• Self-compassion, social rank, and psychological distress in athletes of varying competitive levels

      Walton, Courtney C.; Baranoff, John; Gilbert, Paul; Kirby, James; The University of Queensland, Brisbane; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2020-05-29)
      Self-Compassion may be seen as a concept contrary to the aims of athletes engaged in competitive sport. This could be accentuated at more elite levels, where athletes may view concepts like self-criticism and self-judgement as more important for improvement. The current study aimed to better understand how athletes of different competitive levels (from social to international) relate to concepts of self-compassion. Further, we aimed to explore how factors relating to social rank and self-compassion contribute to psychological distress. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was distributed, including the following validated questionnaires: Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales, the Self-Compassion Scale, Fears of Compassion Scales, Social Comparison Scale, Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale, and the Striving to Avoid Inferiority Scale. Two hundred and fifty-three participants responded to the survey, including 115 recreational and 79 competitive athletes. There were no differences between groups on any measure of compassion or social rank. In a multiple linear regression model, lower self-compassion, higher fears of compassion (for self), and higher feelings of inadequacy predicted more pronounced psychological distress in athletes. Contrary to expectation, the results suggest that even highly elite athletes may be open to using self-compassion. Given that reduced self-compassion and sense of social rank contributed to psychological distress in athletes, the results suggest that compassion-based approaches to treating psychological distress in this population may be valid.
    • The compassionate vagus: A meta-analysis on the connection between compassion and heart rate variability

      Di Bello, Maria; Carnevali, Luca; Petrocchi, Nicola; Thayer, Julian F.; Gilbert, Paul; Ottaviani, Cristina; Sapienza University of Rome; University of Parma; John Cabot University, Rome; The University of California, Irvine; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-06-15)
      In recent years, increasing interest has been devoted to the physiological basis of self and other-oriented compassion. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents a promising candidate for such a role, given its association with soothing emotions and context appropriate prefrontal inhibitory control over threat-defensive responses. The aim of this study was to meta-analyze available studies on the association between compassion and HRV. Random-effect models were used. The analysis performed on sixteen studies that met inclusion criteria, yielded a significant association with a medium effect size (g = .54 95% CI [.24, .84], p < .0001). Results were not influenced by publication bias. After an extreme outlier’s exclusion, the size of the association was still larger in studies that used time or frequency-domain indices of vagally-mediated HRV compared to those that used peak to trough estimates of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Results are limited by the small number of studies included in the meta-analysis (n = 16) and are discussed in terms of indications for future research, given that existing data are highly heterogeneous and of poor methodological rigor.
    • I am great, but only when I also want to dominate: Maladaptive narcissism moderates the relationship between adaptive narcissism and performance under pressure

      Zhang, Shuge; Roberts, Ross; Woodman, Tim; Cooke, Andrew; Bangor University; University of Derby (Human Kinetics, 2020)
      Narcissism-performance research has focused on grandiose narcissism but has not examined the interaction between its so-called adaptive (reflecting over-confidence) and maladaptive (reflecting a domineering orientation) components. In this research, we tested interactions between adaptive and maladaptive narcissism using two motor tasks (basketball and golf in Experiments 1-2, respectively) and a cognitive task (letter transformation; Experiment 3). Across all experiments, adaptive narcissism predicted performance under pressure only when maladaptive narcissism was high. In the presence of maladaptive narcissism, adaptive narcissism also predicted decreased pre-putt time in Experiment 2 and an adaptive psychophysiological response in Experiment 3, reflecting better processing efficiency. Findings suggest that individuals high in both aspects of narcissism perform better under pressure thanks to superior task processing. In performance contexts, the terms “adaptive” and “maladaptive” – adopted from social psychology – are over-simplistic and inaccurate. We believe that self-inflated narcissism and dominant narcissism are better monikers for these constructs.
    • Effects of short-term, medium-term and long-term resistance exercise training on cardiometabolic health outcomes in adults: systematic review with meta-analysis.

