• Understanding ‘vulnerability’ and ‘political skill’ in academy middle management during organisational change in professional youth football

      Gibson, Luke; Groom, Ryan; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis, 2020-09-15)
      The use of political skill to further employees’ self-interests and their ability to cope with ambiguity and employment vulnerability during periods of organizational change is an important yet under researched phenomenon. Taking a middle management perspective, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of Richard, a newly appointed professional youth football Academy Manager during the process of organizational change. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, formal academy team meetings, co-worker interviews, and informal observations and conversations, which were analyzed through the process of narrative analysis. Findings highlighted the hierarchical sensemaking challenges of vertically ‘managing up’ (e.g. Chairman, Board of Directors, 1st Team Manager) and ‘managing down’ (e.g. academy employees), and horizontally ‘managing across’ (e.g. Head of Coaching) during the process of organizational change. Importantly, managing expectations and influencing significant others, through skilled micro-political activity, was central to successfully negotiating the ambiguity and vulnerabilities of organizational life during change.
    • Psychological intervention for partners post-stroke: A case report

      Yasmin, Natasha; Riley, Gerard; University of Derby; University of Birmingham (IOS Press, 2020-07-21)
      Following a brain injury, caregiving spouses/partners differ in their perceptions of relationship continuity/discontinuity (i.e. whether the relationship is experienced as similar or different to the pre-injury relationship). Perceptions of continuity are associated with better psychological wellbeing and a better relationship. To conduct a pilot test of an intervention aimed at exploring the possibility of supporting caregiving partners to experience greater continuity within their relationship post-stroke. A post-stroke couple was provided with Integrated Behavioural Couples Therapy for three months, which aimed to increase relationship continuity alongside addressing individual goals identified by the couple. Before and after measures were taken using a battery of six questionnaires evaluating changes in perceptions of continuity, relationship quality, and stress. Quantitative and qualitative data showed post-therapy improvement in all the measures. The study suggested that perceptions of relationship continuity can be improved by therapy, and that such an improvement might have a beneficial impact in terms of relationship quality and psychological wellbeing. The intervention is currently being further developed and evaluated.
    • Psychometric properties of the German version of the fears of compassion scales

      Biermann, Miriam; Bohus, Martin; Gilbert, Paul; Vonderlin, Ruben; Cornelisse, Sven; Osen, Bernhard; Graser, Johannes; Brüne, Martin; Ebert, Andreas; Lyssenko, Lisa; et al. (Wiley, 2020-08-18)
      The cultivation of compassion is associated with beneficial effects on physical and psychological health, satisfaction with life and social relationships. However, some individuals, especially those high in psychopathological symptoms or those with particular disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) may demonstrate pronounced fears of engagement in compassionate experiences or behaviours. Furthermore, fears of compassion have been found to impede progress in psychotherapy. The 38‐item fears of compassion scales (FCS) is a self‐report questionnaire for measuring trait levels of fears of compassion (a) one receives from others (FCFO), (b) one feels towards others (FCTO) and (c) one feels for oneself (self‐compassion; FSC). The FCS is an internationally used instrument of proven validity and reliability in both clinical and nonclinical samples. In the present study, a German translation of the FCS including its three subscales was provided, and the psychometric properties were examined in 430 participants from four different samples: (a) a sample from the general population; (b) a mixed sample of psychiatric residential and outpatients; (c) a clinical sample of residential and outpatients with a primary diagnosis of BPD and (d) a sample of healthy control participants. Internal consistencies were excellent for the German version of the FSC and acceptable to excellent for its subscales. Correlations with established measures of mental health demonstrate its validity. Additionally, the German FCS discriminates significantly between individuals from the general population and patients, thus supporting its specificity. The German FCS is suitable to detect potential obstacles in cultivating compassion in psychotherapeutic treatments and beyond.
    • Attachment styles modulate neural markers of threat and imagery when engaging in self-criticism

