• The factor structure of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale in thirteen distinct populations.

      Halamová, Júlia; Kanovský, Martin; Gilbert, Paul; Troop, Nicholas A.; Zuroff, David C.; Hermanto, Nicola; Petrocchi, Nicola; Sommers-Spijkerman, Marion; Kirby, James N.; Shahar, Ben; et al. (Springer, 2018-06-13)
      There is considerable evidence that self-criticism plays a major role in the vulnerability to and recovery from psychopathology. Methods to measure this process, and its change over time, are therefore important for research in psychopathology and well-being. This study examined the factor structure of a widely used measure, the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale in thirteen nonclinical samples (N = 7510) from twelve different countries: Australia (N = 319), Canada (N = 383), Switzerland (N = 230), Israel (N = 476), Italy (N = 389), Japan (N = 264), the Netherlands (N = 360), Portugal (N = 764), Slovakia (N = 1326), Taiwan (N = 417), the United Kingdom 1 (N = 1570), the United Kingdom 2 (N = 883), and USA (N = 331). This study used more advanced analyses than prior reports: a bifactor item-response theory model, a two-tier item-response theory model, and a non-parametric item-response theory (Mokken) scale analysis. Although the original three-factor solution for the FSCRS (distinguishing between Inadequate-Self, Hated-Self, and Reassured-Self) had an acceptable fit, two-tier models, with two general factors (Self-criticism and Self-reassurance) demonstrated the best fit across all samples. This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that this two-factor structure can be used in a range of nonclinical contexts across countries and cultures. Inadequate-Self and Hated-Self might not by distinct factors in nonclinical samples. Future work may benefit from distinguishing between self-correction versus shame-based self-criticism.
    • Multiple group IRT measurement invariance analysis of the forms of self-criticising/attacking and self-reassuring scale in thirteen international samples

      Halamová, Júlia; Kanovský, Martin; Gilbert, Paul; Troop, Nicholas; Zuroff, David C.; Petrocchi, Nicola; Hermanto, Nicola; Krieger, Tobias; Kirby, James; Asano, Kenichi; et al. (Springer US, 2019-04-30)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS) in terms of Item Response Theory differential test functioning in thirteen distinct samples (N = 7714) from twelve different countries. We assessed differential test functioning for the three FSCRS subscales, Inadequate-Self, Hated-Self and Reassured-Self separately. 32 of the 78 pairwise comparisons between samples for Inadequate-Self, 42 of the 78 pairwise comparisons for Reassured-Self and 54 of the 78 pairwise comparisons for Hated-Self demonstrated no differential test functioning, i.e. measurement invariance. Hated-Self was the most invariant of the three subscales, suggesting that self-hatred is similarly perceived across different cultures. Nonetheless, all three subscales of FSCRS are sensitive to cross-cultural differences. Considering the possible cultural and linguistic differences in the expression of self-criticism and self-reassurance, future analyses of the meanings and connotations of these constructs across the world are necessary in order to develop or tailor a scale which allows cross-cultural comparisons of various treatment outcomes related to self-criticism.