• Vitamin B12 insufficiency induces cholesterol biosynthesis by limiting s-adenosylmethionine and modulating the methylation of SREBF1 and LDLR genes

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Finer, S; Voyias, P.D; McCarthy, C.M; Vatish, M; Moore, J; Smart-Halajko, M; Bawazeer, N; Al-Daghri, N.M; McTernan, P.G; et al. (BMC, 27/02/2015)
      The dietary supply of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, betaine, methionine, and choline is essential for normal growth, development, and physiological functions through the life course. Both human and animal studies have shown that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with altered lipid profile and play an important role in the prediction of metabolic risk, however, as of yet, no direct mechanism has been investigated to confirm this.
    • Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with adverse lipid profile in Europeans and Indians with type 2 diabetes.

      Adaikalakoteswari, A; Jayashri, R; Sukumar, N; Venkataraman, H; Pradeepa, R; Gokulakrishnan, K; Anjana, R.M; McTernan, P.G; Tripathi, G; Patel, V; et al. (BMC, 26/09/2014)
      Metformin, a standard therapy in type 2 diabetes, reduces vitamin B12 levels. Studies linking low vitamin B12 levels and cardiovascular disease are equivocal and suggest improving B12 levels may help in primary prevention. The role of vitamin B12 deficiency on cardiovascular risk factors, especially in type 2 diabetes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin B12 deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in two different ethnic groups in UK and India. Type 2 diabetes patients from two secondary care diabetic centres (Europeans - UK and Indians - India) were studied. Serum vitamin B12, folate and biochemical parameters were measured. The prevalence rates of vitamin B12 deficiency (<191 ng/L) were 27% and 12% in Europeans and Indians, respectively and higher in metformin treated type 2 diabetes patients. In linear regression analysis, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors, vitamin B12 independently associated with triglycerides in both the populations and cholesterol/HDL ratio in Indians. Logistic regression showed type 2 diabetes patients with vitamin B12 deficiency were at significantly higher odds of having coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD) in Europeans with similar but non-significant trend in Indians, after adjusting for all likely confounding factors. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is common in type 2 diabetes patients and is associated with adverse lipid parameters. Type 2 diabetes management guidelines should include the recommendation for regular testing for B12 levels, especially for those on metformin.
    • PWE-254 Is the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) around colorectal cancer really ‘normal’?

      Patel, A; Fang, Y; Moore, J; Williams, N; Tripathi, G; Arasaradnam, R; University of Westminster (BMJ, 22/06/2015)
      Field cancerisation refers to the process whereby cells acquire pro-tumourigenic mutations that predispose to malignant transformation but do not produce morphological change.1Previous colorectal cancer studies have assumed that the macroscopically normal mucosa (MNM) adjacent to a cancer is biologically unaltered. The aim of this study was to determine if the genetic expression profile of the MNM around a cancer or adenoma is different to that found in healthy controls. 15 patients undergoing colonoscopy were recruited over 12 months; 5 healthy controls, 5 with colorectal adenomas and 5 with adenocarcinoma. Two mucosal pinch biopsies were taken in the rectum, right colon and adjacent to polyp or cancer. mRNA was extracted and gene expression was assessed using standard whole genome micro-array analysis. Differentially expressed genes were identified using three methods of analysis: LIMMA (fold change ratio >1.5 and p value <0.05), Robust Regression (RR) (adjusted p value <0.05) and genes that ‘overlap’ when LIMMA (p value <0.001) and RR (adjusted p value <0.1) are used. Functional analysis was performed using DAVID2software to identify important biological processes that were dysregulated. A large number of genes were dysregulated in the MNM adjacent to cancer or adenoma compared with controls (Table 1). Interestingly, the greatest differences were seen between MNM adjacent to cancer and polyp in chromatin organisation, nucleosome processing, nuclear transport and histone assembly. The most significantly upregulated genes consisted of FUT2, CTSA, MUC2 and SDS and downregulated genes consisted of GREM1, SFRP, HIST1H, IL17B and TFF1.
    • Habitual physical activity is associated with circulating irisin in healthy controls but not in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2

