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  • Integrating sport and exercise medicine clinics into the National Health Service: a qualitative study

    Vishnubala, Dane; Mariono, Katherine, Rose; Pratten, Margaret, Kathryn; Pringle, Andy; Griffin, Steffan, Arthur; Finn, Gabrielle; Bazira, Peter; Edwards, Kimberley; Hull York Medical School, York; University of Leeds; et al. (BMJ, 2020-11-03)
    Objectives To explore the services National Health Service (NHS)-based sport and exercise medicine (SEM) clinics can offer, and the barriers to creating and integrating SEM services into the NHS. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to collect data from identified ‘stakeholders’. Stakeholders were identified as individuals who had experience and knowledge of the speciality of SEM and the NHS. An inductive thematic analysis approach was taken to analyse the data. N=15 stakeholder interviews. The management of musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries (both acute and chronic) and concussion were highlighted as the two key services that SEM clinics can offer that would most benefit the NHS. MSK ultrasound was also mentioned by all stakeholders as a critical service that SEM clinics should provide. While exercise medicine is an integral part of SEM, SEM clinics should perhaps not have a heavy exercise medicine focus. The key barriers to setting up SEM clinics were stated to be convincing NHS management, conflict with other specialities and a lack of awareness of the speciality. The management of acute MSK injuries and concussion should be the cornerstone of SEM services, ideally with the ability to provide MSK ultrasound. Education of others on the speciality of SEM, confirming consistent ‘unique selling points’ of SEM clinics and promoting how SEM can add value to the NHS is vital. If the successful integration of SEM into the NHS is not widely achieved, we risk the NHS not receiving all the benefits that SEM can provide to the healthcare system.
  • Fundamental movement skills and accelerometer-measured physical activity levels during early childhood: a systematic review

    Dobell, Alexandra; Pringle, Andy; Faghy, Mark A.; Roscoe, Clare M. P.; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2020-11-11)
    Early childhood is a key period for children to begin developing and practicing fundamental movement skills (FMS), while aiming to perform sufficient physical activity (PA). This study reviews the current evidence for the levels of achievement in FMS and PA measured using accelerometers among 4–5-year-old children and examines differences by gender. This review was conducted using the PRISMA framework. Keyword searches were conducted in Pubmed, Medline, Google Scholar and SPORTDiscus. Inclusion criteria included age: 4–5 years old; FMS measurement: Test of Gross Motor Development 2 and 3; PA measurement: objective methods; balance measurement: static single limb; study design: cross-sectional observational/descriptive, randomised control trials, intervention studies; language: English. Twenty-eight articles from twenty-one countries met the inclusion criteria and were split into either FMS and PA articles (n = 10) or balance articles (n = 18). Three articles showed children achieving 60 min of moderate to vigorous PA per day, two articles demonstrated significant differences between girls’ and boys’ performance of locomotor skills and five reported locomotor skills to be more proficient than object control skills at this age for both genders. Balance was measured in time (n = 12), points score (n = 3) or biomechanical variables (n = 3), displaying heterogeneity of not only measurement but also outcomes within these data, with static single limb balance held between 6.67 to 87.6 s within the articles. Four articles reported girls to have better balance than boys. There is little conclusive evidence of the current levels for FMS, PA and balance achievement in young children 4–5 years of age. The academic literature consistently reports low levels of FMS competence and mixed evidence for PA levels. Inconsistencies lie in balance measurement methodology, with broad-ranging outcomes of both low and high achievement at 4–5 years old. Further research is required to focus on increasing practice opportunities for children to improve their FMS, increase PA levels and establish sufficient balance ability. Consistent and comparable outcomes during early childhood through more homogenous methodologies are warranted.
  • Task-efficacy predicts perceived enjoyment and subsequently barrier-efficacy: Investigation of a psychological process underpinning schoolchildren’s physical activity