      Ashton, Ruth E; Tew, Garry A; Aning, Jonathan J; Gilbert, Stephen E; Lewis, Liane; Saxton, John M; Northumbria University; Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; University of Strathclyde (BMJ, 2018-06-22)
      To examine the effects of short-term, medium-term and long-term resistance exercise training (RET) on measures of cardiometabolic health in adults. Intervention systematic review. MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to February 2018. The search strategy included the following keywords: resistance exercise, strength training and randomised controlled trial. s Randomised controlled trials published in English comparing RET≥2 weeks in duration with a nonexercising control or usual care group. Participants were non-athletic and aged ≥18 years. A total of 173 trials were included. Mediumterm and long-term RET reduced systolic blood pressure (−4.02 (95% CI −5.92 to −2.11) mm Hg, p<0.0001 and −5.08 (−10.04 to –0.13)mm Hg, p=0.04, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (−1.73 (−2.88 to –0.57)mm Hg, p=0.003 and −4.93 (−8.58 to –1.28)mm Hg, p=0.008, respectively) versus control. Medium-term RET elicited reductions in fasted insulin and insulin resistance (−0.59 (−0.97 to –0.21) µU/mL, p=0.002 and −1.22 (−2.29 to –0.15) µU/mL, p=0.02, respectively). The effects were greater in those with elevated cardiometabolic risk or disease compared with younger healthy adults. The quality of evidence was low or very low for all outcomes. There was limited evidence of adverse events. RET may be effective for inducing improvements in cardio metabolic health outcomes in healthy adults and those with an adverse cardio metabolic risk profile.
    • Number of directional changes alters the physiological, perceptual, and neuromuscular responses of netball players during intermittent shuttle running

      Ashton, Ruth; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Wolters Kluwer, 2015-03-21)
      This study investigated whether an increased number of changes in direction altered the metabolic, cardiovascular, perceptual and neuromuscular responses to intermittent shuttle running. Using a randomized crossover design, ten female netball players completed 30 min of intermittent shuttle running over a 10 m (ISR10) and 20 m (ISR20) linear course. Measures of expired air, heart rate (HR), RPE, blood lactate concentration ([BLa]) and peak torque of knee extensors and flexors were measured. Differences (% ± 90% CL) in VO2 (1.5 ± 5.6%) was unclear between conditions, while HR was possibly higher (1.5 ± 2.5%) and [BLa] very likely lower in ISR20 compared to ISR10 (-32.7 ± 9.9%). RPE was likely lower in the ISR20 compared to the ISR10 condition at 15 (-5.0 ± 5.0%) and mosly likely lower at 30 min (-9.4 ± 2.0%). Sprint times over 20 m were likely slower during ISR20 at mid (3.9 ± 3.2%) but unclear post (2.1 ± 5.4%). Changes in muscle function were not different between ISR10 and ISR20 conditions for knee extension (-0.2 ± 0.9%) but were likely different for knee flexion (-5.7 ± 4.9%). More directional changes during shuttle running increases the physiological and perceptual load on female athletes that also causes a greater reductions in knee extensor torque. These findings have implications for the effective conditioning and injury prevention of female team sport athletes.
    • Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the COVID-19 endemic phase