      Al‐Daghri, N.M; Alokail, M.S; Rahman, S; Amer, O.E; Al‐Attas, O.S; Alfawaz, H; Tripathi, G; Sabico, S.; Chrousos, G.P; McTernan, P.G; et al. (Wiley, 22/05/2015)
      Irisin, a novel myokine, has been shown to increase following vigorous exercise, with studies suggesting that it mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise. Irisin might play a role in ‘browning’ of white adipocytes, thus increasing energy expenditure. The role of irisin in exercise and energy expenditure in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating irisin and habitual physical activity in subjects with and without DMT2. In this cross‐sectional study, 164 Saudi adults: 81 non‐DMT2 controls [age: (mean ± SD) 51·6 ± 10·9; BMI: 29·6 ± 4·3 kg/m2] and 83 DMT2 subjects [age: 54·3 ± 10·3 year; BMI: 29·4 ± 4·7 kg/m2] were studied. Anthropometric and fasting serum biochemical data were collected. Circulating irisin was measured using an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Frequency intensity time (FIT) index was used to assess the level of habitual physical activity. We observed significantly higher levels of irisin in DMT2 subjects than in controls (P < 0·001). FIT index was positively associated (r = 0·20, P = 0·03) with circulating irisin in controls only. Additionally, irisin levels were significantly higher in tertile 3 (0·75 ± 0·07 μg/mL) than tertile 1 (0·49 ± 0·06 μg/mL) of the FIT index in healthy controls, whilst no such relation with physical activity was observed in DMT2 subjects. This cross‐sectional study has shown a weak association of irisin with physical activity levels in healthy controls but not in DMT2 subjects, suggesting the possibility of discordant regulation in the condition of DMT2.
    • Telmisartan reverses antiretroviral-induced adipocyte toxicity and insulin resistance in vitro

      Pushpakom, S.P; Adaikalakoteswari, A; Owen, A; Back, D.J; Tripathi, G; Kumar, S; McTernan, P; Pirmohamed, M; University of Warwick (Sage, 21/02/2018)
      Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients leads to insulin resistance which is central to the pathogenesis of various metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease seen in this patient group. We have investigated the dose–response relationship of telmisartan, an antihypertensive, on adipocytes in vitro in order to determine whether it may have metabolic beneficial effects. Using in vitro chronic toxicity models (3T3-F442A murine and primary human adipocytes), we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of telmisartan on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic gene expression using lipid accumulation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Adipokine secretion and expression of insulin signalling mediators were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Telmisartan partially reversed the deleterious effects of antiretrovirals on adipocyte lipid accumulation, expression of adipogenic regulators (peroxisome proliferator receptor-gamma and lipin 1), adipokine secretion and expression of the insulin signalling mediator pAktSer473. The metabolic effects of telmisartan followed a non-monotonic response with the maximal effect observed at 5 µM in the primary human adipocyte model. Telmisartan has beneficial metabolic effects in adipocytes in vitro, but its potential to reduce antiretroviral-induced cardiometabolic disease in HIV-infected individuals needs to be evaluated in a well-designed adequately powered clinical trial.
    • Surface Stability in Drylands is Influenced by Dispersal Strategy of Soil Bacteria

