• Patient centred care in diagnostic radiography (Part 1): Perceptions of service users and service deliverers

      Hyde, Emma; Hardy, Maryann; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-13)
      There is growing awareness of the importance of patient centered care (PCC) in health care. Within Radiography in the UK, elements of PCC are embedded within professional body publications and guidance documents. However, there is limited research evidence exploring whether perceptions of PCC are equivalent between those delivering (radiographers) and those experiencing (patient) care. This study aimed to address this gap by determining compatibility in perceptions of PCC between those using and those delivering radiography services. This is the first step in developing measurable indicators of PCC in diagnostic radiography. A multi-method two stage approach was undertaken using survey and interview data collection techniques. Ethical approval was granted by University of Derby College of Health & Social Care Ethics committee. This paper reports Stage 1 of the study, the online, cross sectional survey. Participants were asked to indicate their level of agreement to a series of attitudinal statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Statements were paired, but not co-located to increase validity. Participants were invited to provide free text comments to supplement their responses. Stage 2 of the project is reported separately. Survey responses were received from all 3 participant subgroups. A minimum response rate of 30 participants per sub-group was set as a target. Response rates varied across subgroups, with only radiography managers failing to meet the expected response threshold. Wide disparity between perceptions of service users and those delivering radiography services on what constitutes high quality PCC was evident. It is evident that there is still work required to ensure parity between expectations of service users and deliverers on what constitutes high quality PCC. Further work is required to identify measurable service delivery outcomes that represent PCC within radiographic practice.
    • The schwartz center rounds: supporting mental health workers with the emotional impact of their work.

      Allen, Deborah; Spencer, Graham; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Evans, Rachael; Crooks, Sarah; Gilbert, Paul; University Hospitals Derby & Burton NHS; Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; University of Derby (Wiley, 2020-05-15)
      In healthcare settings there is an emotional cost to caring which can result in compassion-fatigue, burnout, secondary trauma and compromised patient care. Innovative workplace interventions such as the Schwartz Rounds offer a group reflective practice forum for clinical and non-clinical professionals to reflect on the emotional aspects of working in healthcare. Whilst the Rounds are established in medical health practice, this study presents an evaluation of the Rounds offered to mental health services. The Rounds were piloted amongst 150 mental health professionals for 6 months and evaluated using a mixed-methods approach with standardised evaluation forms completed after each Round and a focus group (n=9) at one-month follow-up. This paper also offers a unique six-year follow-up of the evaluation of the Rounds. Rounds were rated as helpful, insightful, relevant and at six years follow-up Rounds were still rated as valuable and viewed as embedded. Focus groups indicated that Rounds were valued because of the opportunity to express emotions (in particular negative emotions towards patients that conflict with the professional care-role), share experiences, and feel validated and supported by colleagues. The findings indicate that Schwartz Rounds offer a positive application in mental healthcare settings. The study supports the use of interventions which provide an ongoing forum in which to discuss emotions, develop emotional literacy, provide peer-support and set an intention for becoming a more compassionate organisation in which to work.
    • Where the wild things are! Do urban green spaces with greater avian biodiversity promote more positive emotions in humans?

      Cameron, Ross; Brindley, Paul; Mears, Meagan; McEwan, Kirsten; Ferguson, Fiona; Sheffield, David; Jorgensen, Anna; Riley, J; Goodwick, J; Ballard, L; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-01-22)
      Urban green space can help mitigate the negative impacts of urban living and provide positive effects on citizens’ mood, health and well-being. Questions remain, however, as to whether all types of green space are equally beneficial, and if not, what landscape forms or key features optimise the desired benefits. For example, it has been cited that urban landscapes rich in wildlife (high biodiversity) may promote more positive emotions and enhance well-being. This research utilised a mobile phone App, employed to assess people’s emotions when they entered any one of 945 green spaces within the city of Sheffield, UK. Emotional responses were correlated to key traits of the individual green spaces, including levels of biodiversity the participant perceived around them. For a subsample of these green spaces, actual levels of biodiversity were assessed through avian and habitat surveys. Results demonstrated strong correlations between levels of avian biodiversity within a green space and human emotional response to that space. Respondents reported being happier in sites with greater avian biodiversity (p < 0.01, r = 0.78) and a greater variety of habitats (p < 0.02, r = 0.72). Relationships were strengthened when emotions were linked to perceptions of overall biodiversity (p < 0.001, r = 0.89). So, when participants thought the site was wildlife rich, they reported more positive emotions, even when actual avian biodiversity levels were not necessarily enhanced. The data strengthens the arguments that nature enhances well-being through positive affect, and that increased ‘engagement with nature’ may help support human health within urban environments. The results have strong implications for city planning with respect to the design, management and use of city green spaces.
    • Assessing the feasibility of public engagement in a smartphone app to: improve wellbeing through nature connection and map wellbeing across urban green spaces