      Kim, Jeffrey J.; Kent, Kirsty M.; Cunnington, Ross; Gilbert, Paul; Kirby, James N.; Compassionate Mind Research Group, School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.; The Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-13)
      Attachment styles hold important downstream consequences for mental health through their contribution to the emergence of self-criticism. To date, no work has extended our understanding of the influence of attachment styles on self-criticism at a neurobiological level. Herein we investigate the relationship between self-reported attachment styles and neural markers of self-criticism using fMRI. A correlation network analysis revealed lingual gyrus activation during self-criticism, a marker of visual mental imagery, correlated with amygdala activity (threat response). It also identified that secure attachment positively correlated with lingual gyrus activation, whilst avoidant attachment was negatively correlated with lingual gyrus activation. Further, at greater levels of amygdala response, more securely attached individuals showed greater lingual gyrus activation, and more avoidantly attached individuals showed less lingual gyrus activation. Our data provide the first evidence that attachment mechanisms may modulate threat responses and mental imagery when engaging in self-criticism, which have important clinical and broader social implications.
    • Expanding hermeneutic horizons: Working as multiple researchers and with multiple participants

      Montague, Jane; Phillips, Elly; Holland, Fiona; Archer, Stephanie; University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Sage Publications, 2020-08-10)
      The double hermeneutic is a central feature of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Typically, this has been considered in relation to individual researchers working with experiential accounts from individual participants. IPA has, however, frequently been applied by multiple researchers; a further layer of complexity occurs when individual or multiple researchers analyse data from group interactions. Little attention has been paid to hermeneutic considerations in these contexts. We present insights into our encounters with multiple hermeneutics as well as our application of the hermeneutic circle; we also consider implications for IPA research. Our multi-vocal approach to analysis requires us to work in a much more integrative manner than is generally represented in IPA literature. Explicitly attending to multiple hermeneutics in focus group situations provides additional insights into the social and cultural contexts within which participants’ experiences exist. This article discusses how the inclusion of multiple hermeneutics adds richness and robustness to IPA.
    • Using system mapping to help plan and implement city-wide action to promote physical activity

      Cavill, Nick; Richardson, Debra; Faghy, Mark; Bussell, Chris; Rutter, Harry; University of Bristol; University of Derby; University of Bath (PAGEPress Publications, 2020-08-26)
      Background. There is growing interest in conceptualising public health problems such as physical inactivity as the outcome of multiple interacting factors within complex systems. Methods. We worked with stakeholders involved in a city-wide physical activity promotion programme in Derby, UK to prodiuce conceptual maps of the major modifiable drivers of physical activity, and used them to explore ways in which the existing programme took a systems approach, and how it might be enhanced. Semi-structured interviews were subsequently undertaken to assess their views on the contribution of the mapping approach. Results. Feedback from stakeholders described the mapping as valuable, especially in helping to identify the limitations of the original approach taken in the city. Conclusions. Even a very simple application of systems thinking can be a useful tool for disaggregating the key factors driving a system, helping to identify areas that merit greater attention, and supporting effective action.
    • Worth the weight? Post weigh-in rapid weight gain is not related to winning or losing in professional mixed martial arts

      Kirk, Christopher; Langan-Evans, Carl; Morton, James P.; University of Derby; Liverpool John Moores University (Human Kinetics, 2020-09-01)
      Body mass (BM) manipulation via rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) is a common practice among mixed martial art (MMA) athletes to ensure qualification for the division in which the athlete wishes to compete. Professional MMA competitors in California are required to weigh in twice: 24 hr prior to competition and immediately prior to the bout after they have typically engaged in RWG. In analyzing data from five MMA events sanctioned by the Californian State Athletic Commission, the authors used Bayesian analyses to compare bout winners (n = 31) and losers (n = 31) in terms of in-competition BM (in kilograms) and the amount of BM regained between the two weigh-ins (in kilograms). These data do not support the hypothesis that differences in in-competition BM (Bayes factor [BF10] = 0.667, d = 0.23) or the amount of BM regained between the two weigh-ins (BF10 = 0.821, d = 0.23) determine winning or losing. In addition, there was no statistical difference between bouts ending via strikes, submission, or decision for either in-competition BM (BF10 = 0.686, ω2 < 0.01) or the amount of BM regained between the two weigh-ins (BF10 = 0.732, ω2 = 0.054). In conclusion, the authors report for the first time that the magnitude of RWG does not predict winning or losing in a professional cohort of MMA athletes. In addition, they also report that MMA athletes typically compete at a BM that is at least 1–2 divisions higher than the division in which they officially weighed-in. These analyses may provide impetus for governing bodies and coaches to enact changes at both professional and amateur levels to reduce negative health consequences associated with extreme RWL and RWG.
    • The physical demands of mixed martial arts: A narrative review using the ARMSS model to provide a hierarchy of evidence