      Elliott, David R.; Thomas, Andrew D.; Strong, Craig L.; Bullard, Joanna; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, University of Derby (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019-10-09)
      Microbial adaptations for survival and dispersal may directly influence landscape stability and potential for dust emission in drylands where biological soil crusts (biocrusts) protect mineral soil surfaces from wind erosion. In the Lake Eyre basin of central Australia we operated a wind tunnel on sandy soils and collected the liberated material, which was subjected to DNA sequencing to identify the microbial community composition. Microbial composition of entrained dust was compared with that of the source sand dune soil in addition to nearby claypan and nebkha soils, and water channels which together form a recycling sediment transport system. Wind was found to preferentially liberate 359 identified taxa from sand dunes whereas 137 identified taxa were found to resist wind erosion. Water channel communities included many taxa in common with the soil samples. We hypothesise that the ease with which soil microbes become airborne is often linked to whether the organism is adapted for dispersal by wind or vegetative growth, and that biocrust organisms found in water channels may sometimes use a fluvial dispersal strategy which exploits rare flooding events to rapidly colonise vast pans which are common in drylands. We explain likely geomorphic implications of microbial dispersal strategies which are a consequence of organisms engineering the environment to provide their particular needs. By identifying microbes fitting expectations for these dispersal strategies based on differential abundance analyses, we provide a new perspective for understanding the role of microbiota in landscape stability.
    • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels differ between week and weekend ways in British preschool children

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (MDPI AG, 2019-09-12)
      Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend days for UK preschool children, using objective measurements. One hundred and eighty-five preschool children (99 boys, 86 girls, aged 4–5 years), from central England wore a triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv) for 4 days to determine PA. The time (min) and percentage (%) of time spent in light, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was determined using specific cut-points for counts per minute related to 3–5 year olds. Of the sample, none of the children met the UK recommended 180 min or more of PA per day. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the amount of time that preschool children spent in sedentary behaviours on weekdays (91.9%) compared to weekend days (96.9%). During weekdays and weekend days, 6.3% and 2.0% of time was spent in MVPA, respectively. Therefore, a substantial proportion of British preschool children’s day is spent in sedentary behaviours, with less MVPA accrued during the weekend. Regular engagement during the weekdays provides opportunities to accrue PA, which may not be present on weekend days.
    • The significance of metasomatic alteration surrounding carbonatite complexes as a REE-enrichment indicator

      Broom-Fendley, S.; Wall, F.; Elliott, Holly; University of Exeter (Taylor and Francis, 2019-07-24)
    • Treating hoarding disorder with compassion‐focused therapy: A pilot study examining treatment feasibility, acceptability, and exploring treatment effects

      Chou, Chia‐Ying; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Shumway, Martha; Smith, Lauren C.; Chan, Joanne; Delucchi, Kevin; Tirch, Dennis; Gilbert, Paul; Mathews, Carol A.; Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA; et al. (Wiley Online Library, 2019-07-04)
      Hoarding disorder (HD) was recognized as a psychiatric disorder in 2013. Existing literature suggests room for improvement in its treatment. The current pilot study aimed to provide an initial evaluation on the potential of compassion‐focused therapy (CFT) as an intervention for HD, with the primary aim being assessing its feasibility and acceptability, and the secondary being evaluating its effects. Both CFT and a second round of the current standard of treatment and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) were investigated in the current study as follow‐up treatment options for individuals who had completed CBT but were still significantly symptomatic. Forty eligible individuals were enrolled (20 in each treatment). Treatment feasibility and acceptability were assessed by quantitative and qualitative measures. To explore treatment effects, HD symptom severity, HD‐related dysfunctions, and their underlying mechanisms were assessed pre‐treatment and post‐treatment. Retention rates were 72% for CFT and 37% for CBT. All participants and 79% of the participants rated CFT and CBT, respectively, as good or excellent. After receiving CFT as a follow‐up treatment, HD symptom severity dropped below the cut‐off point for clinically significant HD for 77% of the treatment completers, and 62% achieved clinically significant reduction in symptom severity. In contrast, after completing a second course of CBT, 23% had HD symptom severity dropped below the cut‐off threshold, and 29% achieved clinically significant symptom reduction. The current study showed satisfactory feasibility and acceptability of CFT. Moreover, it also found promising effects of CFT in addressing hoarding‐related mechanisms that may not have been sufficiently addressed by CBT. The results suggest promising potential of CFT as a treatment for HD. Further investigation on this intervention is needed. CFT may be a promising treatment option, particularly for those who do not respond well to CBT. Improving emotion regulation and negative self‐perception by applying CFT interventions may help relieve hoarding symptoms. Generalization of the findings should be applied with caution given the small convenience sample of the current study. Statistical comparison on treatment effect measures between CFT and CBT as follow‐up treatments was not available due to small sample size. Therefore, the comparative conclusions based on this pilot study should be made with caution.
    • The impact of pop-up warning messages of losses on expenditure in a simulated game of roulette: A pilot Study