      McEwan, Kirsten; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; Ferguson, Fiona; Brindley, Paul; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Taylor & Francis, 2020)
      Aside from practical interventions such as providing green infrastructure to improve air quality or water contamination and reduce flooding, wellbeing interventions to increase engagement with the natural environment are one of the fastest growing ways of improving human and environmental health. This feasibility study assessed a novel Smartphone app wellbeing intervention. Over 30 days the app prompted adults, including those seeking help for a common mental health problem, to notice the good things about urban green or built spaces (control condition). Self-referral was successful with 885 people downloading the app, 435 supplying baseline data and 50 supplying post-intervention data. However, the low number of observations (M=6 per participant) indicates that 30 days is too long to remain engaged. There were significant improvements in wellbeing and nature connection, but no difference between green and built space conditions. Limitations, future recommendations regarding improving engagement and marketing to lower socio-economic status groups are discussed.
    • Shifting identities: exploring occupational identity for those in recovery from an eating disorder

      Dark, Esther; Carter, Sarah; University of Derby (Emerald, 2019-11-23)
      The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature, transition and formation of occupational identity for those in recovery from eating disorders (EDs). Semi-structured “episodic” interviews were carried out with six women, self-identifying in recovery from an ED. Narrative-type-analysis produced a distilled narrative of participant’s accounts, before use of thematic analysis compared and extracted pertinent themes. During recovery from an ED, significant shifts occurred in occupational identities, moving from sole identification with the ED, to a greater understanding of self; facilitated by increased engagement in meaningful occupations, adapting occupational meaning, connecting with self and others and the importance of becoming and belonging. This is the first known piece of research exploring occupational identity in relation to EDs. The findings are applicable to occupational therapists and add to the growing body of qualitative research into ED's.
    • The good things in urban nature: A thematic framework for optimising urban planning for nature connectedness

      McEwan, Kirsten; Ferguson, Fiona J; Richardson, Miles; Cameron, Ross; University of Derby (2019-11-06)
      Green interventions which connect people with nature to improve wellbeing are increasingly being applied to tackle the current crisis in mental health. A novel Smartphone app intervention was evaluated amongst adults (n = 228) including (n = 53) adults with common mental health problems, with the aim to improve wellbeing through noticing the good things about urban nature. The app prompted participants once a day over 7 days to write notes about the good things they noticed in urban green spaces. Notes were thematically analysed and ten themes emerged. The three themes with the greatest representation were: i) wonder at encountering wildlife in day-to-day urban settings; ii) appreciation of street trees; and iii) awe at colourful, expansive, dramatic skies and views. Through combining the above themes with the pathways to nature connectedness this paper provides an extended framework of activities to inform activity programming, nature engagement media content, and ‘green health’ interventions. Moreover, the findings have strong implications for optimising city planning, design and management for the wellbeing of both humans and wildlife.
    • Patient involvement in pressure ulcer prevention and adherence to prevention strategies: An integrative review

      Ledger, Lisa; Worsley, Peter; Hope, Jo; Schoonhoven, Lisette; University of Derby; University of Southampton; Utrecht University (Elsevier, 2019-10-14)
      Chronic wounds including pressure ulcers represent a significant burden to patients and healthcare providers. Increasingly patients are required to self-manage their care but patient adherence to prevention strategies is a significant clinical challenge. It is important to increase understanding of the factors affecting patients’ ability and willingness to follow pressure ulcer prevention interventions. To investigate from a patient perspective the factors affecting adherence to pressure ulcer prevention strategies. Integrative Literature Review Data Sources: A systematic search of electronic databases (Athens, Pub Med, Web of Science, Science Direct, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, Google Scholar, Delphis) was initially conducted in May 2017 (repeated August 2018). The methodological quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) principles. The Noticing, Collecting, Thinking (NCT) model of qualitative data analysis was used to identify key themes. A total of twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The majority of studies were qualitative and three key themes were identified: i) individual/daily lifestyle considerations, ii) patient involvement in the decision-making process, and iii) pain and/or discomfort. There is limited research that focuses on the patient view of factors affecting adherence to prevention measures, particularly in community settings. Individual and daily lifestyle considerations and involvement in decision-making around pressure ulcer care are important aspects from the patient perspective. Further research is necessary to explore which factors affect patient adherence in order to improve clinical practice and support patient involvement in preventative strategies.
    • How can arts-based research in dramatic performance illuminate understanding of the therapeutic relationship?