    Zhang, Shuge; Wang, Jingjing; Pitkethly, Amanda; University of Derby; China Institute of Sport Science, Beijing; Edinburgh Napier University (Taylor & Francis, 2020-11-20)
    Self-efficacy and perceived enjoyment have been recognized as important psychological correlates of children’s physical activity (PA). However, research investigating the psychological process underpinning self-efficacy and perceived enjoyment has generated “contradictory” findings – with some regarding self-efficacy as an antecedent of enjoyment while the others arguing for the reverse. To mitigate this confusion, we have embraced the largely overlooked distinction between task- and barrier-efficacy in PA research and have examined the proposal that task-efficacy enhances perceived enjoyment and, subsequently, increases barrier-efficacy and PA. In a sample of 331 eight-to-ten years old schoolchildren (169 boys), task-efficacy manifested an indirect effect on accelerometer-based measures of MVPA and total PA via perceived enjoyment and subsequently barrier-efficacy. Perceived enjoyment served as a mediator of task-efficacy on MVPA but not total PA. Barrier-efficacy appeared to be a consistent mediator underlying schoolchildren’s PA regardless of PA intensity. The findings suggest that 1) the distinction between task- and barrier-efficacy warrants consideration in children’s PA promotion and 2) the psychological drivers of more vigorous types of PA differ compared to lower intensity PA. Future research would do well to explore the key psychological factors underpinning less vigorous types of PA to inform the development of effective PA interventions for those who have difficulties engaging in MVPA.
  • Being limitless: A discursive analysis of online accounts of modafinil use

    Hall, Matthew; Forshaw, Mark; Montgomery, Catharine; Arden University; University of Derby; Liverpool John Moores University (Palgrave Macmillan/ Springer, 2020-10-31)
    Modafinil is a prescription-only substance in the UK for the treatment of disorders such as narcolepsy. Soldiers have also used this substance as an alternative to amphetamines in situations where they face long periods of sleep deprivation. More recently, the substance has become increasingly popular for enhancing cognitive performance e.g. students taking exams. Modafinil is widely available on the Internet and is reported to carry a wide range of health risks and side effects if not taken with medical supervision. Given the tension between health risk and enhanced cognitive performance, how people talk about modafinil use becomes an important question. Drawing on discourse analysis we focus in particular on how respondents work up accounts of their modafinil use as credible, authentic, and legitimate; a community of practice. Our analysis has clear implications for engaging (mis)use in health promotion interventions.
  • Chemically modified minds: Substance use for cognitive enhancement

    Hall, Matthew; Forshaw, Mark; Montgomery, Catharine; Arden University; University of Derby (Palgrave Macmillan/ Springer, 2020-10-31)
    This innovative edited collection brings together leading international academics to explore, from a psychosocial perspective, the use of various non-prescription and prescription substances showing the complex reasons behind their adoption, and the ways in which they are misused, and links between use and cognitive enhancement. While studies on drug use to date have examined drug use in the context of sporting performance, addiction and recreational use there has been little work which explores their wider misuse to improve cognitive enhancement. With medical sociology and social psychology at its core, this important volume shows the complex reasons behind the misuse of various substances, how these are connected to contemporary desire for increased mental performance, and why the potential health risks and possibly harmful side effects do not act as deterrents.
  • Examining the relationship of personality functioning and treatment completion in substance misuse treatment

    Papamalis, Fivos E.; University of Derby UK, Thessaloniki, Greece. (SAGE Publications, 2020-10-06)
    Treatment retention is a major factor contributing to favourable outcome in the treatment of substance misuse, but the literature remains very limited. Despite evidence of the association of personality with drug use experimentation and relapse, surprisingly little is known about its role in the treatment process. Clients’ personality functioning as measured by malleable and context sensitive characteristic adaptations in treatment are of concern. This study examines whether, and to what extent, personality functioning contributes to or hinders treatment completion. This paper examined the extent to which service users’ characteristic adaptations may be potential determinants of treatment completion. A longitudinal multi-site design was utilised, examining the therapy process in a naturalistic setting in five inpatient treatment units. The study examined whether service users’ characteristic adaptations (SIPP-118) predict completion, while controlling psychosocial, motivational and treatment engagement indicators involving n = 340 participants from 5 inpatient centres. Multivariate regression analyses were applied to examine the predictive role of characteristic adaptations on treatment completion. Findings indicated that certain dysfunctional characteristic adaptations emerged as strong predictors of treatment completion. Dysfunctional levels on Self-control and Social concordance were significant predictors of drop out from treatment. Individuals with low capacity to tolerate, use and control one’s own emotions and impulses were almost three times more likely to drop-out compared to those without [OR] = 2.73, Wald = 6.09, P = .014, 95% CI [1.2, 6.0]. Individuals with dysfunctional levels on the ability to value someone’s identity, withhold aggressive impulses towards others and work together with others were 2.21 more times more likely to complete treatment [OR] = 2.21, Wald = 4.12, P = .042, 95% CI [1.0, 4.7]. The analysis at the facet level provided additional insight. Individuals with higher adaptive levels on Effortful Control were 46% more times likely to complete treatment than the group [OR] = 4.67, Wald = 10.231, P = .001, 95% CI [1.81, 12.04], 47% more likely on Aggression regulation [OR] = 4.76, Wald = 16.68, P < .001, 95% CI [2.1, 10.3], and 26% more likely on Stable self-image [OR] = 2.62, Wald = 6.75, P < .009, 95% CI [0.9, 3.0]. These findings extend our knowledge of the predictive role of characteristic adaptations in treatment completion and highlight the clinical utility of capturing these individual differences early on. Delineating the role of characteristic adaptations in treatment may provide the basis for enhancing treatment effectiveness through individualized interventions that are scientifically driven and may open new avenues for the scientific enquiry of personality and treatment.
  • Targeting complement cascade: an alternative strategy for COVID-19

    Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Arunachalam, Sankarganesh; Deepak, Venkataraman; Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Sundar, Krishnan; Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankoil, Tamilnadu, India; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-19)
    The complement system is a stakeholder of the innate and adaptive immune system and has evolved as a crucial player of defense with multifaceted biological effects. Activation of three complement pathways leads to consecutive enzyme reactions resulting in complement components (C3 and C5), activation of mast cells and neutrophils by anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a), the formation of membrane attack complex (MAC) and end up with opsonization. However, the dysregulation of complement cascade leads to unsolicited cytokine storm, inflammation, deterioration of alveolar lining cells, culminating in acquired respiratory destructive syndrome (ARDS). Similar pathogenesis is observed with the middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acquired respiratory syndrome (SARS), and SARS-CoV-2. Activation of the lectin pathway via mannose-binding lectin associated serine protease 2 (MASP2) is witnessed under discrete viral infections including COVID-19. Consequently, the spontaneous activation and deposits of complement components were traced in animal models and autopsy of COVID-19 patients. Pre-clinical and clinical studies evidence that the inhibition of complement components results in reduced complement deposits on target and non-target tissues, and aid in recovery from the pathological conditions of ARDS. Complement inhibitors (monoclonal antibody, protein, peptide, small molecules, etc.) exhibit great promise in blocking the activity of complement components and its downstream effects under various pathological conditions including SARS-CoV. Therefore, we hypothesize that targeting the potential complement inhibitors and complement cascade to counteract lung inflammation would be a better strategy to treat COVID-19.
  • Effects of vegetation on bacterial communities, carbon and nitrogen in dryland soil surfaces: implications for shrub encroachment in the southwest Kalahari

    Thomas, Andrew D.; Tooth, Stephen; Wu, Li; Elliott, David R.; Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan; Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-10-09)
    Shrub encroachment is occurring in many of the world's drylands, but its impacts on ecosystem structure and function are still poorly understood. In particular, it remains unclear how shrub encroachment affects dryland soil surfaces, including biological soil crust (biocrust) communities. In this study, soil surfaces (0–1 cm depth) were sampled from areas of Grewia flava shrubs and Eragrostis lehmanniana and Schmidtia kalahariensis grasses in the southwest Kalahari during two different seasons (March and November). Our hypothesis is that the presence of different vegetation cover types (shrubs versus grasses) alters the microbial composition of soil surfaces owing to their contrasting microenvironments. The results showed that more significant differences in microclimate (light, soil surface temperatures) and soil surface microbial communities were observed between shrubs and grasses than between sampling seasons. Based on high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, our findings showed that approximately one third (33.5%) of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) occurred exclusively in soil surfaces beneath shrubs. Soil surfaces with biocrusts in grass areas were dominated by the cyanobacteria Microcoleus steenstrupii, whereas the soil surfaces beneath shrubs were dominated by the proteobacteria Microvirga flocculans. Soil surfaces beneath shrubs are associated with reduced cyanobacterial abundance but have higher total carbon and total nitrogen contents compared to biocrusts in grass areas. These findings infer changes in the relative contributions from different sources of carbon and nitrogen (e.g. cyanobacterial and non-cyanobacterial fixation, plant litter, animal activity). The distinctive microbial composition and higher carbon and nitrogen contents in soil surfaces beneath shrubs may provide a positive feedback mechanism promoting shrub encroachment, which helps to explain why the phenomenon is commonly observed to be irreversible.
  • Population genetic diversity in an Iraqi population and gene flow across the Arabian Peninsula.