      McGivern, Paul; Hussain, Zaheer; Lipka, Sigrid; Stupple, Edward; University of Derby (BMC/ Springer Nature, 2019-06-26)
      Background: ‘Pop-up’ warning messages have potential as a Responsible Gambling tool, but many warning messages in the literature are generic. The present study simulated digital roulette to compare the effectiveness of expenditure-specific, generic and control messages, during online roulette. Methods: Forty-five casual gamblers participated in a laboratory setting. Gambles were ‘rigged’ such that participants suffered a net loss. Total ‘play money’ wagers from individual bets after the presentation of the messages were measured. Results: Expenditure-specific warning messages demonstrated significant reductions in wager amounts compared with other message types - Generic (p=.035) and Control messages (p<.001). No significant differences were found between Generic and Control messages (p>.05). Thus expenditure-specific warning messages about current losses were more effective than generic messages for reducing expenditure. Conclusions: Expenditure-specific warning messages exhibit potential for ameliorating potentially harmful gambling behaviour. Expenditure-specific messages should be tested in a broader range of gambling contexts to examine their generalizability and potential for implementation in the gambling industry.
    • The evolution of prosocial and antisocial competitive behaviour and the emergence of prosocial and antisocial leadership styles

      Gilbert, Paul; Basran, Jaskaran; Centre for Compassion Research and Training College of Health and Social Care Research Centre, University of Derby (Frontiers, 2019-06-25)
      Evolutionary analysis focuses on how genes build organisms with different strategies for engaging and solving life’s challenges of survival and reproduction. One of those challenges is competing with conspecifics for limited resources including reproductive opportunities. This article will suggest that there is now good evidence for considering two dimensions of social competition. First, we will label antisocial strategies, to the extent that they tend to be self-focused, threat sensitive and aggressive, as well as using tactics of bulling, threatening, intimidating or even injuring/killing competitors. Their strategic goal is to stimulate fear-inhibition, flight or submissive compliance in subordinates. Such strategies turn off and inhibit care and affiliative social interactions and motivation and they can be enacted by parents, teachers and leaders. The social signals emitted stimulate various aspects of threat processing in recipients, create stressful and highly stratified groups with a range of detrimental psychological and physiological effects. Second, in contrast, prosocial strategies seek to create relaxed and secure social interactions that enable sharing, cooperative and mutually supportive and beneficial relationships. The friendly and low/no threat social signals emitted in friendly cooperative and affiliative relationships stimulate physiological systems (e.g., oxytocin, the vagus parasympathetic system) that down regulates threat processing, enhances the immune system, facilitates frontal cortical processes and general wellbeing. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the evidence for these two dimensions of social engagement.
    • The role of compassionate and self-image goals in predicting psychological controlling and facilitative parenting styles.