      Bird, Drew; University of Derby (Intellect, 2019-10-01)
      This article explores how Heuristic Inquiry (HI), harnessed for arts-based research using solo performance, deepened the author’s understanding of the therapeutic relationship. The research explores the rehearsal and devising process of nine performances to explore barriers to a playful encounter with the audience and client using the myth of Psyche and Cupid. Themes of seeking approval, technique and shame are considered as potential obstacles to forging a co-creative therapeutic alliance.
    • A smartphone app for improving mental health through connecting with urban nature

      McEwan, Kirsten; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; Ferguson, Fiona; Brindley, Paul; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (MDPI, 2019-09-12)
      In an increasingly urbanised world where mental health is currently in crisis, interventions to increase human engagement and connection with the natural environment are one of the fastest growing, most widely accessible, and cost-effective ways of improving human wellbeing. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of a smartphone app-based wellbeing intervention. In a randomised controlled trial study design, the app prompted 582 adults, including a subgroup of adults classified by baseline scores on the Recovering Quality of Life scale as having a common mental health problem (n = 148), to notice the good things about urban nature (intervention condition) or built spaces (active control). There were statistically significant and sustained improvements in wellbeing at one-month follow-up. Importantly, in the noticing urban nature condition, compared to a built space control, improvements in quality of life reached statistical significance for all adults and clinical significance for those classified as having a mental health difficulty. This improvement in wellbeing was partly explained by significant increases in nature connectedness and positive affect. This study provides the first controlled experimental evidence that noticing the good things about urban nature has strong clinical potential as a wellbeing intervention and social prescription.
    • A heuristic model of supervision using small objects to develop the senses

      Bird, Drew; University of Derby (Iris Publishers, 2019-07-31)
      The research explores how the conceptual frame of Heuristic inquiry can inform non-verbal exploration in psychotherapy supervision practices. The author explores their practice as a dramatherapist and how small objects can broaden the awareness of the supervisees own relationship patterns. Small objects helped to re-conceptualise the therapeutic dynamic using metaphor and make conscious parts of the supervisee experience they had been unaware.
    • On Being a Male Dramatherapist

      Holmwood, Clive; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-07-11)
      This chapter seeks to consider from a phenomenological, systemic and attachment based perspective both training in a female dominated profession and the impact of being a male dramatherapist working with families and children for the last 20 years. It will consider from a philosophical and pragmatic perspective such questions as should male therapists work with young female survivors of sexual abuse? Can male therapists build a more positive therapeutic relationship with adolescent males who have sexually offended? To what extent can the male arts therapists represent a positive role model to adolescents with absent fathers? This chapter will attempt to lift the lid on taboos around what being a male arts therapist is really about and what they should or should not be doing in their work and why by revisiting assumptions about the role of the male therapist and maleness in the therapeutic space. It will begin to delve into areas that the male taboos around the subject areas has never ventured before.
    • Expressing suchness: on the integration of writing into a dance practice

      Collard-Stokes, Gemma; University of Derby (Intellect, 2019-07-01)
      This article details the unique pairing of dance and writing, the likes of which are often considered two very different beasts. It examines how approaches to movement improvisation have been used to form and inform innovative methods of entering into the act of writing from the experience of dance. The argument authenticates the current renewed appreciation for the possibilities of writing to enable further creative critical engagement. Consequently, the meeting of creativity and criticality is one in which the dancer playfully explores and examines the suchness of one’s dancing. Suchness is therefore understood as the unique sum of qualities experienced by the dancer – the point at which clarity and closeness facilitate connection through the images, feelings and sensations evoked by dance. In summary, the article outlines the relationship between dance and writing, before exploring the methods used to facilitate a dancer’s assimilation and validation of what happens for them when they dance.
    • An overview of the types and applications of simulation-based education within diagnostic radiography and ultrasound at two higher education institutions