      Faghy, Mark A.; Hull, James; Cooper, Brendan; Sylvester, Karl; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-11)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has presented significant challenges to healthcare systems across the world. The substantial need to provide acute COVID-19-related care resulted in non-COVID-19 care being immediately curtailed, with significant implications for the provision of normal or ‘routine’ healthcare. As the pressure from acute COVID-19 care begins to regress, it is timely to consider how certain services, including those undertaking physiological measurements, will re-open and how they will function within the constraints dictated by a COVID-19 endemic working environment. Over the past decade, there has been evolving recognition of the importance and value of clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) within healthcare settings.1 Primarily, CPET is used to evaluate the integrative response to incremental exercise, enabling clinicians to characterise cardiorespiratory fitness and reasons for physical impairment. 2 It is recognised that CPET plays an important role in clinical arenas including determining surgical operability and evaluating the risk of perioperative death and postoperative complications.3 It also has a function in supporting pre-operative planning algorithms,4 as well as developing management strategies for pathological conditions (e.g. heart failure)5 and in disease prognostication (e.g. pulmonary hypertension).6 Whilst there is considerable uncertainty regarding the ability to safely undertake CPET at the current time, it remains an integral investigative tool in clinical practice and urgent consideration needs to be given to determine how best to deliver CPET services in the COVID-19 endemic phase.
    • The use and perceived value of telestration tools in elite football

      Jones, Dylan; Rands, Steve; Butterworth, Andrew; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-04-30)
      The proliferation of technology allowing performance analysis practices to become more efficient and effective has grown rapidly in recent years. One such tool that has become widespread amongst elite football clubs is the use of telestration software which allow annotations to be drawn over video footage to illustrate key tactical, technical, physiological or psychological facets in an interactive manner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use and application of telestration tools in elite football. A descriptive research approach was employed, using detailed questionnaires to gain the views and perceptions of elite analysts, coaches and players. Findings confirm the widespread use of telestration tools in elite football with 93% of respondents stating that it is “essential-very important” to their practice. In particular, telestration is found to play an integral role in oppositional analysis, especially when introducing key tactical information in pre-match meetings. Numerous barriers associated with the use of telestration were also uncovered in this novel, contemporary research which may help set the foundations for further research into telestration tools in sports not limited to football.
    • Tunicamycin-induced Endoplasmic Reticulum stress mediates mitochondrial dysfunction in human adipocytes.

      Jackisch, Laura; Murphy, Alice M; Kumar, Sudhesh; Randeva, Harpal; Tripathi, Gyanendra; McTernan, Philip G; University of Warwick; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (Oxford University Press, 2020-05-15)
      Dysfunctional ER and mitochondria are known to contribute to the pathology of metabolic disease. This damage may occur, in part, as a consequence of ER-mitochondria cross-talk in conditions of nutrient excess such as obesity. To date insight into this dynamic relationship has not been characterised in adipose tissue. Therefore, this study investigated whether ER stress contributes to the development of mitochondrial inefficiency in human adipocytes from lean and obese participants. Human differentiated adipocytes from Chub-S7 cell line and primary abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from lean and obese participants were treated with tunicamycin to induce ER stress. Key parameters of mitochondrial function were assessed, including mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential (MMP) and dynamics. ER stress led to increased respiratory capacity in a model adipocyte system (Chub-S7 adipocytes) in a concentration and time dependent manner (24hr: 23%↑; 48hr: 68%↑, (p<0.001); 72hr: 136%↑, (p<0.001)). This corresponded with mitochondrial inefficiency and diminished MMP, highlighting the formation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Morphological analysis revealed reorganisation of mitochondrial network, specifically mitochondrial fragmentation. Furthermore, p-DRP1, a key protein in fission, significantly increased (p<0.001). Additionally, adipocytes from obese subjects displayed lower basal respiration (49%↓, p<0.01) and were unresponsive to tunicamycin in contrast to their lean counterparts, demonstrating inefficient mitochondrial oxidative capacity. These human data suggest that adipocyte mitochondrial inefficiency is driven by ER stress and exacerbated in obesity. Nutrient excess induced ER stress leads to mitochondrial dysfunction that may therefore shift lipid deposition ectopically and thus have further implications on the development of related metabolic disorders.
    • Cross-sectional study of patient-reported fatigue, physical activity and cardiovascular status in men after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

