• Barriers to Family Caregivers’ Coping With Patients With Severe Mental Illness in Iran

      Ebrahimi, Hossein; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Namdar Areshtanab, Hossein; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Thornicroft, Graham; Rahmani, Farnaz; Whitehead, Bill; Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; Kings College London; University of Derby; et al. (2018-02-24)
      The broad spectrum of problems caused by caring for a patient with mental illness imposes a high burden on family caregivers. This can affect how they cope with their mentally ill family members. Identifying caregivers’ experiences of barriers to coping is necessary to develop a program to help them overcome these challenges. This qualitative content analysis study explored barriers impeding family caregivers’ ability to cope with their relatives diagnosed with severe mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorders). Sixteen family caregivers were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed using a semi-structured in-depth interview method. Data were analyzed by a conventional content analytic approach. Findings consisted of four major categories: the patient’s isolation from everyday life, incomplete recovery, lack of support by the mental health care system, and stigmatization. Findings highlight the necessity of providing support for caregivers by the mental health care delivery service system.
    • Breast compression techniques in screening mammography – A Maltese evaluation project

      Naylor, Sarah; Cassar Agius, E; Sheffield Hallam University; National Breast Screening Programme, Lascaris Wharf, Valletta (Elsevier BV, 2018-04-05)
      In screening mammography, the radiographer should be responsible for providing mammograms of high diagnostic value, possibly without subjecting clients to a painful experience. This skill is demonstrated via the technique of breast compression and is explored in this study by analysing insights about methods and underlying principles in regards to this procedure. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with radiographers who perform screening mammography in Malta. For data analysis, a descriptive phenomenological approach following a simplified version of Hycner's (1985) method was adopted. Five general themes were extracted from the data; meeting the client, preparing the client, the mammography procedure, pain from compression and client turnout. It was determined that the participants alter their breast compression technique according to the client rather than following a rigid step-by-step process and that explanation and requesting client feedback are essential to obtain cooperation. Additionally, mammography positioning and compression application are tailored in a way that encourage compliance, however not at the expense of degrading image quality. Ultimately, it is also believed that a proper breast compression technique positively influences client turnout. The results of this study demonstrate that radiographers should be flexible in their approach in order to carry out a successful breast compression technique. However, it has also been shown that such effectiveness in practice is gained from experience rather than initial training. If exposed to this study's findings, new mammographers would be able to form a robust core of knowledge before embarking on the challenging specialisation of mammography.
    • Bronchiolitis: Treatment and management in an urgent out of hours care setting

      Mortimore, Gerri; Dexter, Justine; University of Derby (MAG, 2020-06-11)
      Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammation of the bronchioles that predominately affects children but is most common in the first 12 months of life. Viral bronchiolitis is the principal cause of admission in England and Wales, with numbers exceeding 30 000 annually. Occurrence is seasonal, in winter months incidence is typically at epidemic proportions for approximately six weeks. Bronchiolitis presents initially with coryza and a persistent cough; as the infection progresses, tachypnoea, chest recession, or both, may be present alongside wheeze or crackles. The assessment of an unwell child is challenging and as an advanced nurse practitioner, working in an out of hours service, the importance to prevent further deterioration should focus on spotting the sick child at an early stage. Therefore, an initial assessment should be undertaken, prior to taking a history and examination, to ensure patient safety. Bronchiolitis is usually a self-limiting illness, that requires supportive management only with treatment directed at fluid input. However, management approaches to bronchiolitis continue to be a subject of substantial debate with vast differences in practice exhibited in the UK, and beyond. with a lack of consensus regarding management. Therefore, the appropriate management of children presenting with bronchiolitis is challenging and can be overwhelming. Nurses must be aware of the pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and management of children presenting to an out of hours service with bronchiolitis, to manage patients safely.
    • Care and compassion at the end of life

