• Vitamin B12 insufficiency induces cholesterol biosynthesis by limiting s-adenosylmethionine and modulating the methylation of SREBF1 and LDLR genes

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Finer, S; Voyias, P.D; McCarthy, C.M; Vatish, M; Moore, J; Smart-Halajko, M; Bawazeer, N; Al-Daghri, N.M; McTernan, P.G; et al. (BMC, 27/02/2015)
      The dietary supply of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, betaine, methionine, and choline is essential for normal growth, development, and physiological functions through the life course. Both human and animal studies have shown that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with altered lipid profile and play an important role in the prediction of metabolic risk, however, as of yet, no direct mechanism has been investigated to confirm this.
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with adverse lipid profile in Europeans and Indians with type 2 diabetes.

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Jayashri, R; Sukumar, N; Venkataraman, H; Pradeepa, R; Gokulakrishnan, K; Anjana, R.M; McTernan, P.G; Tripathi, G; Patel, V; et al. (BMC, 26/09/2014)
      Metformin, a standard therapy in type 2 diabetes, reduces vitamin B12 levels. Studies linking low vitamin B12 levels and cardiovascular disease are equivocal and suggest improving B12 levels may help in primary prevention. The role of vitamin B12 deficiency on cardiovascular risk factors, especially in type 2 diabetes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in two different ethnic groups in UK and India. Type 2 diabetes patients from two secondary care diabetic centres (Europeans - UK and Indians - India) were studied. Serum vitamin B12, folate and biochemical parameters were measured. The prevalence rates of vitamin B12 deficiency (<191 ng/L) were 27% and 12% in Europeans and Indians, respectively and higher in metformin treated type 2 diabetes patients. In linear regression analysis, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors, vitamin B12 independently associated with triglycerides in both the populations and cholesterol/HDL ratio in Indians. Logistic regression showed type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin B12 deficiency were at significantly higher odds of having coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD) in Europeans with similar but non-significant trend in Indians, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is common in type 2 diabetes patients and is associated with adverse lipid parameters. Type 2 diabetes management guidelines should include the recommendation for regular testing for B12 levels, especially for those on metformin.
    • PWE-254 Is the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) around colorectal cancer really ‘normal’?

      Patel, A; Fang, Y; Moore, J; Williams, N; Tripathi, G; Arasaradnam, R; University of Westminster (BMJ, 22/06/2015)
      Field cancerisation refers to the process whereby cells acquire pro-tumourigenic mutations that predispose to malignant transformation but do not produce morphological change.1Previous colorectal cancer studies have assumed that the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) adjacent to a cancer is biologically unaltered. The aim of this study was to determine if the genetic expression profile of the MNM around a cancer or adenoma is different to that found in healthy controls. 15 patients undergoing colonoscopy were recruited over 12 months; 5 healthy controls, 5 with colorectal adenomas and 5 with adenocarcinoma. Two mucosal pinch biopsies were taken in the rectum, right colon and adjacent to polyp or cancer. mRNA was extracted and gene expression was assessed using standard whole genome micro-array analysis. Differentially expressed genes were identified using three methods of analysis: LIMMA (fold change ratio >1.5 and p value <0.05), Robust Regression (RR) (adjusted p value <0.05) and genes that ‘overlap’ when LIMMA (p value <0.001) and RR (adjusted p value <0.1) are used. Functional analysis was performed using DAVID2software to identify important biological processes that were dysregulated. A large number of genes were dysregulated in the MNM adjacent to cancer or adenoma compared with controls (Table 1). Interestingly, the greatest differences were seen between MNM adjacent to cancer and polyp in chromatin organisation, nucleosome processing, nuclear transport and histone assembly. The most significantly upregulated genes consisted of FUT2, CTSA, MUC2 and SDS and downregulated genes consisted of GREM1, SFRP, HIST1H, IL17B and TFF1.
    • Habitual physical activity is associated with circulating irisin in healthy controls but not in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2