      Kirk, Christopher; Clark, David R; Langan-Evans, Carl; Morton, James P; University of Derby; Liverpool John Moores University (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-12)
      The physical demands of mixed martial arts (MMA) training and competition is not yet well quantified. The Applied Research Model for the Sport Sciences (ARMSS) provides a framework through which to conduct sport science, determining pertinent questions to test research findings in real-world settings. The aim of this review was to evaluate MMA research within the context of ARMSS to critically analyse our understanding of the physical requirements of MMA training and competition. Research databases were searched, with 70 peer-reviewed articles being discussed in relation to the specific stage of the ARMSS in which their results best fit. MMA research was found to be mostly foundational and descriptive in nature and has generally not developed along systematic lines. The internal and external loads and responses to training and competition have not been adequately identified. Therefore, it is not currently possible to state which variables are key predictors of success, or how coaches can optimally manipulate these variables. We propose that MMA research be refocused to be conducted within ARMSS. Specifically, stage 2 studies describing the physical, physiological and technical demands of MMA training and competition, and stage 3 studies determining the physiological predictors of performance should be initially prioritised.
    • Does anthropometry influence technical factors in competitive mixed martial arts?

      Kirk, Christopher; University of Derby (Termedia, 2018-06-05)
      Purpose. Previous research has found grappling and strikes to the head to be the determining factors for success in MMA, whilst anthropometry in the form of stature and wingspan has been found to have a negligible effect. The current study was designed to determine if a relationship between technique use and anthropometry exists in MMA. The in-competition technique data of 461 elite, professional MMA bouts were compared using Bayes factor t-tests (BF10) to determine which techniques display the highest likelihood of distinguishing between winners and losers. The differences in technique numbers between winners and losers was also compared to the anthropometric differences between winners and losers using either Bayesian Pearson’s r or Bayesian Kendall’s Tau. Simple linear regression (p < 0.05) was used to calculate predictive ability of anthropometrics on chosen fighting techniques. Heavyweight competitors were distinguished by striking only (BF10 = 399 – 10). Light heavyweight, middleweight, featherweight, bantamweight, women’s bantamweight and women’s straw weight competitors were distinguished predominately by striking (BF10 = 791661 – 7) and moderately by grappling (BF10 = 75 – 7). Welterweight, lightweight and flyweight competitors were distinguished by striking techniques (BF10 = 3.533e+6 – 221) to achieve dominant grappling positions (BF10 = 17100 – 50). In turn, it was found that stature and/or wingspan are correlated to and can predict key technique variables at heavyweight, welterweight, lightweight and featherweight. The results provide evidence of which techniques are influenced by the anthropometric differences between competitors, allowing coaches and competitors to make more informed tactical decisions in competition preparation.
    • The challenge and impact of engaging hard-to-reach populations in regular physical activity and health behaviours: an examination of an English Premier League ‘Football in the Community’ men's health programme

