• A smartphone app for improving mental health through connecting with urban nature

      McEwan, Kirsten; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; Ferguson, Fiona; Brindley, Paul; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (MDPI, 2019-09-12)
      In an increasingly urbanised world where mental health is currently in crisis, interventions to increase human engagement and connection with the natural environment are one of the fastest growing, most widely accessible, and cost-effective ways of improving human wellbeing. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of a smartphone app-based wellbeing intervention. In a randomised controlled trial study design, the app prompted 582 adults, including a subgroup of adults classified by baseline scores on the Recovering Quality of Life scale as having a common mental health problem (n = 148), to notice the good things about urban nature (intervention condition) or built spaces (active control). There were statistically significant and sustained improvements in wellbeing at one-month follow-up. Importantly, in the noticing urban nature condition, compared to a built space control, improvements in quality of life reached statistical significance for all adults and clinical significance for those classified as having a mental health difficulty. This improvement in wellbeing was partly explained by significant increases in nature connectedness and positive affect. This study provides the first controlled experimental evidence that noticing the good things about urban nature has strong clinical potential as a wellbeing intervention and social prescription.
    • A heuristic model of supervision using small objects to develop the senses

      Bird, Drew; University of Derby (Iris Publishers, 2019-07-31)
      The research explores how the conceptual frame of Heuristic inquiry can inform non-verbal exploration in psychotherapy supervision practices. The author explores their practice as a dramatherapist and how small objects can broaden the awareness of the supervisees own relationship patterns. Small objects helped to re-conceptualise the therapeutic dynamic using metaphor and make conscious parts of the supervisee experience they had been unaware.
    • On Being a Male Dramatherapist

      Holmwood, Clive; University of Derby (Routledge, 2019-07-11)
      This chapter seeks to consider from a phenomenological, systemic and attachment based perspective both training in a female dominated profession and the impact of being a male dramatherapist working with families and children for the last 20 years. It will consider from a philosophical and pragmatic perspective such questions as should male therapists work with young female survivors of sexual abuse? Can male therapists build a more positive therapeutic relationship with adolescent males who have sexually offended? To what extent can the male arts therapists represent a positive role model to adolescents with absent fathers? This chapter will attempt to lift the lid on taboos around what being a male arts therapist is really about and what they should or should not be doing in their work and why by revisiting assumptions about the role of the male therapist and maleness in the therapeutic space. It will begin to delve into areas that the male taboos around the subject areas has never ventured before.
    • A partnership approach to student mentoring

      Jinks, Gavin; University of Derby (International Forum for Peer Learning, 2019-06)
      In 2015 as Year 1 Tutor on the BA Applied Social Work I initiated a student mentoring project with the aim of increasing the support to Year 1 students. In that first year I recruited 5 student mentors from Years 2 and 3 to support incoming Year 1 students. Fast forward to 2018 and the project has grown very significantly. There are now 42 mentors, they are Year 2 and Year 3 students with a handful of graduates now in employment. Mentoring is now offered to students on all 3 years of the programme. The mentor support has a number of strands to it: A Facebook group for each of the 3 years of the programme. The Facebook group for each year has mentors from the year above so that students can raise questions and queries with peers who have the ‘been there, done that’ factor. The Facebook groups are not overseen by academic staff. This highlights a fundamental element of the project, that mentors are trusted to undertake the role. The Year 1 Facebook group is set up in the summer before their studies commence. Induction for Year 1 and Year 2 students is largely run by mentors. The mentors create activities and presentations for mentees on a range of topics. Again the mentors are trusted to prepare and present these presentations without academic interference. All Year 1 and Year 2 students have a named mentor who they can contact for guidance when they would like to talk to a peer rather than a tutor. Students who have been very successful in module assessments are invited to give guidance to students undertaking those modules the following year. All decision are made between myself and the mentors. The project won a Union of Students award in 2018.
    • Cultivating self-belief