      Al‐Daghri, N.M; Alokail, M.S; Rahman, S; Amer, O.E; Al‐Attas, O.S; Alfawaz, H; Tripathi, G; Sabico, S.; Chrousos, G.P; McTernan, P.G; et al. (Wiley, 22/05/2015)
      Irisin, a novel myokine, has been shown to increase following vigorous exercise, with studies suggesting that it mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise. Irisin might play a role in ‘browning’ of white adipocytes, thus increasing energy expenditure. The role of irisin in exercise and energy expenditure in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating irisin and habitual physical activity in subjects with and without DMT2. In this cross‐sectional study, 164 Saudi adults: 81 non‐DMT2 controls [age: (mean ± SD) 51·6 ± 10·9; BMI: 29·6 ± 4·3 kg/m2] and 83 DMT2 subjects [age: 54·3 ± 10·3 year; BMI: 29·4 ± 4·7 kg/m2] were studied. Anthropometric and fasting serum biochemical data were collected. Circulating irisin was measured using an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Frequency intensity time (FIT) index was used to assess the level of habitual physical activity. We observed significantly higher levels of irisin in DMT2 subjects than in controls (P < 0·001). FIT index was positively associated (r = 0·20, P = 0·03) with circulating irisin in controls only. Additionally, irisin levels were significantly higher in tertile 3 (0·75 ± 0·07 μg/mL) than tertile 1 (0·49 ± 0·06 μg/mL) of the FIT index in healthy controls, whilst no such relation with physical activity was observed in DMT2 subjects. This cross‐sectional study has shown a weak association of irisin with physical activity levels in healthy controls but not in DMT2 subjects, suggesting the possibility of discordant regulation in the condition of DMT2.
    • Telmisartan reverses antiretroviral-induced adipocyte toxicity and insulin resistance in vitro

      Pushpakom, S.P; Adaikalakoteswari, A; Owen, A; Back, D.J; Tripathi, G; Kumar, S; McTernan, P; Pirmohamed, M; University of Warwick (Sage, 21/02/2018)
      Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients leads to insulin resistance which is central to the pathogenesis of various metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease seen in this patient group. We have investigated the dose–response relationship of telmisartan, an antihypertensive, on adipocytes in vitro in order to determine whether it may have metabolic beneficial effects. Using in vitro chronic toxicity models (3T3-F442A murine and primary human adipocytes), we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of telmisartan on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic gene expression using lipid accumulation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Adipokine secretion and expression of insulin signalling mediators were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Telmisartan partially reversed the deleterious effects of antiretrovirals on adipocyte lipid accumulation, expression of adipogenic regulators (peroxisome proliferator receptor-gamma and lipin 1), adipokine secretion and expression of the insulin signalling mediator pAktSer473. The metabolic effects of telmisartan followed a non-monotonic response with the maximal effect observed at 5 µM in the primary human adipocyte model. Telmisartan has beneficial metabolic effects in adipocytes in vitro, but its potential to reduce antiretroviral-induced cardiometabolic disease in HIV-infected individuals needs to be evaluated in a well-designed adequately powered clinical trial.
    • Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the COVID-19 endemic phase

      Faghy, Mark A.; Hull, James; Cooper, Brendan; Sylvester, Karl; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-11)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has presented significant challenges to healthcare systems across the world. The substantial need to provide acute COVID-19-related care resulted in non-COVID-19 care being immediately curtailed, with significant implications for the provision of normal or ‘routine’ healthcare. As the pressure from acute COVID-19 care begins to regress, it is timely to consider how certain services, including those undertaking physiological measurements, will re-open and how they will function within the constraints dictated by a COVID-19 endemic working environment. Over the past decade, there has been evolving recognition of the importance and value of clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) within healthcare settings.1 Primarily, CPET is used to evaluate the integrative response to incremental exercise, enabling clinicians to characterise cardiorespiratory fitness and reasons for physical impairment. 2 It is recognised that CPET plays an important role in clinical arenas including determining surgical operability and evaluating the risk of perioperative death and postoperative complications.3 It also has a function in supporting pre-operative planning algorithms,4 as well as developing management strategies for pathological conditions (e.g. heart failure)5 and in disease prognostication (e.g. pulmonary hypertension).6 Whilst there is considerable uncertainty regarding the ability to safely undertake CPET at the current time, it remains an integral investigative tool in clinical practice and urgent consideration needs to be given to determine how best to deliver CPET services in the COVID-19 endemic phase.
    • The visual search strategies underpinning effective observational analysis in the coaching of climbing movement