      Ashton, Ruth E; Tew, Garry A; Robson, Wendy A; Saxton, John M; Aning, Jonathan J; Northumbria University; Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Bristol Urological Institute, North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK (Springer, 2019-04-10)
      Patient-reported fatigue after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has not been characterised to date. Fatigue after other prostate cancer (PCa) treatments is known to impact on patient-reported quality of life. The aim of this study was to characterise fatigue, physical activity levels and cardiovascular status post-RARP. Between October 2016 and March 2017, men post-RARP or on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were invited into the study. Participants were asked to complete the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) and Stage of Change and Scottish Physical Activity Questionnaires (SPAQ) over a 2-week period. Outcome measures were patient-reported fatigue, physical activity levels and the 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (Q-Risk). Data were analysed in SPSS. 96/117 (82%) men approached consented to participate; of these, 62/96 (65%) returned complete questionnaire data (RARP n = 42, ADT n = 20). All men reported fatigue with 9/42 (21%) post-RARP reporting clinically significant fatigue. Physical activity did not correlate with fatigue. On average, both groups were overweight (BMI 27.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2 and 27.8 ± 12.3 kg/m2 for RARP and ADT, respectively) and the post-RARP group had an 18.1% ± 7.4% Q-Risk2 score. A proportion of men is at increased risk of cardiovascular disease within 10 years post-RARP and have substantial levels of fatigue; therefore, clinicians should consider including these factors when counselling patients about RARP. Additionally, men post-RARP did not meet the recommended guidelines for resistance-based exercise. Future research is needed to establish whether interventions including resistance-based exercise can improve health and fatigue levels in this population.
    • The visual search strategies underpinning effective observational analysis in the coaching of climbing movement

      Mitchell, James; Maratos, Frances, A; Giles, David; Taylor, Nicola; Butterworth, Andrew; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Lattice Training Ltd., Chesterfield (Frontiers, 2020-05-28)
      Despite the importance of effective observational analysis in coaching the technical aspects of climbing performance, limited research informs this aspect of climbing coach education. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to explore the feasibility and the utility of a novel methodology, combining eye tracking technology and cued retrospective think-aloud (RTA), to capture the cognitive–perceptual mechanisms that underpin the visual search behaviors of climbing coaches. An analysis of gaze data revealed that expert climbing coaches demonstrate fewer fixations of greater duration and fixate on distinctly different areas of the visual display than their novice counterparts. Cued RTA further demonstrated differences in the cognitive–perceptual mechanisms underpinning these visual search strategies, with expert coaches being more cognizant of their visual search strategy. To expand, the gaze behavior of expert climbing coaches was underpinned by hierarchical and complex knowledge structures relating to the principles of climbing movement. This enabled the expert coaches to actively focus on the most relevant aspects of a climber’s performance for analysis. The findings demonstrate the utility of combining eye tracking and cued RTA interviewing as a new, efficient methodology of capturing the cognitive–perceptual processes of climbing coaches to inform coaching education/strategies.
    • Calibration and cross-validation of accelerometery for estimating movement skills in children aged 8–12 years

      Duncan, MJ; Dobell, A; Noon, M; Clark, CT; Roscoe, CMP; Stodden, D; Sacko, R; Eyre, ELJ; Faghy, Mark; Coventry University; et al. (MDPI, 2020-05-13)
      This study sought to calibrate triaxial accelerometery, worn on both wrists, waist and both ankles, during children’s physical activity (PA), with particular attention to object control motor skills performed at a fast and slow cadence, and to cross-validate the accelerometer cut-points derived from the calibration using an independent dataset. Twenty boys (10.1 ±1.5 years) undertook seven, five-minute bouts of activity lying supine, standing, running (4.5kmph−1) instep passing a football (fast and slow cadence), dribbling a football (fast and slow cadence), whilst wearing five GENEActiv accelerometers on their non-dominant and dominant wrists and ankles and waist. VO2 was assessed concurrently using indirect calorimetry. ROC curve analysis was used to generate cut-points representing sedentary, light and moderate PA. The cut-points were then cross-validated using independent data from 30 children (9.4 ± 1.4 years), who had undertaken similar activities whilst wearing accelerometers and being assessed for VO2. GENEActiv monitors were able to discriminate sedentary activity to an excellent level irrespective of wear location. For moderate PA, discrimination of activity was considered good for monitors placed on the dominant wrist, waist, non-dominant and dominant ankles but fair for the non-dominant wrist. Applying the cut-points to the cross-validation sample indicated that cut-points validated in the calibration were able to successfully discriminate sedentary behaviour and moderate PA to an excellent standard and light PA to a fair standard. Cut-points derived from this calibration demonstrate an excellent ability to discriminate children’s sedentary behaviour and moderate intensity PA comprising motor skill activity.
    • Development and psychometric evaluation of the Birmingham Relationship Continuity Measure for acquired brain injury