      Brown, Michelle; University of Derby (W.S Maney & Sons Ltd, 2012-07)
      Aim: To examine the provision of the ‘end of life care strategy’ and the perception of provision by patients and carers. Introduction: In determining what constitutes excellence in care at the end of life, one must firstly acknowledge ‘what care and compassion is’. Following this it should be established what one should expect as a minimum standard of care. The end of life care strategy was initiated by the Department of Health in 2008. This guidance was intended to drive forward end of life care provision where patients were seen as the priority and encouraged to engage in all decision making at each point in their journey. Standards suggested by NICE (2011) further support patient empowerment and inclusivity in care planning. Method: A literature search was conducted in order to determine whether there has been a change in provision and to identify whether patients and their carers perceive an excellence in the care that has been delivered. Results: The literature is limited but the underlying issues of pre-end of life care strategy (2008) remain apparent. Patients and their carers continue to lack the autonomy they deserve and decisions are made about them rather than by them. Owing to the lack of direction which should come from the patient, care may be fragmented with numerous members of a multidisciplinary team being involved. Conclusion: Patient involvement is paramount. Early discussions relating to choices at the end of life need to be achieved in a timely manner. This should ensure that the patient and carer experience a high standard of excellent care which has been planned with inclusivity in mind
    • Care at the end of life: how policy and the law support practice

      Brown, Michelle; Vaughan, Carol; University of Derby (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2013-08-16)
      The End of Life Care Strategy was introduced in an attempt to achieve a high standard of care for patients nearing the end of life and to improve carer experience. This high standard should not depend on socioeconomic status, geographical location or diagnosis. It was to ensure that individuals felt supported, informed and empowered, and that symptoms and issues were managed by experienced staff who employ evidenced-based practice. In addition, the service provision should involve a multidisciplinary team and have the patient at the centre of all decision-making. This would be facilitated by endorsing the use of end-of-life care pathways. These recommendations are further supported by frameworks and policies, for example the Preferred Priorities for Care Gold Standards Framework in Primary Care. Health professionals must also be cognisant of the legal frameworks that protect patients and facilitate their rights to exert their autonomy, for example the Mental Capacity Act and advanced directives. The issues surrounding care at the end of life with respect to legal frameworks alongside ethical and moral dilemmas will be further explored within this discussion paper.
    • Case study — primary sclerosing cholangitis

      Mortimore, Gerri; University of Derby (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2012-05)
    • Challenges and solutions during analysis in a longitudinal narrative case study

      Whiffin, Charlotte Jane; Bailey, Christopher; Ellis-Hill, Caroline; Jarrett, Nicola; University of Derby; University of Nottingham; Bournemouth University; University of Southampton (Royal College of Nursing, 2014-03-27)
      Aim To describe the challenges faced by those performing complex qualitative analysis during a narrative study and to offer solutions. Background Qualitative research requires rigorous analysis. However, novice researchers often struggle to identify appropriately robust analytical procedures that will move them from their transcripts to their final findings. The lack of clear and detailed accounts in the literature that consider narrative analysis and how to address some of the common challenges researchers face add to this problem. Data sources A longitudinal narrative case study exploring the personal and familial changes reported by uninjured family members during the first year of another family member’s traumatic brain injury. Review methods This is a methodological paper. Discussion The challenges of analysis included: conceptualising analysis; demonstrating the relationship between the different analytical layers and the final research findings; interpreting the data in a way that reflected the priorities of a narrative approach; and managing large quantities of data. The solutions explored were: the mapping of analytic intentions; aligning analysis and interpretation with the conceptual framework; and the use of matrices to store and manage quotes, codes and reflections. Conclusion Working with qualitative data can be daunting for novice researchers. Ensuring rigorous, transparent, and auditable data analysis procedures can further constrain the interpretive aspect of analysis. Implications for research/practice The solutions offered in this paper should help novice researchers to manage and work with their data, assisting them to develop the confidence to be more intuitive and creative in their research.
    • Changing attitudes with a MOOC on dementia