      Mitchell, James; Maratos, Frances, A; Giles, David; Taylor, Nicola; Butterworth, Andrew; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Lattice Training Ltd., Chesterfield (Frontiers, 2020-05-28)
      Despite the importance of effective observational analysis in coaching the technical aspects of climbing performance, limited research informs this aspect of climbing coach education. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to explore the feasibility and the utility of a novel methodology, combining eye tracking technology and cued retrospective think-aloud (RTA), to capture the cognitive–perceptual mechanisms that underpin the visual search behaviors of climbing coaches. An analysis of gaze data revealed that expert climbing coaches demonstrate fewer fixations of greater duration and fixate on distinctly different areas of the visual display than their novice counterparts. Cued RTA further demonstrated differences in the cognitive–perceptual mechanisms underpinning these visual search strategies, with expert coaches being more cognizant of their visual search strategy. To expand, the gaze behavior of expert climbing coaches was underpinned by hierarchical and complex knowledge structures relating to the principles of climbing movement. This enabled the expert coaches to actively focus on the most relevant aspects of a climber’s performance for analysis. The findings demonstrate the utility of combining eye tracking and cued RTA interviewing as a new, efficient methodology of capturing the cognitive–perceptual processes of climbing coaches to inform coaching education/strategies.
    • Development and psychometric evaluation of the Birmingham Relationship Continuity Measure for acquired brain injury

      Yasmin, Natasha; Keeble, Hayley; Riley, Gerard; University of Birmingham (Taylor and Francis, 2020-05-23)
      Relationship continuity/discontinuity refers to whether a spouse/partner experiences their current relationship with someone with an acquired brain injury (ABI) as a continuation of their loving pre-injury relationship or as radically changed. The aim of this study was to adapt a questionnaire measure of continuity/discontinuity from dementia research for use in an ABI context and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this adaptation. The questionnaire was adapted in response to feedback from a focus group of ABI caregivers. Its psychometric properties were then evaluated in two studies involving partners of people with ABI. The measure showed high internal consistency (alpha = .956 in Study 1 and .963 in Study 2), test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation = .960 in Study 1) and discriminative power (Ferguson’s delta = .975 in Study 1 and .963 in Study 2). Evidence of construct validity was provided by a predicted pattern of correlations with other relationship questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis suggested that the questionnaire is unidimensional. A valid and reliable quantitative measure of relationship continuity/discontinuity will enable more robust evaluation of suggestions about this construct that have been made in qualitative studies (e.g. that discontinuity is associated with a greater sense of caregiver burden).
    • Tunicamycin-induced Endoplasmic Reticulum stress mediates mitochondrial dysfunction in human adipocytes.

      Jackisch, Laura; Murphy, Alice M; Kumar, Sudhesh; Randeva, Harpal; Tripathi, Gyanendra; McTernan, Philip G; University of Warwick; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2020-05-15)
      Dysfunctional ER and mitochondria are known to contribute to the pathology of metabolic disease. This damage may occur, in part, as a consequence of ER-mitochondria cross-talk in conditions of nutrient excess such as obesity. To date insight into this dynamic relationship has not been characterised in adipose tissue. Therefore, this study investigated whether ER stress contributes to the development of mitochondrial inefficiency in human adipocytes from lean and obese participants. Human differentiated adipocytes from Chub-S7 cell line and primary abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from lean and obese participants were treated with tunicamycin to induce ER stress. Key parameters of mitochondrial function were assessed, including mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential (MMP) and dynamics. ER stress led to increased respiratory capacity in a model adipocyte system (Chub-S7 adipocytes) in a concentration and time dependent manner (24hr: 23%↑; 48hr: 68%↑, (p<0.001); 72hr: 136%↑, (p<0.001)). This corresponded with mitochondrial inefficiency and diminished MMP, highlighting the formation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Morphological analysis revealed reorganisation of mitochondrial network, specifically mitochondrial fragmentation. Furthermore, p-DRP1, a key protein in fission, significantly increased (p<0.001). Additionally, adipocytes from obese subjects displayed lower basal respiration (49%↓, p<0.01) and were unresponsive to tunicamycin in contrast to their lean counterparts, demonstrating inefficient mitochondrial oxidative capacity. These human data suggest that adipocyte mitochondrial inefficiency is driven by ER stress and exacerbated in obesity. Nutrient excess induced ER stress leads to mitochondrial dysfunction that may therefore shift lipid deposition ectopically and thus have further implications on the development of related metabolic disorders.
    • Calibration and cross-validation of accelerometery for estimating movement skills in children aged 8–12 years