      Yasmin, Natasha; Keeble, Hayley; Riley, Gerard; University of Birmingham (Taylor and Francis, 2020-05-23)
      Relationship continuity/discontinuity refers to whether a spouse/partner experiences their current relationship with someone with an acquired brain injury (ABI) as a continuation of their loving pre-injury relationship or as radically changed. The aim of this study was to adapt a questionnaire measure of continuity/discontinuity from dementia research for use in an ABI context and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this adaptation. The questionnaire was adapted in response to feedback from a focus group of ABI caregivers. Its psychometric properties were then evaluated in two studies involving partners of people with ABI. The measure showed high internal consistency (alpha = .956 in Study 1 and .963 in Study 2), test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation = .960 in Study 1) and discriminative power (Ferguson’s delta = .975 in Study 1 and .963 in Study 2). Evidence of construct validity was provided by a predicted pattern of correlations with other relationship questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis suggested that the questionnaire is unidimensional. A valid and reliable quantitative measure of relationship continuity/discontinuity will enable more robust evaluation of suggestions about this construct that have been made in qualitative studies (e.g. that discontinuity is associated with a greater sense of caregiver burden).
    • The patterns of homicide offence characteristics and their associations with offender psychopathology

      Abreu Minero, Valeria; Dickson, Hannah; Barker, Edward; Flynn, Sandra; Ibrahim, Saied; Shaw, Jennifer; Kings College London; University of Manchester (Wiley, 2018-09-30)
      Previous research suggests different crime scene patterns reflect differences in the background characteristics of the offender. However, whether differences in crime scene patterns are related to offender psychopathology remains unclear. We hypothesise that schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depressive illness will each associate to a specific homicide crime scene pattern. Homicide data were obtained from the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness. Our sample comprised 759 homicides committed by offenders in contact with mental health services in the year preceding the offence and with an available psychiatric report. We used joint correspondence analysis to examine patterns between different methods of homicide, circumstances of homicide, victim gender, and victim age groups. Three homicide patterns were identified: male conflict homicide, intimate female homicide, and child homicide. Additionally, each homicide pattern was associated with one or more mental illnesses. Results are discussed in terms of the possible role of psychopathology in “offender profiling” research.
    • Investigating homicide offender typologies based on their clinical histories and crime scene behaviour patterns