      Kirby, James; Grzazek, Olivia; Gilbert, Paul; University of Queensland; University of Derby (Frontiers Media, 2019-06-05)
      People enter into parental roles with a range of different motivations for parenting. To date, however, there is limited research assessing maternal motivations, concerns, and anxieties in their parenting styles. While some mothers are confident and child focused, others have concerns with performing parenting behaviors, and can be self-focused, shame prone, and self-judgmental. Two studies explored these two dimensions in relation to degree of controlling and facilitative parenting styles in the mothers of 3–9-year-old children. In study one, 151 mothers took part in an online survey measuring these two dimensions using the compassionate goals and self-image goals scales (Crocker and Canevello, 2008), in relation to facilitative and controlling parenting styles. As predicted, after controlling for child behavior, parental mental health, and parental self-efficacy, self-focused and shame avoidant concerns were associated with greater psychologically controlling parenting. In contrast a compassionate focused orientation was associated with greater facilitative parenting. In study two, 198 mothers were randomly assigned to either compassion focused goals, self-image goals, or control condition, which was manipulated by varying the instructions provided to participants. Emotional responses (e.g., angry, sad, and shame) to difficult parenting scenarios did not differ depending on whether participants were prompted with compassionate goal, self-image goal, or control condition instructions. The findings from study 1 demonstrate how goal motivation can influence parenting style, with the results from study 2 suggesting that instruction alone is insufficient to shift goal orientation.
    • Oral ingestion of deep ocean minerals increases high-intensity intermittent running capacity in soccer players after short-term post-exercise recovery: A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial

      Higgins, Matthew F.; Rudkin, Benjamin; Kuo, Chia-Hua; University of Derby; University of Taipei (MDPI, 2019-05-24)
      This study examined whether deep ocean mineral (DOM) supplementation improved high-intensity intermittent running capacity after short-term recovery from an initial bout of prolonged high-intensity running in thermoneutral environmental conditions. Nine healthy recreational male soccer players (age: 22 ± 1 y; stature: 181 ± 5 cm; and body mass 80 ± 11 kg) completed a graded incremental test to ascertain peak oxygen uptake (V·O2PEAK), two familiarisation trials, and two experimental trials following a double-blind, repeated measures, crossover and counterbalanced design. All trials were separated by seven days and at ambient room temperature (i.e., 20 °C). During the 2 h recovery period after the initial ~60 min running at 75% V·O2PEAK, participants were provided with 1.38 ± 0.51 L of either deep ocean mineral water (DOM) or a taste-matched placebo (PLA), both mixed with 6% sucrose. DOM increased high-intensity running capacity by ~25% compared to PLA. There were no differences between DOM and PLA for blood lactate concentration, blood glucose concentration, or urine osmolality. The minerals and trace elements within DOM, either individually or synergistically, appear to have augmented high-intensity running capacity in healthy, recreationally active male soccer players after short-term recovery from an initial bout of prolonged, high-intensity running in thermoneutral environmental conditions
    • Response to howard (2018): Comments on ‘a meta-reanalysis of dream-ESP studies’

      Storm, Lance; Rock, Adam J.; Sherwood, Simon J.; Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Roe, Chris A.; Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby, UK (International Journal of Dream Research, 2019-04-30)
      Dream-ESP is a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) in which a dreaming perceiver ostensibly gains information about a randomly selected target without using the normal sensory modalities or logical inference. We conducted a meta-analysis on dream-ESP studies (dating from 1966 to 2016), and found a number of significant effects indicating support for the ESP hypothesis (Storm et al., 2017). Howard (2018) critiqued our study, and found much weaker effects based on a re-analysis of our data, to which he applied inverse-variance weights to the study values. Although Howard replicated a number of our findings, his other findings can be challenged. We discuss meta-analytic approaches, including the controversial issues of publication bias and what to do with outliers, and we present some re-analyses.
    • Multiple group IRT measurement invariance analysis of the forms of self-criticising/attacking and self-reassuring scale in thirteen international samples

