significant (at 9.8% FIO2) decrease in lnTP (d = 1.84 [1.74–1.94]), and SampEn (d = 0.98 [0.83–1.12]) and an increase in DFA-α1 (d = 0.72 [0.60–0.84]) from normoxia at 9.8% FIO2. Conclusion: The decrease in variability indicated a reduction in autonomic cardiac modulation. There appears to be a threshold ∼9.8% FIO2 (∼6000 m equiv.), below which significant alterations in autonomic control occur.
    • Ambiguity, manageability and the orchestration of organisational change: a case study of an English Premier League Academy Manager

      Gibson, Luke; Groom, Ryan; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor Francis, 2017-04-19)
      An academy is an organisational context operated by professional football clubs, governed by the rules of the English Football Association and the English Premier League. Academies provide coaching and education for youth football players aged from under 9 to under 21. The Academy Manager is responsible for the strategic leadership and operation of the club’s academy. This includes implementing the club’s philosophy, coaching and games programme, player education, and the management of academy staff. The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Simon [pseudonym], an English Premier League Academy Manager, when implementing organisational change within an academy. Data were collected from a work-based diary and four in-depth semi-structured interviews. The notion of orchestration is used as an analytical frame to make sense of Simon’s experiences through the change process and further our understanding of the social complexities of organisational change in elite sporting environments.
    • An analysis of the presentation of art in the British primary school curriculum and its implications for teaching

      Hallam, Jenny; Lee, Helen A. N.; Gupta, Mani Das; Staffordshire Unviersity (Wiley, 2007)
      This paper presents an analysis of the way art is conceptualised in the British Primary School curriculum and provides an historical framework that maps an evolution of ideas that have shaped the way art is presented in the modern day Primary curriculum. In order to achieve this a Foucauldian style genealogical analysis is utilised to trace the discourses (systems of meaning) surrounding the nature of children’s artistic development and how these discourses are used in the present day British Primary Curriculum to construe art in different ways. The analysis in this paper is threefold. It explores the presentation of art in the curriculum as (i) an expressive subject, (ii) a skills based subject, (iii) a subject which focuses on art history and art appreciation. Second the teaching positions associated with each approach are identified as follows (a) the facilitator, (b) the expert and (c) the philosopher; as well as the issues teachers face when adopting these positions. Third, attention is given to how these theoretical principles might be linked to practice. In so doing this paper contributes to the debate surrounding the value of art in the Primary curriculum and the way in which the curriculum serves to shape teaching practice.
    • The antibacterial potency of the medicinal maggot, Lucilia sericata (Meigen): Variation in laboratory evaluation

      Barnes, Kate M.; Dixon, Ron A.; Gennard, Dorothy E.; University of Lincoln (Elsevier, 2010-09)
      Research to quantify the potency of larval excretion/secretion from Lucilia sericata using liquid culture assays has produced contradictory results. In this study, viable counting was used to investigate the effectiveness of excretion/secretion against three marker bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli) and the effects of varying growing conditions in assays. Results demonstrate that factors such as number of larvae, species of bacteria and addition of nutrient influence its antibacterial potency. Therefore a standardised method should be employed for liquid culture assays when investigating the antibacterial activity of larval excretion/secretion from L. sericata.
    • Anxiety and fear in sport and performance