      Abreu Minero, Valeria; Barker, Edward; Dickson, Hannah; Husson, Francois; Flynn, Sandra; Shaw, Jennifer; University of Derby; Kings College London; Agrocampus Ouest, Rennes, France; The University of Manchester (Emerald, 2019-09-16)
      The purpose of this paper is to identify offender typologies based on aspects of the offenders’ psychopathology and their associations with crime scene behaviours using data derived from the National Confidential Enquiry into Suicide and Safety in Mental Health concerning homicides in England and Wales committed by offenders in contact with mental health services in the year preceding the offence (n=759). The authors used multiple correspondence analysis to investigate the interrelationships between the variables and hierarchical agglomerative clustering to identify offender typologies. Variables describing: the offenders’ mental health histories; the offenders’ mental state at the time of offence; characteristics useful for police investigations; and patterns of crime scene behaviours were included. Results showed differences in the offenders’ histories in relation to their crime scene behaviours. Further, analyses revealed three homicide typologies: externalising, psychosis and depression. These typologies may assist the police during homicide investigations by: furthering their understanding of the crime or likely suspect; offering insights into crime patterns; provide advice as to what an offender’s offence behaviour might signify about his/her mental health background. Findings suggest information concerning offender psychopathology may be useful for offender profiling purposes in cases of homicide offenders with schizophrenia, depression and comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder and alcohol/drug dependence. Empirical studies with an emphasis on offender profiling have almost exclusively focussed on the inference of offender demographic characteristics. This study provides a first step in the exploration of offender psychopathology and its integration to the multivariate analysis of offence information for the purposes of investigative profiling of homicide by identifying the dominant patterns of mental illness within homicidal behaviour.
    • Method of homicide and severe mental illness: A systematic review

      Abreu Minero, Valeria; Barker, Edward; Bedford, Rachael; Kings College London (Elsevier BV, 2017-09-28)
      There is limited research that has examined offense characteristics in homicides committed by individuals with mental illness and with differing psychiatric diagnoses. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize previous findings of studies analyzing homicide behavior by mentally ill individuals, and reporting any associations between mental illness and method of homicide. We searched four databases (MedLine, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Embase), and identified 52 relevant articles for analysis. Of these 52 articles, nine reported specific information on mental illness and method of homicide. Five out of nine articles revealed an association between schizophrenia/delusional disorder and the use of sharp instruments as a method of homicide. Four out of nine studies revealed an association between mood disorders (bipolar disorder/major depression) and strangulation/asphyxiation/suffocation/drowning. Our review confirms consistency across studies reporting a significant association between close contact methods and schizophrenia/mood disorders. Also identified as possible influential factors concerning weapon choice are illness duration, victim characteristics and planning/lack of planning of the homicide. Additionally, studies revealed up to 96% of severely mentally ill offenders experienced psychiatric symptoms at the time of the homicide. Future research may examine the presence of specific psychiatric symptoms when a mentally ill offender commits a homicide and whether these may be more influential in the method of homicide used than the psychiatric diagnosis of the offender.
    • Anxiety and fear in sport and performance

      Zhang, Shuge; Woodman, Tim; Roberts, Ross; Bangor University (Oxford University Press, 2018-12)
      Anxiety and fear are unpleasant emotions commonly experienced in sport and performance settings. While fear usually has an apparent cause, the source of anxiety is comparatively vague and complex. Anxiety has cognitive and somatic components and can be either a trait or a state. To assess the different aspects of anxiety, a variety of psychometric scales have been developed in sport and performance domains. Besides efforts to quantify anxiety, a major focus in the anxiety-performance literature has been to explore the impact of anxiety on performance and why such effects occur. Anxiety-performance theories and models have increased the understanding of how anxiety affects performance and have helped to explain why anxiety is widely considered a negative emotion that individuals typically seek to avoid in performance settings. Nonetheless, individuals approach anxiety-inducing or fear-provoking situations in different ways. For example, high-risk sport research shows that individuals can actively approach fear-inducing environments in order to glean intra- and interpersonal regulatory benefits. Such individual differences are particularly relevant to sport and performance researchers and practitioners, as those who actively approach competition to enjoy the fear-inducing environment (i.e., the “risk”) are likely to have a performance advantage over those who compete while having to cope with their troublesome anxiety and fear. Future research would do well to: (1) examine the effects of anxiety on the processes that underpin performance rather than a sole focus on the performance outcomes, (2) test directly the different cognitive functions that are thought to be impaired when performing under anxiety, (3) unite the existing theories to understand a “whole picture” of how anxiety influences performance, and (4) explore the largely overlooked field of individual differences in the context of performance psychology.
    • Lead me to train better: transformational leadership’s moderation of the negative relationship between athlete personality and training behaviors