      Kotera, Yasuhiro; Robertshaw, David; University of Derby (Sciendo, 2019-07-12)
      Dementia is one of the most significant issues of our time and there are varying prevailing attitudes towards dementia, including negative stigma and perception. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are a widely available online learning resource accessed for free which may present an opportunity to address prevailing attitudes. We conducted a questionnaire before and after a six-week MOOC where participants learned about dementia. We collected data using a survey instrument and analysed them with statistical testing. Although there was no statistically significant change between pre- and post-MOOC questionnaires, the change was observed in some questions and for particular groups. Our findings indicate this MOOC has a greater effect on changing the attitudes of non-healthcare workers, older people and those living in the United Kingdom. We recommend further analysis of MOOC as a change intervention and consideration of their application in other disciplines.
    • Changing student mental health nurse’s attitudes towards younger and older people through teaching: A qualitative longitudinal study

      Collier, Elizabeth; Foster, Celeste; Sutton, Katie; Holmes, Tracee; Jones, Ben; University of Salford; University of Derby (University of Salford and University of Derby, 2021-08)
      This paper reports on a qualitative longitudinal research (QLR) study investigating the effectiveness of an innovative teaching session focusing on changing the beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes of mental health nursing students towards older and younger people. A QLR design was used to enable exploration of change over time. A pre, post and follow-up approach was implemented over six months, using multiple data collection methods. A Cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis approach was applied. Post-session themes of: stop and think; shock and surprise; different rules for different people; and new understanding of age-related attributes, were identified. Follow-up revealed changes of: wider awareness of discriminations, more open minded, sensitivity to discrimination across the life course, changed approaches to practice, question everything, ignore age. Longitudinal analysis of individual change demonstrated that real world, attitude-focused teaching was effective in changing student attitudes to younger and older people. Change was complex and non-binary, raising students’ self-awareness and enabling generalisation of change to wider practice issues.
    • Christmas health warnings go down like a sack of coal.

      Mortimore, Gerri; University of Derby; Editorial Board (Mark Allen Group, 2017-12)
    • Chronic limb ischaemia: case study and clinical literature review

      Farrington, Liz; Mortimore, Gerri; University Hospitals of Derby and Burton NHS Foundation Trust; University of Derby (Mark Allen Group, 2021-07-21)
      This article will discuss chronic limb ischaemia as the result of peripheral artery disease (PAD) using a case study. The patient's concurrent diagnosis of metastases meant clinical decision making was complex and treatment options were limited. PAD is the third most common clinical presentation of atherosclerosis after coronary artery disease and stroke. Although advances in radiological technology and biochemical screening offer the potential for earlier intervention and improved survival rates for patients with PAD, a review of the evidence suggests that commitment to more conservative approaches, such as exercise therapy and health promotion, could have more sustainable, longer-term benefits for patients with chronic limb ischaemia. The therapeutic nature of the nurse–patient relationship makes nurses ideally placed for encouraging lifestyle changes and signposting to support services. Active participation from the patient is imperative for any potential modifications, which should be individualised as part of a holistic care plan, to ensure patient engagement and compliance. Therefore emphasis should remain on the management and prevention of modifiable risk factors, for which the nurse's role is an integral part to ensure success.
    • Cirrhosis in the over 16's: assessment and management

      Mortimore, Gerri; University of Derby (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2016-07)
    • Clinical supervision for advanced practitioners

      Reynolds, Julie; Mortimore, Gerri; University of Derby (MAG, 2021-04-08)
      This article discusses clinical supervision and its importance in supporting the development of advanced clinical practitioners. It will reflect on the impact of clinical supervision using extracts from research data provided by trainee advanced clinical practitioners and their medical supervisors. This article will consider the latest guidance on how to facilitate quality clinical supervision in the workplace and the potential challenges it may face relating to governance, finances, and time.
    • Collaborative development of an accelerated graduate entry nursing programme outside of traditional funding mechanisms

      Whiffin, Charlotte Jane; Clarke, Helen; Brundrett, Heather; Baker, Denise; Whitehead, Bill; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-09-21)
      Financial support for students entering nurse education programmes has typically been the responsibility of Governments who make a substantial contribution to tuition and/or living costs. However, where programmes are not funded by Government bodies, students must make alternative arrangements for financial support. This paper explores how a university worked with local employers to design, recruit and deliver an accelerated graduate entry nursing programme and how this philosophy of collaboration ultimately led to local health employers providing sponsorship for students. Therefore, we offer for debate the benefits of collaborative curriculum design and future considerations of attracting employer funding for graduate entry nursing programmes.
    • Confronting social risk factors for liver disease