      Jinks, Gavin; Harber, Denise; University of Derby (International conference on education and new developments, 2019-06)
      The two presenters have very different backgrounds. Gavin Jinks is a senior lecturer in social work. Denise Harber has been a teacher, head-teacher and school adviser. Both have concluded that the ability to create self-belief in a student group, be they primary school pupils or students in higher education, is fundamental to their achievements. Gavin has been the project leader for an award winning student mentoring project on the BA Applied Social Work at the University of Derby. Denise Harber was an adviser on a team that designated a primary school in the south of England as a 'cause for concern'. She then took on the role of Head-teacher and led the school to be designated as good in a subsequent Ofsted inspection. Underpinning both of these pieces of work was a commitment to develop the self-belief of the students. This was seen as being a fundamental building block in bringing about real change in the achievements of both the students and the pupils concerned. This workshop will explore how Gavin and Denise went about these pieces of work. They will explore the transferability of these ideas to other educational settings and situations, particularly settings with traditionally low academic engagement. They will also be encouraging participants to consider how it might be possible for them to cultivate a culture of self-belief in their own students/pupils.
    • The relationship between nature connectedness and eudaimonic well-being: A meta-analysis

      Pritchard, Alison; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; McEwan, Kirsten; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-04-30)
      Nature connectedness relates to an individual’s subjective sense of their relationship with the natural world. A recent meta-analysis has found that people who are more connected to nature also tend to have higher levels of self-reported hedonic well-being; however, no reviews have focussed on nature connection and eudaimonic well-being. This meta-analysis was undertaken to explore the relationship of nature connection with eudaimonic well-being and to test the hypothesis that this relationship is stronger than that of nature connection and hedonic well-being. From 20 samples (n = 4758), a small significant effect size was found for the relationship of nature connection and eudaimonic well-being (r = 0.24); there was no significant difference between this and the effect size (from 30 samples n = 11638) for hedonic well-being (r = 0.20). Of the eudaimonic well-being subscales, personal growth had a moderate effect size which was significantly larger than the effect sizes for autonomy, purpose in life/meaning, self-acceptance, positive relations with others and environmental mastery, but not vitality. Thus, individuals who are more connected to nature tend to have greater eudaimonic well-being, and in particular have higher levels of self-reported personal growth.
    • Searching compassion in a crowd: Evaluation of a novel compassion visual search task to reduce self-criticism

      McEwan, Kirsten; Dandeneau, Stephane; Gilbert, Paul; Maratos, Frances; Andrew, Lucy; Chotai, Shivani; Elander, James; University of Derby (ECronicon Open Access, 2019-04-15)
      Background: The ability to appropriately process social stimuli such as facial expressions is crucial to emotion regulation and the maintenance of supportive interpersonal relationships. Cognitive Bias Modification Tasks (CBMTs) are being investigated as potential interventions for those who struggle to appropriately process social stimuli. Aims: Two studies aimed to assess the effectiveness of a novel computerised ‘Compassion Game’ CBMT compared with a validated ‘Self-Esteem Game’ (Study 1, n=66) and a Neutral Control Game (Study 2, n=59). Method: In each study, baseline, post-task, and one-month follow-up measures of 3 self-reported forms of self-criticism (inadequate self, hated self, and self-reassurance) were used to examine the benefits of two weeks’ attentional training. Results: Analyses show that the novel Compassion Game significantly reduced inadequate self-criticism at post and one-month follow-up (Studies 1 and 2) and increased self-reassurance (Study 1). Results also show that the Self-Esteem (Study 1) and the Neutral Control Game (Study 2), which also used social stimuli, produced reductions in inadequate self-criticism. Conclusions: Results suggest that training one’s attention toward social stimuli can improve inadequate self-criticism. Implications for the use of compassionate stimuli in such CBMTs are discussed.
    • Exploring well-being and creativity through collaborative composition as part of Hull 2017 city of culture

      Waddington-Jones, Caroline; King, Andrew; Burnard, Pamela; University of Hull; University of Cambridge (Frontiers, 2019-03-22)
      Several studies have highlighted the positive effects of group music-making and have suggested that it may be the creative and social aspects of such activities, which have a positive effect on participants’ well-being. Collaborative composition offers strong examples of both aspects as participants work together to create new material. However, although it seems likely that participants’ influence over and ownership of the creative material contributes to these positive effects, studies have yet to examine these elements in detail. Through analysis of video observations, pre- and post-project interviews, video recall interviews, and questionnaires, this article aims to: (1) evaluate the impact of participation in collaborative composition workshops on the subjective and psychological well-being of older adults and (2) identify skills and approaches employed by the composer-facilitators in order to understand more fully the approach and skills employed to engage participants effectively in the creative process. This second aim is of particular interest given the current movement toward social prescribing and arts and health interventions in the UK. Analysis revealed that all dimensions of the PERMA framework for subjective and psychological well-being were present in this collaborative composition project. The specific nature of collaborative composition is considered in comparison with other forms of group musical engagement. For older adults, collaborative composition has much to offer as an activity encouraging social interaction with others with shared interests, increasing positive affect, and enhancing self-esteem. Analysis of workshop videos and interviews with composers identified various facilitation skills employed by the composers to establish safe creative space and to encourage participants to engage in the process of collaborative composition.
    • Shmapped: development of an app to record and promote the well-being benefits of noticing urban nature