    Hayder, Lazim; Almohammed, Eida Khalaf; Hadi, Sibte; Smith, Judith; University of Derby; Ministry of Interior of Qatar, Doha, Qatar; University of Central Lancashire (Nature, 2020-09-17)
    Y-STRs have emerged as important forensic and population genetic markers for human identification and population differentiation studies. Therefore, population databases for these markers have been developed for almost all major populations around the world. The Iraqi population encompasses several ethnic groups that need to be genetically characterised and evaluated for possible substructures. Previous studies on the Iraqi population based on Y-STR markers were limited by a restricted number of markers. A larger database for Iraqi Arab population needed to be developed to help study and compare the population with other Middle Eastern populations. Twenty-three Y-STR loci included in the PowerPlex Y23 (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) were typed in 254 males from the Iraqi Arab population. Global and regional Y-STR analysis demonstrated regional genetic continuity among the populations of Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. The Iraqi Arab haplotypes were used to allocate samples to their most likely haplogroups using Athey’s Haplogroup Predictor tool. Prediction indicated predominance (36.6%) of haplogroup J1 in Iraqi Arabs. The migration rate between other populations and the Iraqis was inferred using coalescence theory in the Migrate-n program. Y-STR data were used to test different out-of-Africa migration models as well as more recent migrations within the Arabian Peninsula. The migration models demonstrated that gene flow to Iraq began from East Africa, with the Levantine corridor the most probable passageway out of Africa. The data presented here will enrich our understanding of genetic diversity in the region and introduce a PowerPlex Y23 database to the forensic community.
  • A biopsychosocial framework for recovery from COVID-19

    Stuart, Kaz; Faghy, Mark A.; Bidmead, Elaine; Browning, Ruth; Roberts, Catriona; Grimwood, Sam; Winn-Reed, Thea; University of Cumbria; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-09-23)
    This paper proposes a biopsychosocial (BPS) analysis of COVID-19 experiences which enhances understanding of complex and interrelated factors and leads to the proposition of a BPS recovery framework. Online narrative research was used to explore people's experiences of COVID-19 and was conducted over a four-month period. The call was distributed via a short open-ended qualitative online survey advertised on social media platforms and 305 responses came from across England. The findings illustrate people with a narrow range of BPS characteristics experienced over a wide range of BPS impacts which are nuanced, complex and dynamic. Left unaddressed these may create future adverse BPS characteristics. An integrated BPS framework for recovery is proposed to avoid such further negative outcomes from the pandemic. The sample contained a bias in age, gender and living arrangements. The paper offers a clear framework to enable integrated holistic recovery/regrowth planning. Using the framework would reduce social and health inequities which have been recently deepened by COVID-19 in the long-term.
  • Sodium bicarbonate ingestion improves time-to-exhaustion cycling performance and alters estimated energy system contribution: a dose-response investigation

    Gurton, William H.; Gough, Lewis A.; Sparks, S. Andy; Faghy, Mark A.; Reed, Katharine E.; University of Essex; Birmingham City University; Edge Hill University; University of Derby (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-09-08)
    This study investigated the effects of two sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) doses on estimated energy system contribution and performance during an intermittent high-intensity cycling test (HICT), and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) exercise. Twelve healthy males (stature: 1.75 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 67.5 ± 6.3 kg; age: 21.0 ± 1.4 years; maximal oxygen consumption: 45.1 ± 7.0−1) attended four separate laboratory visits. Maximal aerobic power (MAP) was identified from an incremental exercise test. During the three experimental visits, participants ingested either 0.2−1 BM NaHCO3 (SBC2), 0.3−1 BM NaHCO3 (SBC3), or 0.07−1 BM sodium chloride (placebo; PLA) at 60 min pre-exercise. The HICT involved 3 × 60 s cycling bouts (90, 95, 100% MAP) interspersed with 90 s recovery, followed by TTE cycling at 105% MAP. Blood lactate was measured after each cycling bout to calculate estimates for glycolytic contribution to exercise. Gastrointestinal (GI) upset was quantified at baseline, 30 and 60 min post-ingestion, and 5 min post-exercise. Cycling TTE increased for SBC2 (+20.2 s; p = 0.045) and SBC3 (+31.9 s; p = 0.004) compared to PLA. Glycolytic contribution increased, albeit non-significantly, during the TTE protocol for SBC2 (+7.77 kJ; p = 0.10) and SBC3 (+7.95 kJ; p = 0.07) compared to PLA. GI upset was exacerbated post-exercise after SBC3 for nausea compared to SBC2 and PLA (p < 0.05), whilst SBC2 was not significantly different to PLA for any symptom (p > 0.05). Both NaHCO3 doses enhanced cycling performance and glycolytic contribution, however, higher doses may maximize ergogenic benefits.
  • Psychometric validity of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scale for Adolescents: a Swedish version