      Zhang, Shuge; Woodman, Tim; Roberts, Ross; Bangor University (Oxford University Press, 2018-12)
      Anxiety and fear are unpleasant emotions commonly experienced in sport and performance settings. While fear usually has an apparent cause, the source of anxiety is comparatively vague and complex. Anxiety has cognitive and somatic components and can be either a trait or a state. To assess the different aspects of anxiety, a variety of psychometric scales have been developed in sport and performance domains. Besides efforts to quantify anxiety, a major focus in the anxiety-performance literature has been to explore the impact of anxiety on performance and why such effects occur. Anxiety-performance theories and models have increased the understanding of how anxiety affects performance and have helped to explain why anxiety is widely considered a negative emotion that individuals typically seek to avoid in performance settings. Nonetheless, individuals approach anxiety-inducing or fear-provoking situations in different ways. For example, high-risk sport research shows that individuals can actively approach fear-inducing environments in order to glean intra- and interpersonal regulatory benefits. Such individual differences are particularly relevant to sport and performance researchers and practitioners, as those who actively approach competition to enjoy the fear-inducing environment (i.e., the “risk”) are likely to have a performance advantage over those who compete while having to cope with their troublesome anxiety and fear. Future research would do well to: (1) examine the effects of anxiety on the processes that underpin performance rather than a sole focus on the performance outcomes, (2) test directly the different cognitive functions that are thought to be impaired when performing under anxiety, (3) unite the existing theories to understand a “whole picture” of how anxiety influences performance, and (4) explore the largely overlooked field of individual differences in the context of performance psychology.
    • Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on carrion, a note of the behaviour and a review of the literature.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; Dye, Alex; University of Derby; Rothamsted Research (Andrew Smith Print Ltd., 2017-11-25)
      The Honeybee Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) traditionally feeds on the nectar of flowers (Núñez, 1977). A number of workers of A. mellifera were observed on whole pig carrion in woodland in Riseholme Lincoln (Grid reference SK978754) on 10 of October 2017. This paper aims to look at this odd behaviour in context of the literature.
    • Apparitions of Black Dogs.

      Sherwood, Simon J.; University of Northampton, Centre for the Study of Anomalous Psychological Processes (CSAPP) (McFarland, 2010)
    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal community structure on co-existing tropical legume trees in French Guiana

      Brearley, Francis Q.; Elliott, David R.; Iribar, Amaia; Sen, Robin; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural SciencesUniversity of Derby (Springer, 2016-02-10)
      Aims We aimed to characterise the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure and potential edaphic determinants in the dominating, but poorly described, root-colonizing Paris-type AMF community on co-occurring Amazonian leguminous trees. Methods Three highly productive leguminous trees (Dicorynia guianensis, Eperua falcata and Tachigali melinonii were targeted) in species-rich forests on contrasting soil types at the Nouragues Research Station in central French Guiana. Abundant AMF SSU rRNA amplicons (NS31-AM1 & AML1-AML2 primers) from roots identified via trnL profiling were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone library sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results Classical approaches targeting abundant SSU amplicons highlighted a diverse root-colonizing symbiotic AMF community dominated by members of the Glomeraceae. DGGE profiling indicated that, of the edaphic factors investigated, soil nitrogen was most important in influencing the AMF community and this was more important than any host tree species effect. Conclusions Dominating Paris-type mycorrhizal leguminous trees in Amazonian soils host diverse and novel taxa within the Glomeraceae that appear under edaphic selection in the investigated tropical forests. Linking symbiotic diversity of identified AMF taxa to ecological processes is the next challenge ahead.
    • Are intervention-design characteristics more predictive than baseline participant characteristics on participant attendance to a paediatric, community weight management programme?

      Nobles, J; Gately, P; Griffiths, C; Pringle, Andy; Leeds Beckett University (2015-05)
      Approximately 50% of participants complete a paediatric weight management programme, yet the predictors of attendance and dropout are inconsistent. This study investigates subject and intervention-design characteristics associated with attendance at a group based, family weight management programme. Secondary data analysis of 2948 subjects (Age 10.4±2.8 years, BMI 26.0±5.7kg/m2, Standardised BMI (BMI SDS) 2.48±0.87, White 70.3%) from 244 MoreLife (UK) programmes. Subjects attend weekly for 10-12 weeks, sessions last 2-3 hours. Sessions include lifestyle guidance and physical activity. Subject characteristics (demographics, psychological (body satisfaction & self-esteem) and sedentary behaviour) were gathered at first contact and BMI SDS was noted weekly. Intervention-design characteristics were recorded (year, length (weeks), group size, age segregation and day of session). Attendance was calculated as total number of sessions attended (%). Multivariate linear regression examined predictors of attendance and multiple imputation countered missing data. Average attendance was 59.4%±29.3%. Baseline subject characteristics were ‘poor’ predictors of attendance. Intervention year, group size and day of session significantly predicted attendance (Tables 1 & 2). Yet, the most predictive marker of attendance was a change in BMI SDS during the programme (B = -0.38, 95% CI = -0.43 - -0.33). A reduction in BMI was seen to predict greater attendance. However, baseline subject characteristics were weakly associated with attendance, refuting past findings. Dominant intervention characteristics (large groups, weekend sessions and recent delivery) predicted lower attendance. Future programmes may be better informed.
    • Are intervention-design characteristics more predictive than baseline participant characteristics on participant attendance to a paediatric, community weight management programme?