      Zhang, Shuge; Beattie, Stuart; Pitkethly, Amanda; Dempsey, Chelsey; Bangor University; Edinburgh Napier University (Human Kinetics, 2019-06-01)
      High-quality training environments are essential for athletic peak performance. However, recent research highlighted that athletes' personality characteristics could undermine effective training. The current set of studies aimed to examine whether specific transformational leadership characteristics displayed by the coach would moderate the potential negative impacts of two personality traits (i.e., extraversion and neuroticism) on training behaviours. In study 1, ninety-nine university athletes completed questionnaires assessing personality, transformational leadership, and training behaviours. In study 2, eighty-four high-level athletes completed the same personality and transformational leadership questionnaires. However, in study 2 the head coaches assessed athletes’ training behaviours. Both studies showed that coach high-performance expectations moderated the extraversion-distractibility relationship. Further, both studies also demonstrated that the relationship between neuroticism and coping with adversity was moderated by coach’s inspirational motivation. Our findings highlight that extraversion and neuroticism can negatively relate to training behaviours, but such effects can be moderated by certain transformational leadership behaviours.
    • Psychological correlates of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among Chinese children-psychological correlates of PA.

      Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shuge; Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Social Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China; Hong Kong Baptist University; Balor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; University of Texas (MDPI, 2016-10-13)
      This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8-13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22-0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures.
    • The development of the Japanese version of the compassionate engagement and action scales

      Asano, Kenichi; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Masao; Ishimura, Ikuo; Lin, Shuzhen; Matsumoto, Yuki; Matos, Marcela; Basran, Jaskaran; Gilbert, Paul; Mejiro University; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2020-04-01)
      The last few years have seen increasing research on self-report measures of compassion. The Compassionate Engagement and Action Scale (CEAS) is rooted in an evolutionary approach to compassion, which focuses on the competencies of compassion those are engagement with distress or suffering, and taking action to alleviate and prevent it. This study sought to validate the CEAS in a Japanese population using a cross-sectional design. A total of 279 students (82 males, 191 females, 6 unknown) answered self-report questionnaires, including the Japanese version of CEAS. We found single-factor structures for compassion for others scales, compassion from others scales, and compassion for self scales. All scales were found to have acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, and construct validity. Even though some limitations, these results indicate that the Japanese version of CEAS is an adequately constructed and useful measure to assess compassionate engagement and action toward others, from others, and for the self with Japanese population.
    • Engaging with distress: training in the compassionate approach

      McEwan, Kirsten; Minou, Lina; Moore, Hamish; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; Wellbeing Works, UK (Wiley, 2020-03-18)
      Compassionate care involves providing a welcoming environment, promoting bidirectional compassion, providing training in compassion and creating supportive organisations. To date there has not been a study evaluating Compassion interventions for the high‐threat profession of mental health nursing. Neither has there been a study providing an in‐depth qualitative evaluation of training and implementation. The current study aims to address these gaps in the literature. The aims were to evaluate Compassionate Mind Training‐CMT for mental health nurses and to assess implementation. Focus groups were conducted (N=28) one year later to evaluate CMT and implementation. Results: Content analysis revealed four training themes: i) Useful framework; ii) Thought‐provoking and exciting; iii) Appreciation of person‐centred approach; iv) Need for ongoing training and supervision. Three implementation themes emerged: i) Applied approach with patients and staff themselves; ii) Environmental challenges to implementation; iii) Attitudinal challenges to implementation. Consistent with previous studies, professionals experienced reduced self‐criticism and an increased self‐compassion, which extended to increased compassion and reduced criticism of colleagues and patients; and professionals applying training directly to reduce patient self‐criticism. For successful implementation formal adoption of Compassion‐approaches are needed with strategic integration at all levels.