    Henje, Eva; Rindestig, Frida Carlberg; Gilbert, Paul; Dennhag, Inga; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Clinical Sciences, Umea University, Sweden; University of Derby (Exeley, Inc., 2020-07-18)
    There is increasing evidence that compassion is linked to mental health and well-being while difficulties in receiving and expressing compassion to self and others is associated with mental health and social difficulties. For the most part the self-report scales that measure these processes have been developed for adults and little is known how they function in adolescents. This study investigates a Swedish adaption for adolescents of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS), developed by Gilbert et al. (2017) for adults. This assesses different competencies associated with being compassionate to others, the experience receiving compassion from others, and being compassionate with one-self. To evaluate the psychometric properties and gender differences of CEAS for Youths - Swedish version (CEASYSE), in a school-sample of adolescents (n = 316) aged 15-20 years. The Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales were translated into Swedish. A back-translation method was used. It was then adapted for adolescents with age-appropriate language. Adolescents were recruited by research assistants at two public high schools. After removing one item of each subscale, the dimensionalities of the three scales were good. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that engagement and action constituted different dimensions in each scale. Internal consistency was good to excellent in all three sub-scales (α from 0.74 to 0.92). Intra Class Correlations demonstrated good to excellent test-retest reliability over a period of three weeks (0.67 to 0.85). Convergent and divergent validity were as expected, except for Compassion for others, which did not correlate with anxiety and depression symptoms as expected. Girls showed less selfcompassion compared to boys and more compassion for others. Present study suggests that CEASY-SE has good to excellent psychometric properties and further study is needed for more definite establishment of the psychometric properties. Girls and boys have different patterns of compassion.
  • A flow resistive inspiratory muscle training mask worn during high-intensity interval training does not improve 5 km running time-trial performance

    Brown, Peter I.; Faghy, Mark; Davis, Nichola; Mayes, JP; Maden-Wilkinson, Tom; University of Derby; University of Bath; Sheffield Hallam University (Springer, 2020-10-01)
    There is little evidence of the ergogenic effect of flow-resistive masks worn during exercise. We compared a flow-resistive face mask (MASK) worn during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) against pressure threshold loading inspiratory muscle training (IMT). 23 participants (13 males) completed a 5 km time trial and six weeks of HIIT (3 sessions weekly). HIIT (n = 8) consisted of repeated work (2 min) at the speed equivalent to 95% V˙O2 peak with equal rest. Repetitions were incremental (six in weeks 1, 2 and 6, eight in weeks 3 and 4 and ten in week 5). Participants were allocated to one of three training groups. MASK (n = 8) wore a flow-resistive mask during all sessions. The IMT group (n = 8) completed 2 × 30 breaths daily at 50% maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax). A control group (CON, n = 7) completed HIIT only. Following HIIT, participants completed two 5 km time trials, the first matched identically to pre-intervention trial (ISO time), and a self-paced effort. Time trial performance was improved in all groups (MASK 3.1 ± 1.7%, IMT, 5.7 ± 1.5% and CON 2.6 ± 1.0%, p < 0.05). IMT improved greater than MASK and CON (p = 0.004). Post intervention, PImax and diaphragm thickness were improved in IMT only (32% and 9.5%, respectively, p = 0.003 and 0.024). A flow-resistive mask worn during HIIT provides no benefit to 5 km performance when compared to HIIT only. Supplementing HIIT with IMT improves respiratory muscle strength, morphology and performance greater than HIIT alone.
  • Understanding ‘vulnerability’ and ‘political skill’ in academy middle management during organisational change in professional youth football