      Nobles, J; Gately, P; Griffiths, C; Pringle, Andy; Leeds Beckett University (2015-05)
      Approximately 50% of participants complete a paediatric weight management programme, yet the predictors of attendance and dropout are inconsistent. This study investigates subject and intervention-design characteristics associated with attendance at a group based, family weight management programme. Secondary data analysis of 2948 subjects (Age 10.4±2.8 years, BMI 26.0±5.7kg/m2, Standardised BMI (BMI SDS) 2.48±0.87, White 70.3%) from 244 MoreLife (UK) programmes. Subjects attend weekly for 10-12 weeks, sessions last 2-3 hours. Sessions include lifestyle guidance and physical activity. Subject characteristics (demographics, psychological (body satisfaction & self-esteem) and sedentary behaviour) were gathered at first contact and BMI SDS was noted weekly. Intervention-design characteristics were recorded (year, length (weeks), group size, age segregation and day of session). Attendance was calculated as total number of sessions attended (%). Multivariate linear regression examined predictors of attendance and multiple imputation countered missing data. RESULTS: Average attendance was 59.4%±29.3%. Baseline subject characteristics were ‘poor’ predictors of attendance. Intervention year, group size and day of session significantly predicted attendance (Tables 1 & 2). Yet, the most predictive marker of attendance was a change in BMI SDS during the programme (B = -0.38, 95% CI = -0.43 - -0.33). A reduction in BMI was seen to predict greater attendance. However, baseline subject characteristics were weakly associated with attendance, refuting past findings. Dominant intervention characteristics (large groups, weekend sessions and recent delivery) predicted lower attendance. Future programmes may be better informed.
    • Arthropod-microbe interactions on vertebrate remains: Potential applications in the forensic sciences.

      Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Benbow, M. Eric; Barnes, Kate M.; Jordan, Heather R.; Texas A&M University; Michigan State University; University of Derby; Mississippi State University (John Wiley and Sons, 2017-04-08)
      Understanding the process of insect colonization of human remains is a core area of research by forensic entomologists, with several recent studies suggesting that microbial communities influence the process and timing of colonization. Such information is crucial for determining when colonization occurred as related to the postmortem interval (PMI). This chapter reviews the basic field of forensic entomology; the phases of insect behavior associated with their detection, location, and utilization of the remains as postulated by Matuszewski (Matuszewski, S. (2011) Estimating the pre-appearance interval from temperature in Necrodes littoralis L. (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Forensic Science International, 212, 180–188) and Tomberlin et al. (Tomberlin, J. K., R. Mohr, M. E. Benbow, et al. 2011. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology. Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 401–421.); and how microbes play a key role mediating this process. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential future directions related to microbe–insect interactions in association with vertebrate remains decomposition, and this is potentially important to forensics.
    • Assessing the impact of football-based health improvement programmes: stay onside, avoid own goals and score with the evaluation!

      Pringle, Andy; Hargreaves, Jackie; Lozano, Lorena; McKenna, Jim; Zwolinsky, Stephen; Leeds Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis, 2014-05-30)
      Health improvement is an important strand of the Premier League’s ‘Creating Chances’ strategy. Through community programmes, professional football clubs offer health-enhancing interventions for a number of different priority groups at risk from a range of lifestyle-related health conditions. However, while national guidance recommends evaluating health improvement interventions, concerns remain about how to do this most effectively. This study aims to investigate the popularity of football-based health improvement schemes and assess the challenges associated with their evaluation. Adapted from existing methodologies, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to an ‘expert’ sample (n = 3) of football-led health evaluators. The sample was selected because of their experience and knowledge of performing evaluations of football-led health improvement programmes. Our ‘experts’ offered reasons for the popularity of football settings as channels for health improvement (including the reach of the club badge and the popularity of football), the justification for evaluating such schemes (including confirming effectiveness and efficiency) and the challenges of implementing evaluations (capacity, commitment and capability). Finally, a selection of key considerations for the evaluation of the impact of football-led health improvement programmes (obtaining expert guidance, building capacity and planning for evaluations) are discussed.