      Duncan, MJ; Dobell, A; Noon, M; Clark, CT; Roscoe, CMP; Stodden, D; Sacko, R; Eyre, ELJ; Faghy, Mark; Coventry University; et al. (MDPI, 2020-05-13)
      This study sought to calibrate triaxial accelerometery, worn on both wrists, waist and both ankles, during children’s physical activity (PA), with particular attention to object control motor skills performed at a fast and slow cadence, and to cross-validate the accelerometer cut-points derived from the calibration using an independent dataset. Twenty boys (10.1 ±1.5 years) undertook seven, five-minute bouts of activity lying supine, standing, running (4.5kmph−1) instep passing a football (fast and slow cadence), dribbling a football (fast and slow cadence), whilst wearing five GENEActiv accelerometers on their non-dominant and dominant wrists and ankles and waist. VO2 was assessed concurrently using indirect calorimetry. ROC curve analysis was used to generate cut-points representing sedentary, light and moderate PA. The cut-points were then cross-validated using independent data from 30 children (9.4 ± 1.4 years), who had undertaken similar activities whilst wearing accelerometers and being assessed for VO2. GENEActiv monitors were able to discriminate sedentary activity to an excellent level irrespective of wear location. For moderate PA, discrimination of activity was considered good for monitors placed on the dominant wrist, waist, non-dominant and dominant ankles but fair for the non-dominant wrist. Applying the cut-points to the cross-validation sample indicated that cut-points validated in the calibration were able to successfully discriminate sedentary behaviour and moderate PA to an excellent standard and light PA to a fair standard. Cut-points derived from this calibration demonstrate an excellent ability to discriminate children’s sedentary behaviour and moderate intensity PA comprising motor skill activity.
    • The use and perceived value of telestration tools in elite football

      Jones, Dylan; Rands, Steve; Butterworth, Andrew; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-04-30)
      The proliferation of technology allowing performance analysis practices to become more efficient and effective has grown rapidly in recent years. One such tool that has become widespread amongst elite football clubs is the use of telestration software which allow annotations to be drawn over video footage to illustrate key tactical, technical, physiological or psychological facets in an interactive manner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use and application of telestration tools in elite football. A descriptive research approach was employed, using detailed questionnaires to gain the views and perceptions of elite analysts, coaches and players. Findings confirm the widespread use of telestration tools in elite football with 93% of respondents stating that it is “essential-very important” to their practice. In particular, telestration is found to play an integral role in oppositional analysis, especially when introducing key tactical information in pre-match meetings. Numerous barriers associated with the use of telestration were also uncovered in this novel, contemporary research which may help set the foundations for further research into telestration tools in sports not limited to football.
    • Evaluating Interventions

      Pringle, Andy; Kime, Nicky; Lozano, Lorena; Zwolinsky, Stephen; Bradford Royal Infirmary; Leeds Beckett University; West Yorkshire and Harrogate Cancer Alliance (Routledge, 2020-04-22)
      Physical inactivity has been described as a global pandemic (Andersen, Mota, & DiPetro, 2016; Tremblay et al., 2017, World Health Organisation, 2018). It is then unsurprising that bold societal and government action has been recommended to make physical activity opportunities, such as sport and exercise, desirable and accessible for all groups (Ding et al., 2016, Reis et al., 2016). Indeed, policy and initiatives have highlighted the need for investigations into both the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community physical activity interventions (e.g., Canada Chief Medical Officer, 2016; National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, 2014; UK Chief Medical Officers’, 2019; World Health Organisation, 2018). The importance of evaluating the impact and the implementation of physical activity and public health interventions is also reported in the literature (Dunton, 2018, Mansfield 2018, Pringle, McKenna & Zwolinsky, 2018), yet putting this into practice can sometimes be challenging (Dugdill and Stratton, 2007, Department of Health, 2007, Pringle et al., 2018). Guidance is available on evaluation (Centre for Disease Control, 1999, Dugdill and Stratton, 2007, Hayes et al., 2012, Medical Research Council 2006, National Obesity Observatory, 2012, Sport England, 2006), as are several useful texts on the evaluation of physical activity interventions. In this entry, the practicalities of actually ‘doing’ the evaluation of sport and exercise-led interventions, and key learning from this process, including examples of evaluating interventions that have been reported in the peer reviewed literature, are presented. Examples of the ‘good’, and ‘not so good’ are provided with key considerations at three critical time periods of the evaluation process, including planning, implementing, and disseminating which are phases that are not mutually exclusive since many of these issues cross-over within the intervention-evaluation lifespan. However, these phases are used as an organising framework for this entry.
    • The development of the Japanese version of the compassionate engagement and action scales