      McEwan, Kirsten; Richardson, Miles; Brindley, Paul; Sheffield, David; Tait, Crawford; Johnson, Steve; Sutch, Hana; Ferguson, Fiona; University of Derby; University of Debry (Oxford Academic, 2019-03-05)
      The majority of research to date on the links between well-being and green spaces comes from cross-sectional studies. Shmapped is an app that allows for the collection of well-being and location data live in the field and acts as a novel dual data collection tool and well-being intervention, which prompts users to notice the good things about their surroundings. We describe the process of developing Shmapped from storyboarding, budgeting, and timescales; selecting a developer; drawing up data protection plans; and collaborating with developers and end-user testers to ultimately publishing Shmapped. The development process and end-user testing resulted in a highly functional app. Limitations and future uses of such novel dual data collection and intervention apps are discussed and recommendations are made for prospective developers and researchers.
    • Student-generated video creation for assessment: can it transform assessment within Higher Education?

      Hawley, Ruth; Allen, Cate; University of Derby (De Gruyter, 2018-12-31)
      Student-generated video creation assessments are an innovative and emerging form of assessment in higher education. Academic staff may be understandably reluctant to transform assessment practices without robust evidence of the benefits and rationale for doing so and some guidance regarding how to do so successfully. A systematic approach to searching the literature was conducted to identify relevant resources, which generated key documents, authors and internet sources which were thematically analysed. This comprehensive critical synthesis of literature is presented here under the headings of findings from literature, relevance of digital capabilities, understanding the influence of local context and resources, and pedagogical considerations. Student-generated video creation for assessment is shown to have several benefits, notably in supporting development of digital and communication skills relevant to today’s world and in enhancing learning. As an emerging innovation within assessment, intentionally planning and supporting a change management process with both students and staff is required. The importance of alignment to learning outcomes, context and resources, choice of video format to desired skills development, and to relevance beyond graduation is emphasised for video creation in assessment to be used successfully. Video creation for assessment is likely to grow in popularity and it is hoped the evidence of benefits, rationale and guidance as to how to do this effectively presented here will support this transformation. Further research to consider video creation for assessment with individuals rather than collaborative group assessments, and to establish academic rigour and equivalence would be beneficial.
    • Gender representation, power and identity in mental health and art therapy.

      Hogan, Susan; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-12-14)
    • Learning to hope and hoping to learn: a critical examination of young refugees and formal education in the UK.

      Williams, Simon; Council of Europe (Council of Europe, 2018-12)
      This chapter examines the multi-dimensional complexities affecting refugee children’s identities and aspirations in the UK whilst navigating the education system. It debates the current language used around new arrivals and how they are labelled with a negative public perception that is endorsed by the media and politicians, to instil moral panic for political gain. It will critically analyse the idea of hope and the affect it has on identity and wellbeing. In particular, the argument is made that refugee children and their families have hope for their new futures and often that hope is crushed, when it should be nurtured. It questions whether the current education system helps develop hope and inclusion for new arrivals or enforces the media and political stereotyping, and what role Youth and Community work plays in supporting, developing and nurturing hope in a hopeless environment. This chapter critically examines the current definitions of refugees examining both the legal and social definition of refugees and how these impact on identities. It will argue that labelling provides a barrier to full engagement and integration of new arrivals in their new societies, schools and social spaces. It will debate about integration through education and how this impacts on the complexities of new arrivals. It will debate that a racist society exists and continues to provide a judgement basis for new arrivals and their treatment. It will briefly cover ‘Rights’ to education and how the idea of hope is embedded in these rights, but yet are contested by policy, marketization of schools and detention centres. It will demonstrate how schools play a vital role in young people’s lives, but also in the role of families as places of hope, by provide social networking, education and places of cultural learning. It will then debate how this is experienced by new arrivals and if schools encourage cohesion or assimilation. It will debate the ability of schools to cope, in current circumstances and in light of marketization, with new arrivals and how this has affected schools abilities to cope with a diverse intake of students and different times of the year. The chapter offers a critique of the injustice for new arrivals both within macro and micro structural levels of education. It considers the impact of Orientalism and the development of the ‘other’ which is to be used in media and political rhetoric; Colonialism which continues to define refugees' identities today and Structuration as a form of enabling hope. However these will be contrasted with the power of individuals in creating change to develop hope and the barriers that are faced by new arrivals. It argues that in most cases informal education is much better at helping new arrivals learn than formal education and the great need for change at national, social policy, organisational and practice levels. The later part of the chapter will be a critical examination of the skills of youth and community workers and how they can respond to issues raised in the chapter, using informal education to develop and enhance hope with new arrivals. It will critically examine issues such as language barriers; safety and the effect on building relationships; place and its relationship with identity; and radical working with new arrivals debating that Youth and Community Workers need to be involved on all levels: Face to face, management, local and national policy making; to create spaces of hope for new arrivals. The chapter will use the voice of young people in current academic literature and experience of my own work with new arrivals in Derby, UK. The conclusion is that there must be a radical approach taken by youth and community workers, to provide critical space, for voices to be heard, for new arrivals to be recognised as valuable not as trouble makers and leading to creative change
    • Self-belief in education