      Shiner, Naomi; Pantic, V; University of Derby; University of Leeds (The Society of Radiographers: Deeson Publishing, 2019-06-02)
      The aim of this research was to explore the use of SBE across two HEIs delivering diagnostic radiography and ultrasound programmes; to inform, inspire and encourage educators across HEIs and in clinical practice to implement the use of SBE to support students in their learning.
    • A partnership approach to student mentoring

      Jinks, Gavin; University of Derby (International Forum for Peer Learning, 2019-06)
      In 2015 as Year 1 Tutor on the BA Applied Social Work I initiated a student mentoring project with the aim of increasing the support to Year 1 students. In that first year I recruited 5 student mentors from Years 2 and 3 to support incoming Year 1 students. Fast forward to 2018 and the project has grown very significantly. There are now 42 mentors, they are Year 2 and Year 3 students with a handful of graduates now in employment. Mentoring is now offered to students on all 3 years of the programme. The mentor support has a number of strands to it: A Facebook group for each of the 3 years of the programme. The Facebook group for each year has mentors from the year above so that students can raise questions and queries with peers who have the ‘been there, done that’ factor. The Facebook groups are not overseen by academic staff. This highlights a fundamental element of the project, that mentors are trusted to undertake the role. The Year 1 Facebook group is set up in the summer before their studies commence. Induction for Year 1 and Year 2 students is largely run by mentors. The mentors create activities and presentations for mentees on a range of topics. Again the mentors are trusted to prepare and present these presentations without academic interference. All Year 1 and Year 2 students have a named mentor who they can contact for guidance when they would like to talk to a peer rather than a tutor. Students who have been very successful in module assessments are invited to give guidance to students undertaking those modules the following year. All decision are made between myself and the mentors. The project won a Union of Students award in 2018.
    • Cultivating self-belief

      Jinks, Gavin; Harber, Denise; University of Derby (International conference on education and new developments, 2019-06)
      The two presenters have very different backgrounds. Gavin Jinks is a senior lecturer in social work. Denise Harber has been a teacher, head-teacher and school adviser. Both have concluded that the ability to create self-belief in a student group, be they primary school pupils or students in higher education, is fundamental to their achievements. Gavin has been the project leader for an award winning student mentoring project on the BA Applied Social Work at the University of Derby. Denise Harber was an adviser on a team that designated a primary school in the south of England as a 'cause for concern'. She then took on the role of Head-teacher and led the school to be designated as good in a subsequent Ofsted inspection. Underpinning both of these pieces of work was a commitment to develop the self-belief of the students. This was seen as being a fundamental building block in bringing about real change in the achievements of both the students and the pupils concerned. This workshop will explore how Gavin and Denise went about these pieces of work. They will explore the transferability of these ideas to other educational settings and situations, particularly settings with traditionally low academic engagement. They will also be encouraging participants to consider how it might be possible for them to cultivate a culture of self-belief in their own students/pupils.
    • Can simulation impact on first year diagnostic radiography students' emotional preparedness to encounter open wounds on their first clinical placement: A pilot study

      Shiner, Naomi; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-05-11)
      This study reports on the use of moulage within a simulation to introduce first year diagnostic radiography students to open wounds in preparation for clinical practice. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was used. Visual Analogue Scales were used to capture state feelings at the point of seeing open wounds. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to draw themes from focus groups and an interview following clinical placement. The simulation reduced negative feelings whilst emotional preparedness, distraction and excitement increased. Five major themes were identified including emotional engagement, engagement with wound, building relationships, developing professional self and simulation impact. The use of moulage and a simulation provides an opportunity to explore initial reactions. Students actively reflect on this experience during clinical practice changing practice. The impact of open wounds can be long lasting and support from radiographers should allow these new experiences to be processed reducing the risk of burnout.
    • The relationship between nature connectedness and eudaimonic well-being: A meta-analysis

      Pritchard, Alison; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; McEwan, Kirsten; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-04-30)
      Nature connectedness relates to an individual’s subjective sense of their relationship with the natural world. A recent meta-analysis has found that people who are more connected to nature also tend to have higher levels of self-reported hedonic well-being; however, no reviews have focussed on nature connection and eudaimonic well-being. This meta-analysis was undertaken to explore the relationship of nature connection with eudaimonic well-being and to test the hypothesis that this relationship is stronger than that of nature connection and hedonic well-being. From 20 samples (n = 4758), a small significant effect size was found for the relationship of nature connection and eudaimonic well-being (r = 0.24); there was no significant difference between this and the effect size (from 30 samples n = 11638) for hedonic well-being (r = 0.20). Of the eudaimonic well-being subscales, personal growth had a moderate effect size which was significantly larger than the effect sizes for autonomy, purpose in life/meaning, self-acceptance, positive relations with others and environmental mastery, but not vitality. Thus, individuals who are more connected to nature tend to have greater eudaimonic well-being, and in particular have higher levels of self-reported personal growth.
    • Searching compassion in a crowd: Evaluation of a novel compassion visual search task to reduce self-criticism