      Asano, Kenichi; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Masao; Ishimura, Ikuo; Lin, Shuzhen; Matsumoto, Yuki; Matos, Marcela; Basran, Jaskaran; Gilbert, Paul; Mejiro University; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2020-04-01)
      The last few years have seen increasing research on self-report measures of compassion. The Compassionate Engagement and Action Scale (CEAS) is rooted in an evolutionary approach to compassion, which focuses on the competencies of compassion those are engagement with distress or suffering, and taking action to alleviate and prevent it. This study sought to validate the CEAS in a Japanese population using a cross-sectional design. A total of 279 students (82 males, 191 females, 6 unknown) answered self-report questionnaires, including the Japanese version of CEAS. We found single-factor structures for compassion for others scales, compassion from others scales, and compassion for self scales. All scales were found to have acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, and construct validity. Even though some limitations, these results indicate that the Japanese version of CEAS is an adequately constructed and useful measure to assess compassionate engagement and action toward others, from others, and for the self with Japanese population.
    • Engaging with distress: training in the compassionate approach

      McEwan, Kirsten; Minou, Lina; Moore, Hamish; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; Wellbeing Works, UK (Wiley, 2020-03-18)
      Compassionate care involves providing a welcoming environment, promoting bidirectional compassion, providing training in compassion and creating supportive organisations. To date there has not been a study evaluating Compassion interventions for the high‐threat profession of mental health nursing. Neither has there been a study providing an in‐depth qualitative evaluation of training and implementation. The current study aims to address these gaps in the literature. The aims were to evaluate Compassionate Mind Training‐CMT for mental health nurses and to assess implementation. Focus groups were conducted (N=28) one year later to evaluate CMT and implementation. Results: Content analysis revealed four training themes: i) Useful framework; ii) Thought‐provoking and exciting; iii) Appreciation of person‐centred approach; iv) Need for ongoing training and supervision. Three implementation themes emerged: i) Applied approach with patients and staff themselves; ii) Environmental challenges to implementation; iii) Attitudinal challenges to implementation. Consistent with previous studies, professionals experienced reduced self‐criticism and an increased self‐compassion, which extended to increased compassion and reduced criticism of colleagues and patients; and professionals applying training directly to reduce patient self‐criticism. For successful implementation formal adoption of Compassion‐approaches are needed with strategic integration at all levels.
    • How prepared are healthcare professionals for delivering physical activity guidance to those with diabetes? A formative evaluation