      Jinks, Gavin; Harber, Denise; University of Derby (Human Givens Publishing, 2018-12)
    • Rediscovering the playful learner.

      Bird, Drew; Holmwood, Clive; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-10-25)
    • Assessing the Arts, and student response, within the creative expressive therapies in higher education.

      Holmwood, Clive; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-10-25)
      My original focus, through a small research project, was to examine the complexity of assessing the arts within dance, drama, art and music pathways on the BA (Hons) Creative Expressive Therapies programme (which will potentially change to BA (Hons) Arts Health and Wellbeing) at the University of Derby. However, my research focus shifted as I became increasingly more interested in how students responded emotionally to the assessment process and their individual feedback. So, the research came to be less about how the assessments are carried out by lecturers, and more about students’ personal emotional responses to them. This led to three areas of focus which appeared to be of key concern to students, assessing creativity, tutor bias and student understanding.
    • Liminality in higher education – gaps and moments of uncertainty as legitimate learning spaces.

      Holmwood, Clive; Scales, Pete; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-10-25)
      Higher Education, learning and teaching philosophy is beginning to acknowledge that programmes crammed full of top down knowledge (Fox & Radloff 1999) are not the best way for teachers to teach or students to learn. Therefore, academically dense lectures and programmes packed with knowledge and information might not be conducive to student learning in the ‘google’ era, when information is readily available at the click of a button. With ideas such as the flipped classroom (Tucker 2012), we are beginning to consider that students should play a greater role in the teaching and learning process and that they be given new, evolving and appropriate spaces in the curriculum in which to do that. In this chapter, the notion of liminal spaces, gaps and moments of uncertainty within programmes of study, and threshold concepts (Meyer and Land, 2003) will be considered. This is a relatively new idea in Higher Education, which focuses on shifts in thinking and learning within the context of liminal spaces. Pete Scales brings many years of HE experience, whilst Clive Holmwood shares his anthropological understanding of space from a therapist’s perspective. Together they begin to consider the legitimate importance of gaps and spaces in the teaching curriculum; suggesting that these ambiguous spaces are where ‘deep learning’ (Biggs & Tang 2011) can potentially take place.
    • Learning as a creative and developmental process in higher education: A therapeutic arts approach and its wider application.

      Taylor, Judie; Holmwood, Clive; University of Derby (Routledge, 2018-10-25)
      Much has been written about the importance of creativity in learning and education over the last few decades. This unique book extends beyond the usual focus on implementing creative methods in learning, teaching and assessing within higher education, to an examination of creativity as central to a learning process which is transformational for the student. More specifically, Learning as a Creative and Developmental Process in Higher Education examines the importance of a facilitative tutor-student relationship and environment which contextualise this creative process of teaching and learning.  Bringing together unique teaching and learning approaches developed by experienced academics, this book discusses a number of complex issues, including approaches to an understanding of the student’s self-concept as learner; the nature of the curriculum; the potential of metaphor and creativity; and a multi-modal approach to learning and teaching. Contributions to the book also examine some of the challenges and tensions of such an approach within the context of arts-based subjects in higher education institutions. Using a unique and coherent thematic structure that is based upon the student journey as a transformational process, this book provides a new way of understanding the student journey through higher education.  Including an examination of the parallels between educational and arts education and arts therapies disciplines, this book will be of interest to researchers, academics and postgraduate students involved in the arts and the arts therapies, as well as those studying creativity in teaching and learning in higher education. It should be of particular interest to those involved in the teaching and training of teachers and lecturers in higher education.
    • Record, pause, rewind: a low tech approach to teaching communication (and other) skills.