      Curran, K.; Drust, B.; Murphy, R.; Pringle, Andy; Richardson, D.; Leeds Beckett University; Liverpool John Moores University (Elsevier BV, 2016-04-20)
      To investigate the challenges that men from hard-to-reach (HTR) populations encounter when attempting to commit to regular participation in physical activity and health behaviours, and to explore the psychological and social effects of participation in a twelve week football-led health improvement intervention. A twelve week football specific physical activity intervention targeting men from HTR populations was delivered by Everton Football Clubs' Football in the Community (FitC) scheme as part of a national programme of men's health delivered in/by English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Men living in homeless shelters and/or recovering from substance misuse were recruited over a period of three months. The programme consisted of a two hour football session, twice weekly, alongside the dissemination of healthy living messages. Football sessions were conducted by a qualified FitC coach. This research was conducted during a twelve week period of immersed practitioner-research. Ethnographic and observational methodologies were adopted. Psychosocial issues were discussed with participants through informal client–researcher interactions and data were logged via field notes. Records of attendance were logged. Participants who failed to attend a session were contacted and their reason(s) for non-attendance were recorded. Data were analysed using deductive and inductive reasoning. Despite the apparent ambition of the participants to regularly participate in the FitC programme, adherence to the programme was poor. Economic, environmental and social barriers to engagement in the programme were apparent. Engagement in the programme resulted in positive psychosocial developments; the development of structure, social interaction and social capital. Community based football-led health improvement programmes endorsed by professional football clubs appear well positioned to connect with, and attract, men from HTR populations. The evidence suggests that such programmes can improve psychosocial health amongst these populations. However, a bottom-up programme design and management strategy is required in order to reduce the challenges facing HTR participants when attempting to regularly engage in physical activity and health behaviours.
    • Why consistent completion criterion are required in childhood weight management programmes

      Nobles, J.; Griffiths, C.; Pringle, Andy; Gately, P.; Leeds Beckett University (Elsevier BV, 2017-09-01)
      Current research in the field of childhood weight management (WM) effectiveness is hampered by inconsistent terminology and criterion for WM programme completion, alongside other engagement-related concepts (e.g. adherence, dropout and attrition). Evidence reviews are not able to determine conclusive intervention effectiveness because of this issue. This study aims to quantify how various completion criterion impacts upon on: 1) the percentage of WM completers; 2) the standardised body mass index (BMI SDS) reduction; and 3) the predictors of WM completion. A methodological, sensitivity analysis to examine how differential completion criterion affect programme outcomes and predictors. Secondary data of 2948 children were used. All children attended a MoreLife WM programme between 2009 and 2014. The completion criterion was incrementally adjusted by 10% (i.e. completer attends 10%, 20%, 30%... of sessions) for research aims 1–2, with the percentage of completers and change in BMI SDS calculated at each increment. For aim 3, the stability (strength, direction and significance) of the predictors were examined when using the completion criterion of four alternative studies against our previous study (completion ≥70% attendance). The volume of programme completers decreased in a linear manner as the completion criterion became more stringent (i.e. 70–100% attendance). The change in BMI SDS conversely became incrementally greater. The strength, direction and significance of the predictors was highly dependent on the completion criterion; the odds ratio varied by 24.2% across a single predictor variable (delivery period). The degree of change is evidenced in the paper. Inconsistent completion criterion greatly limits the synthesis of programme effectiveness and explains some of the inconsistency in the predictors of engagement. Standardised criterion for engagement-related terminology are called for.
    • Engaging older adults with physical-activity delivered in professional soccer clubs: initial pre-adoption and implementation characteristics

      Pringle, Andy; Parnell, D; Zwolinsky, S; McKenna, J; Hargreaves, J; Rutherford, Z; Trotter, L; Rigby, M; Richardson, D; Leeds Beckett University (2015-05)
      Older-adults are a priority within policy designed to facilitate healthy lifestyles through physical activity. Golden Goal is a pilot programme of physical activity-led health improvement for older-adults 55 years and older. Activities were delivered at Burton Albion Football Club. Sessions involved weekly moderate-intensity exercise sessions including exer-gaming (exercise orientated video-games), indoor bowls, cricket, new age curling, walking football, and traditional board games and skittles. Secondary analysis of data collected through the original programme evaluation of Golden Goal investigated the impact of the intervention on participants. Older-adults completed self-reports for demographics, health-screening/complications and quality of life. Attendees, n=23 males (42.6%) and n=31 females (57.4%) with a mean age of 69.38 (±5.87) (n=40), ranging from 55-85 years took part. The mean attendance was 7.73 (±3.12) sessions for all participants, (n=51). Older-adults with two or more health complications (n=22, 42.3%) attended fewer sessions on average (6.91 ±3.322) compared to those reporting less than two health complications (8.65 ±2.694). Self-rated health was higher for women (87.32 ±9.573) versus men (80.16 ±18.557), although this was not statistically significant (U= 223.500, p=0.350). Results support the potential of football-led health interventions for recruiting older-adults, including those reporting health problems.
    • Are intervention-design characteristics more predictive than baseline participant characteristics on participant attendance to a paediatric, community weight management programme?

