• Development and initial validation of the impression motivation in sport questionnaire–team.

      Payne, Simon Mark; Hudson, Joanne; Akehurst, Sally; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Aberystwyth University; University of Derby; University of Birmingham (Human Kinetics, 2013-06)
      Impression motivation is an important individual difference variable that has been under-researched in sport psychology, partly due to having no appropriate measure. This study was conducted to design a measure of impression motivation in team-sport athletes. Construct validity checks decreased the initial pool of items, factor analysis (n = 310) revealed the structure of the newly developed scale, and exploratory structural equation modeling procedures (n = 406) resulted in a modified scale that retained theoretical integrity and psychometric parsimony. This process produced a 15-item, 4-factor model; the Impression Motivation in Sport Questionnaire–Team (IMSQ-T) is forwarded as a valid measure of the respondent’s dispositional strength of motivation to use self-presentation in striving for four distinct interpersonal objectives: self-development, social identity development, avoidance of negative outcomes, and avoidance of damaging impressions. The availability of this measure has contributed to theoretical development, will facilitate research, and offers a tool for use in applied settings. Keywords: self-presentation, impression management
    • The leader ship is sinking: A temporal investigation of narcissistic leadership

      Ong, Chin Wei; Roberts, Ross; Arthur, Calum A.; Woodman, Tim; Akehurst, Sally; Bangor University; Bangor University; Bangor University; University of Stirling; Bangor University; University of Derby (Wiley, 2016-03-09)
      Individuals higher in narcissism have leader emergent tendencies.The characteristics of their personality suggest, however, that their leadership qualities will decrease over time as a function of group acquaintance.We present data from two studies that provide the first empirical support for this theoretical position within a transformational leadership framework. In Study 1 (N = 112), we tested narcissistic leadership qualities in groups of unacquainted individuals over a 12-week period. In Study 2 (N = 152),we adopted the same protocol with groups of acquainted individuals. In Study 1, narcissism was positively associated with peer-rated leadership during initial group formation but not later. In Study 2, narcissism was not significantly associated with peer-rated leadership during initial group formation and was negatively associated with peer-rated leadership later. In Study 1, transformational leadership mediated the relationship between narcissism and leadership initially but not later on. In Study 2, transformational leadership failed to mediate the relationship between narcissism and leadership throughout the study. Despite enjoying a honeymoon period of leadership, the appeal and attractiveness of the narcissistic leader rapidly wane. This decline is explained in part by their changing transformational leadership qualities.