      Mortimore, Gerri; University of Derby (2019-02-01)
      This presentation will explore the social risk factors for liver disease and how, as health professionals, we can confront these factors, to enable behavioural change. This session will also explore and reflect on our own social behaviours and how by understanding the complexity of changing our own behaviour, can assist in changing the behaviour of others.
    • Death cafés serve up a welcome taste of reality.

      Watson, Sharan; University of Derby (Final Choices Publishing Ltd., 2017)
      Death Cafés are helping to remove the taboo associated with talking about death. Sharan Watson considers how these local initiatives are providing opportunities for honest conversations and placing talking about dying, death and bereavement firmly on the national agenda
    • Delayed prescribing of antibiotics for self-limiting respiratory tract infections in an urgent care out of hours setting

      Mortimore, Gerri; Holroyd, Justine; University of Derby; Urgent Care South Derbyshire (MA Healthcare, 2020-03-02)
      Long-term overuse of antibiotics and inappropriate prescribing has led to widespread development of antimicrobial resistance. The Department of Health and Social Care recently published a five-year national action plan to reduce antimicrobial resistance, with the aim of reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. This is mirrored in the NHS Long Term Plan, which aims to reduce unintentional exposure through a combination of antibiotic stewardship and leadership at all levels. An acute respiratory tract infection is one of the most common presentations in primary care, with 16.7% of all prescriptions issued attributed to it. Therefore, out-of-hours prescribers contribute significantly to general antibiotic consumption. This article analyses the practice of delayed prescribing of antibiotics for the treatment of self-limiting respiratory tract infections in an out-of-hours service. The advantages and disadvantages associated with delayed prescribing, to safely treat patients whilst facilitating the reduction of antimicrobial resistance, are discussed. In addition, recommendations for future practice are offered. This article also focuses on the development of an advanced nurse practitioner, reflecting on the four pillars of advanced practice, which underpin advanced clinical practice and associated competencies.
    • Delirium: a diagnostic dilemma. Part 1.

      Hardy, Kersten; Brown, Michelle; University of Derby (Mark Allen Group, 2015-09-10)
      Effective symptom management for a patient with a palliative diagnosis can be challenging. There are some symptoms that may be more difficult to control and understand than others. Delirium, as a symptom, may well prove to be a significant challenge for all involved, leaving family and health professionals perplexed and exhausted. Understanding the predisposing factors and the manifestations may aid the health professional in the assessment and identification of this distressing symptom, facilitating more effective management and care of those who are approaching the end of life. This article attempts to address some of the challenges and offer a number of suggestions that may aid in identifying delirium in patients at the end of life, but also examines some of the dilemmas when attempting to treat delirium.
    • Delirium: assessment and treatment of patients with cancer PART 2

      Brown, Michelle; Hardy, Kersten; University of Derby; Community Staff Nurse, Derbyshire (Mark Allen Group, 2016-02-25)
      Delirium at the end of life may present significant ethical dilemmas in clinical practice: whether to simply treat it in order to maximise symptom relief, with the resulting side effect being palliative sedation, or to attempt to reverse delirium and risk prolonging suffering. Determining whether the delirium can be reversed involves comprehensive assessment using established tools, which may or may not provide the answer to the question posed. This article examines the evidence surrounding several assessment tools that have been suggested as effective in identifying delirium, and the consequences of various approaches to the management of delirium in a patient with a cancer diagnosis. It also considers the impact delirium may have on the health professional and those close to the patient.
    • Dementia and stigma: a review of the literature on the reality of living with dementia.

      Kilduff, Alison; University of Derby (Unite, 2014-11)
      This paper provides a review of the literature on the reality of living with a diagnosis of dementia in terms of stigma and ageism, and their effects on care.