    Gibson, Luke; Groom, Ryan; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor and Francis, 2020-09-15)
    The use of political skill to further employees’ self-interests and their ability to cope with ambiguity and employment vulnerability during periods of organizational change is an important yet under researched phenomenon. Taking a middle management perspective, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of Richard, a newly appointed professional youth football Academy Manager during the process of organizational change. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, formal academy team meetings, co-worker interviews, and informal observations and conversations, which were analyzed through the process of narrative analysis. Findings highlighted the hierarchical sensemaking challenges of vertically ‘managing up’ (e.g. Chairman, Board of Directors, 1st Team Manager) and ‘managing down’ (e.g. academy employees), and horizontally ‘managing across’ (e.g. Head of Coaching) during the process of organizational change. Importantly, managing expectations and influencing significant others, through skilled micro-political activity, was central to successfully negotiating the ambiguity and vulnerabilities of organizational life during change.
  • Psychological intervention for partners post-stroke: A case report

    Yasmin, Natasha; Riley, Gerard; University of Derby; University of Birmingham (IOS Press, 2020-07-21)
    Following a brain injury, caregiving spouses/partners differ in their perceptions of relationship continuity/discontinuity (i.e. whether the relationship is experienced as similar or different to the pre-injury relationship). Perceptions of continuity are associated with better psychological wellbeing and a better relationship. To conduct a pilot test of an intervention aimed at exploring the possibility of supporting caregiving partners to experience greater continuity within their relationship post-stroke. A post-stroke couple was provided with Integrated Behavioural Couples Therapy for three months, which aimed to increase relationship continuity alongside addressing individual goals identified by the couple. Before and after measures were taken using a battery of six questionnaires evaluating changes in perceptions of continuity, relationship quality, and stress. Quantitative and qualitative data showed post-therapy improvement in all the measures. The study suggested that perceptions of relationship continuity can be improved by therapy, and that such an improvement might have a beneficial impact in terms of relationship quality and psychological wellbeing. The intervention is currently being further developed and evaluated.
  • Psychometric properties of the German version of the fears of compassion scales

    Biermann, Miriam; Bohus, Martin; Gilbert, Paul; Vonderlin, Ruben; Cornelisse, Sven; Osen, Bernhard; Graser, Johannes; Brüne, Martin; Ebert, Andreas; Lyssenko, Lisa; et al. (Wiley, 2020-08-18)
    The cultivation of compassion is associated with beneficial effects on physical and psychological health, satisfaction with life and social relationships. However, some individuals, especially those high in psychopathological symptoms or those with particular disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) may demonstrate pronounced fears of engagement in compassionate experiences or behaviours. Furthermore, fears of compassion have been found to impede progress in psychotherapy. The 38‐item fears of compassion scales (FCS) is a self‐report questionnaire for measuring trait levels of fears of compassion (a) one receives from others (FCFO), (b) one feels towards others (FCTO) and (c) one feels for oneself (self‐compassion; FSC). The FCS is an internationally used instrument of proven validity and reliability in both clinical and nonclinical samples. In the present study, a German translation of the FCS including its three subscales was provided, and the psychometric properties were examined in 430 participants from four different samples: (a) a sample from the general population; (b) a mixed sample of psychiatric residential and outpatients; (c) a clinical sample of residential and outpatients with a primary diagnosis of BPD and (d) a sample of healthy control participants. Internal consistencies were excellent for the German version of the FSC and acceptable to excellent for its subscales. Correlations with established measures of mental health demonstrate its validity. Additionally, the German FCS discriminates significantly between individuals from the general population and patients, thus supporting its specificity. The German FCS is suitable to detect potential obstacles in cultivating compassion in psychotherapeutic treatments and beyond.
  • Attachment styles modulate neural markers of threat and imagery when engaging in self-criticism