      Nobles, J; Gately, P; Griffiths, C; Pringle, Andy; Leeds Beckett University (2015-05)
      Approximately 50% of participants complete a paediatric weight management programme, yet the predictors of attendance and dropout are inconsistent. This study investigates subject and intervention-design characteristics associated with attendance at a group based, family weight management programme. Secondary data analysis of 2948 subjects (Age 10.4±2.8 years, BMI 26.0±5.7kg/m2, Standardised BMI (BMI SDS) 2.48±0.87, White 70.3%) from 244 MoreLife (UK) programmes. Subjects attend weekly for 10-12 weeks, sessions last 2-3 hours. Sessions include lifestyle guidance and physical activity. Subject characteristics (demographics, psychological (body satisfaction & self-esteem) and sedentary behaviour) were gathered at first contact and BMI SDS was noted weekly. Intervention-design characteristics were recorded (year, length (weeks), group size, age segregation and day of session). Attendance was calculated as total number of sessions attended (%). Multivariate linear regression examined predictors of attendance and multiple imputation countered missing data. RESULTS: Average attendance was 59.4%±29.3%. Baseline subject characteristics were ‘poor’ predictors of attendance. Intervention year, group size and day of session significantly predicted attendance (Tables 1 & 2). Yet, the most predictive marker of attendance was a change in BMI SDS during the programme (B = -0.38, 95% CI = -0.43 - -0.33). A reduction in BMI was seen to predict greater attendance. However, baseline subject characteristics were weakly associated with attendance, refuting past findings. Dominant intervention characteristics (large groups, weekend sessions and recent delivery) predicted lower attendance. Future programmes may be better informed.
    • Engaging families in weight management

      Nobles, J; Griffiths, C; Pringle, Andy; Staniford, L; Gately, P; Leeds Beckett University (2016-06)
      Approximately 50% of families who initiate a weight management programme (WMP) will not complete. It is fundamental to understand why participants initiate and complete a programme, and to ensure that programmes are effectively designed and delivered. This study examined the reasoning for family (young person and parent) engagement in three different and diverse WMPs. A multiple instrumental case study approach was employed. Three community-based WMPs participated: MoreLife, SHINE, and Weigh to Go. Clear design and implementation differences existed between WMPs. Multiple WMPs were recruited to examine the generalisability of research findings, and extract key features associated with participant engagement. Thirty families took part (~10 per programme). Data were collected early in the programme (0-2 weeks) and immediately after completion or dropout (within two weeks). Young people took part in a Participatory Action Research (PAR) session (interactive activities to generate meaningful information), and parents completed semi-structured interviews. A deductive line of inquiry was used; questions were based upon participant characteristics, environmental interactions, psychological processes and programme interactions. Interview data was transcribed verbatim and analysed alongside the PAR data using content and thematic analysis (themes presented in italics). Preliminary findings indicate that families often engage in a WMP for non-weight related reasons. Such reasons include: management of mental health, to improve self -esteem, and to create friendships. Families remain in a WMP when: the programme suits their needs, they fit in amongst other participants, strong relationships are fostered with staff, and have strong support networks. Numerous families completing programmes prioritised WMP attendance above other leisure activities, and had plans in place to ensure they could attend each session. Low engagement was due to situational factors (e.g. logistic barriers [transport, timing…]) rather than programme dissatisfaction. Families attend community-based WMPs for reasons beyond weight management. Additionally, the families identified unique WMP features (e.g. maintenance programmes and non-clinical staff) which encourage programme attendance. Such features can be replicated in multiple, diverse settings. Understanding participant engagement is critical to designing and implementing efficacious WMPs.
    • Physical activity and sedentary behavior clustering: segmentation to optimize active lifestyles

      Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, James; Pringle, Andy; Widdop, Paul; Griffiths, Claire; Mellis, Michelle; Rutherford, Zoe; Collins, Peter; Leeds Beckett University (Human Kinetics, 2016-09)
      Increasingly the health impacts of physical inactivity are being distinguished from those of sedentary behavior. Nevertheless, deleterious health prognoses occur when these behaviors combine, making it a Public Health priority to establish the numbers and salient identifying factors of people who live with this injurious combination. Using an observational between-subjects design, a nonprobability sample of 22,836 participants provided data on total daily activity. A 2-step hierarchical cluster analysis identified the optimal number of clusters and the subset of distinguishing variables. Univariate analyses assessed significant cluster differences. High levels of sitting clustered with low physical activity. The Ambulatory & Active cluster (n = 6254) sat for 2.5 to 5 h·d−1 and were highly active. They were significantly younger, included a greater proportion of males and reported low Indices of Multiple Deprivation compared with other clusters. Conversely, the Sedentary & Low Active cluster (n = 6286) achieved ≤60 MET·min·wk−1 of physical activity and sat for ≥8 h·d−1. They were the oldest cluster, housed the largest proportion of females and reported moderate Indices of Multiple Deprivation. Public Health systems may benefit from developing policy and interventions that do more to limit sedentary behavior and encourage light intensity activity in its place.
    • A calling for standardised completion criteria in weight management

      Nobles, J; Pringle, Andy; Griffiths, C; Gately, P; Leeds Beckett University (2016-06)
      The criteria for participant completion of a weight management programme (WMP) is arbitrary. Programme commissioners (WMP purchasers) will frequently establish the percentage of attendance that classifies programme completion (e.g. 70% attendance). Differential criteria for WMP completion make it impossible for researchers, practitioners and policy makers to conclude what constitutes an effective programme and what factors predict WMP completion. This study exemplifies the impact of variable completion status on 1) BMI reduction, 2) volume of completers and 3) predictors of completion. Secondary data was obtained from MoreLife – a UK-based, community WMP for children (aged 4-17 years). 2948 children attended between 2009-2014 (Age 10.4±2.8 years, BMI 26.0±5.7kg/m2, Standardised BMI (BMI SDS) 2.48±0.87 units, White 70.3%). Separate analyses were conducted for research aims 1-2, and aim 3. Programme completion was adjusted incrementally by 10% (i.e. 10%, 20% attendance etc…) for research aims 1-2. The volume of programme completers and change in BMI SDS was calculated at each increment of the completion criteria (0-100%). For aim 3, programme completion was defined using five classifications from previous WMP studies (e.g. 50% sessions attended). Multivariable logistic regression determined participant and programme variables predictive of programme completion. Percentage difference between the odds ratio of the original model (completion = 70% attendance) and the four subsequent models was calculated. The volume of participants completing the programme decreased in a linear manner (r = -0.99, p = 0.00) when completion classification became more stringent (i.e. 70-100% attendance). Conversely, the change in BMI SDS became incrementally greater (r = 0.98, p = 0.00). Predictors of completion varied by up to 24.2% in certain variables (e.g. Programme Intake Period) when using five different completion classifications. Statistical significance of the predictor variables were reliant on completion classification (e.g. WMP Group Size was significant in two of five models). The volume of completers and change in BMI SDS were strongly associated with programme completion classification. Poor programme outcomes (e.g. minimal change in BMI SDS) can be masked by (un)demanding completion criteria. Moreover, completion criteria mediates participant and programme characteristics predictive of programme completion. Standardised completion criteria are called for.
    • Supporting lifestyle risk reduction: promoting men’s health through professional football