      Halamová, Júlia; Kanovský, Martin; Gilbert, Paul; Troop, Nicholas; Zuroff, David C.; Petrocchi, Nicola; Hermanto, Nicola; Krieger, Tobias; Kirby, James; Asano, Kenichi; et al. (Springer US, 2019-04-30)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS) in terms of Item Response Theory differential test functioning in thirteen distinct samples (N = 7714) from twelve different countries. We assessed differential test functioning for the three FSCRS subscales, Inadequate-Self, Hated-Self and Reassured-Self separately. 32 of the 78 pairwise comparisons between samples for Inadequate-Self, 42 of the 78 pairwise comparisons for Reassured-Self and 54 of the 78 pairwise comparisons for Hated-Self demonstrated no differential test functioning, i.e. measurement invariance. Hated-Self was the most invariant of the three subscales, suggesting that self-hatred is similarly perceived across different cultures. Nonetheless, all three subscales of FSCRS are sensitive to cross-cultural differences. Considering the possible cultural and linguistic differences in the expression of self-criticism and self-reassurance, future analyses of the meanings and connotations of these constructs across the world are necessary in order to develop or tailor a scale which allows cross-cultural comparisons of various treatment outcomes related to self-criticism.
    • Accelerometer-based physical activity levels, fundamental movement skills and weight status in British preschool children from a deprived area

      Roscoe, Clare M. P.; James, Rob S.; Duncan, Michael J.; University of Derby; Coventry University (Springer, 2019-04-26)
      Preschool children are recommended to participate in a minimum of 180-min physical activity (PA) per day to enhance their development and overall health. Low PA and increased obesity are thought to be linked to low mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) in preschool children. This study sought to investigate whether FMS influences PA levels and weight status in preschool children, in an area of low socioeconomic status. Secondary aims of this study were to determine whether gender or day of the week affected the primary outcomes. One hundred eighty-five preschool children aged 3–4 years old, participated in the study. FMS proficiency was determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. PA was determined using triaxial accelerometry over a 4-day period. None of the samples met the recommended 180 min of PA. There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium or low FMS mastery (P < 0.05). There were also no significant correlations between overall FMS and moderate to vigorous PA during the week or weekend days. Conclusion: Girls scored significantly greater at the hop, leap, and skip (locomotor skills) and the boys significantly higher at the kick (object control) (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium, or low FMS mastery, possibly because FMS mastery had not developed to a high enough level to affect PA and FMS are considered independent of physical fitness and physical features, such as weight and height.
    • Muscle-tendon unit parameter estimation of a Hill-type musculoskeletal model based on experimentally obtained subject-specific torque profiles.

      Heinen, Frederik; Sørensen, Søren; King, Mark; Lund, Morten Enemark; Rasmussen, John; de Zee, Mark; Nottingham Trent University; Aalborg University; Loughborough University (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2019-04-25)
      The aim of this study was to generate a subject-specific musculoskeletal muscle model, based on isometric and isovelocity measurements of the whole lower extremity. A two-step optimisation procedure is presented for optimising the muscle-tendon parameters for isometric and isovelocity joint torque profiles. A significant improvement in the prediction of joint torque profiles for both the solely isometric and a combined isometric and dynamic method of optimization when compared to the standard scaling method of The AnyBody Modeling System was observed. Depending on the specific purpose of the model, it may be worth considering whether the isometric-only would be sufficient, or the additional dynamic data are required for the combined approach.
    • The development of the compassion focused therapy therapist competence rating scale