      Kime, Nicky; Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, Stephen; Vishnubala, Dane; Bradford Institute for Health Research, Temple Bank House, Bradford Royal Infirmary; University of Derby; West Yorkshire and Harrogate Cancer Alliance; NHS Vale of York Clinical Commissioning Group (Springer Nature, 2020-03-03)
      Physical activity is recognised as important for diabetes management and improved overall health of individuals with diabetes, yet many adults with diabetes are inactive. Healthcare professionals have been identified as key to promoting physical activity, including individuals with diabetes, but are ill-prepared to deliver this. Our paper evaluates the barriers/facilitators of healthcare professionals’ delivery of physical activity guidance to adults with diabetes and aims to inform efforts to investigate and enhance their preparedness to promote physical activity. A sequential mixed method, two-phase design was adopted involving a purposeful sample of healthcare professionals. Phase one was an online pilot survey designed to test assumptions around healthcare professionals’ knowledge, training and preparedness to deliver physical activity guidance. Phase two comprised eighteen semi-structured interviews, thematically analysed to provide an in-depth exploration of healthcare professionals’ experiences of delivering physical activity guidance to adults with diabetes. Healthcare professionals are committed to promoting physical activity to adults with diabetes and are reasonably confident in giving basic, generic guidance. Yet, significant challenges prevent them from achieving this in their practice, including: lack of education and training around physical activity, diabetes and health; ignorance of recommended physical activity and diabetes guidelines; lack of awareness of referral options; limited time and accessibility to appropriate resources. Nevertheless, healthcare professionals believed discussions around physical activity needed to be an integral part of consultations, incorporating improved communication strategies for conveying key physical activity messages. HCPs have a key role in the promotion of physical activity to people with long-term conditions such as diabetes and they are identified within both the strategic policy context and national interventions for physical activity. Yet, this study indicated that HCPs face multiple and at times complex barriers to physical activity promotion generally and with diabetes patients. Conversely HCPs also reported what works, why and how, when promoting physical activity. Rich information derived from the day-to-day, working healthcare professional is integral to shaping future practices going forward. The bottom up, iterative design adopted in this study provides an approach to tap into this information.
    • Inflammation, lipid (per)oxidation, and redox regulation

      Dias, Irundika H.K.; Milic, Ivana; Heiss, Christian; Ademowo, Opeyemi S.; Polidori, Maria Cristina; Devitt, Andrew; Griffiths, Helen R.; Aston University, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK; University of Surrey; University of Cologne (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2020-02-28)
      Significance: Inflammation increases during the aging process. It is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mitochondrial macromolecules are critical targets of oxidative damage; they contribute to respiratory uncoupling with increased ROS production, redox stress, and a cycle of senescence, cytokine production, and impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Targeting the formation or accumulation of oxidized biomolecules, particularly oxidized lipids, in immune cells and mitochondria could be beneficial for age-related inflammation and comorbidities. Recent Advances: Inflammation is central to age-related decline in health and exhibits a complex relationship with mitochondrial redox state and metabolic function. Improvements in mass spectrometric methods have led to the identification of families of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs), cholesterols, and fatty acids that increase during inflammation and which modulate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), activator protein 1 (AP1), and NF-κB redox-sensitive transcription factor activity. Critical Issues: The kinetic and spatial resolution of the modified lipidome has profound and sometimes opposing effects on inflammation, promoting initiation at high concentration and resolution at low concentration of OxPLs. Future Directions: There is an emerging opportunity to prevent or delay age-related inflammation and vascular comorbidity through a resolving (oxy)lipidome that is dependent on improving mitochondrial quality control and restoring redox homeostasis.
    • Stressed, depressed, and rank obsessed: Individual differences in compassion and neuroticism predispose towards rank‐based depressive symptomatology

      Kim, Jeffrey J.; Gerrish, Ruby; Gilbert, Paul; Kirby, James N.; School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Compassionate Mind Research Group, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Centre for Compassion Research and Training, College of Health and Social Care Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Wiley, 2020-02-13)
      As social creatures, we monitor our relative rank and/or status with others via social comparisons. Whilst research has identified perceptions of inferiority or ‘low rank’ relative to others is a robust predictor of depressive, anxious, and stress symptomology, to date individual differences have been ignored. We wish to provide empirical evidence to outline how differences across personality traits may interact with social rank variables to buffer or predispose towards depressive symptomology. Across three independent samples (N = 595), we replicated a social rank model of mental health, and with our third sample (N = 200), we sought to investigate attenuating roles for neuroticism versus compassion with multiple moderated regression models. Neuroticism predicted greater levels of rank‐associated depression, and compassion failed to function as a protective factor for rank‐associated depression. However, a closer inspection of the original Big‐5 factor structure positions this scale as a measure of ‘interpersonal submissiveness’ or ‘conflict appeasement’ rather than genuine compassion. Whilst it is necessary to delineate the conditions where compassion is appropriate and able to lead to positive mental health outcomes, we argue this cannot be addressed with the Big‐5 measure of trait compassion. We call for future work to consider valid and reliable measures for compassion, such as the self‐compassion scale, submissive compassion scale, and fears of compassion scale, to more fully address how compassion may protect against both rank‐based comparisons and severity of depression. Social rank mechanisms are robustly implicated in depression, anxiety, and stress. Clients who present as higher in neuroticism, inferiority, or submissiveness may be more prone towards rank‐associated depression symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests cultivation of genuine compassion can shift clients from a rank‐focussed to a compassionate‐focussed mentality, which aids mental health and fosters well‐being.
    • Social gradients in the receipt of medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and young people in Sheffield