    Kim, Jeffrey J.; Kent, Kirsty M.; Cunnington, Ross; Gilbert, Paul; Kirby, James N.; Compassionate Mind Research Group, School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.; The Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-13)
    Attachment styles hold important downstream consequences for mental health through their contribution to the emergence of self-criticism. To date, no work has extended our understanding of the influence of attachment styles on self-criticism at a neurobiological level. Herein we investigate the relationship between self-reported attachment styles and neural markers of self-criticism using fMRI. A correlation network analysis revealed lingual gyrus activation during self-criticism, a marker of visual mental imagery, correlated with amygdala activity (threat response). It also identified that secure attachment positively correlated with lingual gyrus activation, whilst avoidant attachment was negatively correlated with lingual gyrus activation. Further, at greater levels of amygdala response, more securely attached individuals showed greater lingual gyrus activation, and more avoidantly attached individuals showed less lingual gyrus activation. Our data provide the first evidence that attachment mechanisms may modulate threat responses and mental imagery when engaging in self-criticism, which have important clinical and broader social implications.
  • Expanding hermeneutic horizons: Working as multiple researchers and with multiple participants

    Montague, Jane; Phillips, Elly; Holland, Fiona; Archer, Stephanie; University of Derby; University of Cambridge (Sage Publications, 2020-08-10)
    The double hermeneutic is a central feature of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Typically, this has been considered in relation to individual researchers working with experiential accounts from individual participants. IPA has, however, frequently been applied by multiple researchers; a further layer of complexity occurs when individual or multiple researchers analyse data from group interactions. Little attention has been paid to hermeneutic considerations in these contexts. We present insights into our encounters with multiple hermeneutics as well as our application of the hermeneutic circle; we also consider implications for IPA research. Our multi-vocal approach to analysis requires us to work in a much more integrative manner than is generally represented in IPA literature. Explicitly attending to multiple hermeneutics in focus group situations provides additional insights into the social and cultural contexts within which participants’ experiences exist. This article discusses how the inclusion of multiple hermeneutics adds richness and robustness to IPA.
  • Using system mapping to help plan and implement city-wide action to promote physical activity

    Cavill, Nick; Richardson, Debra; Faghy, Mark; Bussell, Chris; Rutter, Harry; University of Bristol; University of Derby; University of Bath (PAGEPress Publications, 2020-08-26)
    Background. There is growing interest in conceptualising public health problems such as physical inactivity as the outcome of multiple interacting factors within complex systems. Methods. We worked with stakeholders involved in a city-wide physical activity promotion programme in Derby, UK to prodiuce conceptual maps of the major modifiable drivers of physical activity, and used them to explore ways in which the existing programme took a systems approach, and how it might be enhanced. Semi-structured interviews were subsequently undertaken to assess their views on the contribution of the mapping approach. Results. Feedback from stakeholders described the mapping as valuable, especially in helping to identify the limitations of the original approach taken in the city. Conclusions. Even a very simple application of systems thinking can be a useful tool for disaggregating the key factors driving a system, helping to identify areas that merit greater attention, and supporting effective action.
  • Worth the weight? Post weigh-in rapid weight gain is not related to winning or losing in professional mixed martial arts

    Kirk, Christopher; Langan-Evans, Carl; Morton, James P.; University of Derby; Liverpool John Moores University (Human Kinetics, 2020-09-01)
    Body mass (BM) manipulation via rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) is a common practice among mixed martial art (MMA) athletes to ensure qualification for the division in which the athlete wishes to compete. Professional MMA competitors in California are required to weigh in twice: 24 hr prior to competition and immediately prior to the bout after they have typically engaged in RWG. In analyzing data from five MMA events sanctioned by the Californian State Athletic Commission, the authors used Bayesian analyses to compare bout winners (n = 31) and losers (n = 31) in terms of in-competition BM (in kilograms) and the amount of BM regained between the two weigh-ins (in kilograms). These data do not support the hypothesis that differences in in-competition BM (Bayes factor [BF10] = 0.667, d = 0.23) or the amount of BM regained between the two weigh-ins (BF10 = 0.821, d = 0.23) determine winning or losing. In addition, there was no statistical difference between bouts ending via strikes, submission, or decision for either in-competition BM (BF10 = 0.686, ω2 < 0.01) or the amount of BM regained between the two weigh-ins (BF10 = 0.732, ω2 = 0.054). In conclusion, the authors report for the first time that the magnitude of RWG does not predict winning or losing in a professional cohort of MMA athletes. In addition, they also report that MMA athletes typically compete at a BM that is at least 1–2 divisions higher than the division in which they officially weighed-in. These analyses may provide impetus for governing bodies and coaches to enact changes at both professional and amateur levels to reduce negative health consequences associated with extreme RWL and RWG.

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