      Zwolinsky, S.; McKenna, J.; Pringle, Andy; Daly-Smith, A.; Robertson, S.; White, A.; Leeds Beckett University (Taylor and Francis, 2015-10-01)
      For men, unhealthy lifestyle behaviours including physical inactivity, a poor diet, smoking and excess alcohol represent major, modifiable causes of non-communicable disease worldwide. Innovative approaches that seek to overcome the barriers that men experience when attempting to deploy more self-care to manage these behaviours are required. This study assessed the outcomes of a 12-week men’s health promotion intervention delivered in and by professional football clubs. Data comprised self-reports from 1667 men aged 18–75 years from 16 English Premier League and Championship football clubs. A multinomial logistic regression model estimated the probability of self-reporting a number of baseline lifestyle risk factors compared to a reference group with none. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests assessed differences in lifestyle risk profiles. Over 85% of participants presented with multiple risk factors. Men aged ≥35 years were least likely to present all four risk factors (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23–0.88), whereas unemployed men (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.78–7.51) and those with no social support network (OR: 5.10, 95% CI: 2.44–10.50) were most likely to self-report all four lifestyle risks. The prevalence of risk factors was significantly reduced post-intervention (z = −7.488, p < 0.001, r = −0.13), indicating a positive effect, and potential public health significance. Findings show that men can respond positively to behaviourally-focused interventions delivered in familiar and local settings, like professional football clubs.
    • Health improvement for men and hard-to-engage-men delivered in English Premier League football clubs

      Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, S.; McKenna, J.; Robertson, S.; Daly-Smith, A.; White, A.; Leeds Metropolitan University (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2014-03-21)
      Unhealthy behaviours represent modifiable causes of non-communicable disease. In men, concern focuses on those (i) demonstrating the poorest health, exacerbated by a lack of awareness of the risks that their lifestyles pose and (ii) who neither consult their doctor nor use health services. Classed as ‘hard-to-engage’, distinctive strategies are needed to reach these men. Impact and process evaluations assessed the effect of a programme of men’s health-delivered in/by English Premier League football clubs. Men attended match-day events and/or weekly classes involving physical activity and health education. Validated self-report measures for demographics and lifestyle behaviours were completed pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed on pre-versus-post-intervention differences in lifestyle profiles, whereas interviews (n = 57) provided men’s accounts of programme experience. Participants were predominantly white British (70.4%/n = 2669), 18–44 (80.2%/n = 3032) and employed (60.7%/n = 1907). One-third (n = 860) ‘never’ visited their doctor. Over 85% (n = 1428) presented with combinations of lifestyle risk factors. Intention-to-treat analysis showed improvements (P < 0.001) in lifestyle profiles. Interviews confirmed recruitment of men who were hard-to-engage and unhealthy. Men were attracted through football and/or the clubs, whereas specific design factors impacted on participation. Limitations include use of self-reports, narrow demographics, small effect sizes, lack of follow-up and the absence of non-completers in interviews.
    • Can ‘English premier league’ funding for PE and school sport achieve its aims?

      Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Parnell, Daniel; Pringle, Andy; Leeds Beckett University (Taylor and Francis, 2015-09-10)
      There are a number of assertions being made for a £10 m investment by the English Premier League for primary school sport. For example, it is claimed that Physical Education plus school sport can improve cognitive functioning, concentration, behaviour, educational attainment and overall physical health. However, far from being sufficient in helping to achieve these benefits and sustain long-term activity participation, for some children, Physical Education and competitive sport may actually be counterproductive. In some instances, it may switch them off from activity altogether. Therefore, we need to understand more about which elements of this scheme work, who they work for and which circumstances they work in. Fundamentally, this will only be achieved through hard evidence and robust evaluation.
    • ‘Sorry mate, you’re probably a bit too fat to be able to do any of this’: Men’s experiences of weight stigma and its implications

      Lozano, L; McKenna, Jim; Carless, D; Pringle, Andy; Sparkes, A; Leeds Beckett University (Men's Studies Press, 2016)
      This study explores men’s experiences of weight stigma with a sample of men attending a weight management programme. Men’s understanding of stigma, including its sources, their responses to it, and its impact, were discussed using focus groups. Findings from a thematic analysis indicate that weight stigma undermines men’s masculine sense of self. Weight stigma becomes a social threat – real or imagined - that entails negative psychosocial outcomes, impeding men’s participation in social activities, including weight loss. With adequate social support, a men-only weight management programme is perceived as a safe environment where the men recovered their impaired self-concept. We suggest that weight stigma should be considered in the design of men’s weight management interventions, to generate a more compassionate approach to weight loss.