      Nunn, Samuel P.T.; Kritsotakis, Evangelos I.; Harpin, Val; Parker, Jack; University of Derby (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2020-02-07)
      Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity that can affect people throughout their life course. A social gradient exists in the prevalence of ADHD in the UK. Studies in other countries have shown that social gradients also exist in the receipt of medication for ADHD. Socioeconomic position is potentially an unrecognised and modifiable factor in children and young people’s receipt of medication for ADHD in the UK. Aim The aim of the study was to investigate if socioeconomic position could explain in part whether or not children and young people in Sheffield are receiving medication for ADHD. We used multivariate logistic regression modelling to investigate whether socioeconomic position could explain variation in receipt of medication for ADHD in children and young people in a cross-sectional study. We collected data from 1354 children and young people with a diagnosis of ADHD across three Sheffield centres between January and December 2016. Independent variables were age, gender, religion, ethnicity, comorbidities, and Index of Multiple Deprivation decile (derived from home postcode). Our results showed a social gradient in the receipt of medication for ADHD (P<0.01); an increase in one decile of the Index of Multiple Deprivation was associated with 10% lower odds of receipt of medication for ADHD (adjusted odds ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.84–0.97). Children and young people from more deprived backgrounds are more likely to receive medication for ADHD. This is the first time that a social gradient in children and young people’s receipt of medication for ADHD has been shown in a UK sample.
    • Clinical change in psychopathic traits after the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP program: preliminary findings of a controlled trial with male detained youth

      Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Rijo, Daniel; Salekin, Randall T.; Paulo, Marlene; Miguel, Rita; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; university of Alabama; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-02-04)
      To assess the preliminary efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP in reducing psychopathic traits among male detained youth. In this controlled trial, a treatment group (n = 24) and a control group (n = 22) answered the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short at baseline and post-treatment. Treatment participants attended the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP, in addition to the Treatment As Usual (TAU); controls only received TAU. The treatment effects were tested both at a group level (2 × 2 mixed ANOVA) and at an individual level (Reliable Change Index; RCI). ANOVAs showed medium to large effect sizes (η2p), while RCIs revealed strong to moderate effect sizes (Cramer’s V). Despite the limitations, this study offered preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the PSYCHOPATHY.COMP, suggesting that interventions targeting psychopathic traits should be considered in the rehabilitation of detained youth, as the absence of tailored interventions may increase the levels of psychopathic traits and its associated risks.
    • Cross validation of actigraph derived accelerometer cut‐points for assessment of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in children aged 8‐11 years

      Duncan, Michael J.; Eyre, Emma L.J.; Cox, Val; Roscoe, Clare M.P.; Faghy, Mark A.; Tallis, Jason; Dobell, Alexandra; Coventry University; University of Derby (Wiley, 2020-01-27)
      To cross-validate previously calibrated Actigraph cut points in children. Twenty eight children (50%boys) aged between 8 and 11 years of age (9.4 ± 1.4 years) performed a series of 5 minute bouts of activity reflective of different levels of PA from sedentary behaviour (SB) to moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); V˙ O2 was assessed using breath by breath indirect calorimetry and activity was assessed using Actigraph accelerometers worn on the hip and non-dominant wrist. The V˙ O2 values were then converted into age-specific METs (measured METs) and coded as SB, light PA and MVPA. Accelerometer data was analysed using previously calibrated cut-points at different epochs i.e. 5, 15 30 and 60 seconds. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that there was excellent discrimination of SB using the Evenson et al (15sec), Romanzini (15sec), Treuth et al (30sec), Freedson et al (60sec), Treuth et al (60sec) and Troiano et al (60sec) cut points. ROC analysis indicated poor discrimination for LPA irrespective of the cut-points used. Good discrimination of MVPA was evident for all existing cut-points using a 60sec epoch. There is considerable variation in the performance of existing cut-points for assessment of SB, LPA and MPA in children.