      Jinks, Gavin; University of Derby (International Perspectives In Education Conference 2018, 2018-10)
      Over the last 3 years I have developed a technique for teaching communication skills on the BA Applied Social Work programme at the University of Derby. The idea for the technique was originally based on a skills course I attended which involved the use of video recording equipment. I took the view that I could achieve similar results simply by asking participants to imagine that they were being recorded! The technique involves students working with a facilitator in groups of approximately 12. They are asked to come prepared to demonstrate their skills with a character from a case study they are familiar with. The character is played by an actor (usually a member of staff). One person from the group volunteers or is asked to play the role of the professional. All are asked to imagine that once the conversation starts the scenario is being recorded on video. At any point the ‘volunteer’ can say “pause” and ask for help from everyone else. The facilitator can also pause in order to make some learning points. And those watching can pause to make suggestions or comments. The technique also allows pauses to be used to ask the ‘actor’ playing the client how they feel about the conversation. The technique allows real time ‘reflection in action’ in a safe environment. After reflection a decision is frequently made to rewind to an earlier point in the conversation to see what happens if the ‘volunteer’ tries a different approach. The technique has proved extremely popular as a learning tool and could be applied to the teaching of a wide range of skills.
    • Student Mentoring and peer learning: a partnership approach.

      Jinks, Gavin; University of Derby (International Perspectives In Education Conference 2018, 2018-10)
      In 2015 I initiated a student mentoring and peer assisted learning project for year 1 students on the BA Applied Social Work at the University of Derby. Initially this was a small and low key idea. I recruited 5 students from the 2nd and 3rd years to run a short session during induction week and to be contactable so that the new year 1s could raise any questions and queries which they preferred not to raise with tutors. On review discussions with both mentors and mentees indicated that year 1 students wanted to have a significantly developed student mentoring scheme. The following year 19 further mentors were recruited from year 1 in order to develop the project. Mentors took responsibility for 2 full days of student induction. A number of mentor led presentations were delivered during Induction Week on a range of topics. They also took responsibility for setting up and managing a Facebook group for the new year 1 students. The Facebook group was set up in the summer before the new year 1s began the degree programme and allowed information to be given to new students as well as providing an opportunity for the new students to raise questions with their peers in years 2 and 3. Student mentors were also involved in providing assignment guidance to year 1 students for subjects in which those mentors had been very successful. Mentors were also involved in co-teaching module learning input for topics in which they had demonstrated significant knowledge or expertise. As we move into the 3rd year of the project the plan is to expand the remit so that year 2 students also receive mentoring from year 3 mentors. There is also a plan for the creation of mentor led study groups. A ‘mentor away day’ will take place in May 2018 to review the project so far and plan for the forthcoming academic year. A key feature of the approach taken is that decisions are based on a partnership between myself and the student mentors. Decision making is based on consensus and mentors have significant responsibility for their input. Another key finding thus far has been the enthusiasm with which those invited to take on the student mentor role have responded. The philosophy of partnership has undoubtedly resulted in mentors articulating a real sense of ownership regarding the project and its development. Equally striking has been the sense of being valued that mentors experience.
    • Community clinicians’ views about patient adherence to osteoporosis medication

      Cook, Marie; University of Derby (RCNi, 2018-07-23)
      Anecdotal and research evidence suggests that poor adherence and persistence with oral bisphosphonates can result in patients being at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Several interventions have been researched for their effectiveness with adherence and persistence, but the most effective method of supporting patients with oral bisphosphonate medications is clinician reviews, generally identified as doctors and nurses. This service evaluation aimed to explore the knowledge and views of multidisciplinary community-based clinicians about adherence and persistence with oral bisphosphonates. The results indicated a positive attitude to a multidisciplinary approach supporting patients to take their medication as prescribed, with recommendations for future research.