      Horwood, Victoria; Allan, Steven; Goss, Kenneth; Gilbert, Paul; University of Leicester; Coventry & Warwickshire Partnership Tust; University of Derby (Wiley Online Library, 2019-04-25)
      Compassion‐focused therapy (CFT) has shown promise as a treatment for a number of clinical presentations; however, existing studies have not adequately addressed issues of treatment fidelity. The aims of the present study were to identify initial candidate items that may be included in a CFT therapist competence rating scale and to develop the behavioural indicators to anchor these items. The Delphi method was used to develop and operationalize the competencies required for inclusion in a CFT therapist competence rating scale over five rounds. Face‐to‐face meetings with two CFT experts were conducted in rounds one, two, and five, and these were used to define and operationalize the competencies. Nine other CFT experts were invited to complete online surveys in rounds two and four. An 80% consensus level was applied to the online surveys. The resulting Compassion Focused Therapy Therapist Competence Rating Scale (CFT‐TCRS) consisted of 23 competencies which were separated into 14 ‘CFT unique competencies’ and nine ‘Microskills’. There was high agreement about the included ‘CFT unique competencies’ and ‘Microskills’; however, there were some differences in opinion about the specific content of some items. This is the first study that has attempted to reach consensus regarding the competencies and behavioural anchors for a CFT therapist competence rating scale. The next stage of development for the CFT‐TCRS is to establish whether the scale can be reliably and validly used to evaluate CFT practice. The Compassion Focused Therapy Therapist Competence Rating Scale (CFT‐TCRS) is the first scale to operationalize the unique and generic competencies required to deliver compassion‐focused therapy (CFT). The CFT‐TCRS can be used as a learning guide for delivering CFT training and with further development could be used to assess therapist competence for CFT training courses, clinical practice, and treatment fidelity in research trials.
    • Psychotherapy for the 21st century: An integrative, evolutionary, contextual, biopsychosocial approach

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Wiley Online Library, 2019-04-18)
      Fragmentation of processes and interventions plague the psychotherapies (Gilbert & Kirby, 2019). Part of the problem is that we have not agreed on a framework that could be the basis for integrating knowledge and the scientific enquiry of processes and interventions. This paper outlines an approach that brings together a variety of different disciplines in the service of consilience (Wilson, 1998, Consilience: The unity of knowledge, Vintage, New York, NY; Siegel, 2019). It presents the importance of an evolutionary framework for understanding the proclivities and dispositions for mental suffering and antisocial behaviour, and how they are choreographed in different sociodevelopmental contexts. Building on earlier models (Gilbert, 1989, Human nature and suffering, Routledge, London, UK; Gilbert, 1995, Clin. Psychol. Psychother., 2, 135; Gilbert, 1998, Br. J. Med. Psychol., 71, 353; Gilbert, 2016, Case formulation in cognitive behaviour therapy: The treatment of challenging cases, Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp. 50–89) the call is for an integrative, evolutionary, contextual, biopsychosocial approach to psychology and psychotherapy.
    • Human evolution and culture in relationship to shame in the parenting role: Implications for psychology and psychotherapy

      Kirby, James N.; Sampson, Hayley; Day, Jamin; Hayes, Alan; Gilbert, Paul; University of Queensland; University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia; Family Action Centre, The University of Newcastle, Australia; University of Derby (Wiley Online Library, 2019-04-01)
      There is considerable evidence that early parenting has profound effects on a range of physiological and psychological maturation processes. Furthermore, psychotherapy often addresses some of the distortions and developmental difficulties that have arisen from early childhood. While research has focused on obvious candidates such as abuse and neglect, this paper reviews some of the core themes related to a less investigated area, specifically parental shame on child development. Role shame sensitive parenting styles will be explored against an evolutionary background that contrasts early human and modern human rearing contexts. We also outline a study examining the role of shame in psychological controlling and dysfunctional parenting styles, its relationship to different dimensions of shame and fears of compassion. An online survey was conducted containing self‐report measures of dysfunctional parenting styles, three dimensions of shame (external, internal, and reflected), fears of compassion, mental health indices, and a measure of psychological flexibility. An online survey was accessed by 333 parents (306 being female) with a child between the ages of 3–9 years. Two hierarchical multiple regressions indicated support for our two primary hypotheses, with shame explaining significant variance in both psychological controlling and dysfunctional parenting styles over and above that explained by psychological inflexibility, parental mental health, and fears of compassion. Additionally, results from standard multiple regressions indicated that fears of compassion account for significant variance in external shame, as well as internal and reflected shame. Recommendations for future research include focusing on parental motivation in order to help support parents and children are provided. Shame is a major factor for how parents engage in parenting practices and respond to their children. Practitioners need to be sensitive to the shame parents can experience and asses for it Assessing shame‐threat in parenting and shifting to compassionate motivation can lead to more responsive and positive parenting.