      McEwan, Kirsten; Dandeneau, Stephane; Gilbert, Paul; Maratos, Frances; Andrew, Lucy; Chotai, Shivani; Elander, James; University of Derby (ECronicon Open Access, 2019-04-15)
      Background: The ability to appropriately process social stimuli such as facial expressions is crucial to emotion regulation and the maintenance of supportive interpersonal relationships. Cognitive Bias Modification Tasks (CBMTs) are being investigated as potential interventions for those who struggle to appropriately process social stimuli. Aims: Two studies aimed to assess the effectiveness of a novel computerised ‘Compassion Game’ CBMT compared with a validated ‘Self-Esteem Game’ (Study 1, n=66) and a Neutral Control Game (Study 2, n=59). Method: In each study, baseline, post-task, and one-month follow-up measures of 3 self-reported forms of self-criticism (inadequate self, hated self, and self-reassurance) were used to examine the benefits of two weeks’ attentional training. Results: Analyses show that the novel Compassion Game significantly reduced inadequate self-criticism at post and one-month follow-up (Studies 1 and 2) and increased self-reassurance (Study 1). Results also show that the Self-Esteem (Study 1) and the Neutral Control Game (Study 2), which also used social stimuli, produced reductions in inadequate self-criticism. Conclusions: Results suggest that training one’s attention toward social stimuli can improve inadequate self-criticism. Implications for the use of compassionate stimuli in such CBMTs are discussed.
    • Exploring well-being and creativity through collaborative composition as part of Hull 2017 city of culture

      Waddington-Jones, Caroline; King, Andrew; Burnard, Pamela; University of Hull; University of Cambridge (Frontiers, 2019-03-22)
      Several studies have highlighted the positive effects of group music-making and have suggested that it may be the creative and social aspects of such activities, which have a positive effect on participants’ well-being. Collaborative composition offers strong examples of both aspects as participants work together to create new material. However, although it seems likely that participants’ influence over and ownership of the creative material contributes to these positive effects, studies have yet to examine these elements in detail. Through analysis of video observations, pre- and post-project interviews, video recall interviews, and questionnaires, this article aims to: (1) evaluate the impact of participation in collaborative composition workshops on the subjective and psychological well-being of older adults and (2) identify skills and approaches employed by the composer-facilitators in order to understand more fully the approach and skills employed to engage participants effectively in the creative process. This second aim is of particular interest given the current movement toward social prescribing and arts and health interventions in the UK. Analysis revealed that all dimensions of the PERMA framework for subjective and psychological well-being were present in this collaborative composition project. The specific nature of collaborative composition is considered in comparison with other forms of group musical engagement. For older adults, collaborative composition has much to offer as an activity encouraging social interaction with others with shared interests, increasing positive affect, and enhancing self-esteem. Analysis of workshop videos and interviews with composers identified various facilitation skills employed by the composers to establish safe creative space and to encourage participants to engage in the process of collaborative composition.
    • Shmapped: development of an app to record and promote the well-being benefits of noticing urban nature

      McEwan, Kirsten; Richardson, Miles; Brindley, Paul; Sheffield, David; Tait, Crawford; Johnson, Steve; Sutch, Hana; Ferguson, Fiona; University of Derby; University of Debry (Oxford Academic, 2019-03-05)
      The majority of research to date on the links between well-being and green spaces comes from cross-sectional studies. Shmapped is an app that allows for the collection of well-being and location data live in the field and acts as a novel dual data collection tool and well-being intervention, which prompts users to notice the good things about their surroundings. We describe the process of developing Shmapped from storyboarding, budgeting, and timescales; selecting a developer; drawing up data protection plans; and collaborating with developers and end-user testers to ultimately publishing Shmapped. The development process and end-user testing resulted in a highly functional app. Limitations and future uses of such novel dual data collection and intervention apps are discussed and recommendations are made for prospective developers and researchers.