• Accessible tourism futures: the world we dream to live in and the opportunities we hope to have

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Ambrose, Ivor; Darcy, Simon; Buhalis, Dimitrios; University of Derby; University of Technology Sydney; Bournemouth University (2015-09-14)
      Purpose Accessible tourism is evolving as a field of academic research and industry practice, set within a dynamic social context. The field is interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary. The purpose of this paper is to examine key concepts and global initiatives that will shape accessible tourism futures. Design/methodology/approach Three of the authors have extensive academic experience in the area and the fourth author is the Managing Director of the pre-eminent European Network for Accessible Tourism. In taking a limited Delphi approach to canvassing key areas likely to shape accessible tourism futures, the following concepts and policy initiatives were examined: motivations, dreams and aspirations of people with disability; demography; UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; destination competitiveness; universal design (UD); and the UN Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Findings A discussion of each of the above areas was placed in context to accessible tourism futures and to contextualise the papers that were selected for the special issue. The latter part of the paper outlines the contribution of each empirical paper to the issue discussing the approach, findings and implications. Stakeholder collaboration was identified as the key common theme of the papers and the factor for developing accessible tourism solutions, recognising the value of the market and capitalising on it. A collaborative approach is required to recognise the complementary nature of the different paradigms; to re-shape and transform the future of the accessible tourism industry. To assist in the development of accessible tourism futures, UD principles should provide a foundation to enhance the future competitiveness of tourism destinations and organisations. Originality/value The paper’s examination of the concepts and global policy considerations provides a strong academic and practitioner foundation for considering accessible tourism futures. In doing so, accessible tourism futures are shown to be affected by key concepts related to core tourism considerations and major policy initiatives on accessibility and sustainability. Yet, accessible tourism futures also have the potential to create their own momentum and contribute unique learnings on the diversity of tourism markets that will shape tourism concepts and global policy initiatives in their own right.
    • Against all odds: Embedding new knowledge for event continuity and community well-being.

      Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, Peter; Greatorex, Jamie; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
      Ashbourne Royal Shrovetide Football (ARSF) is a sporting event that occurs yearly on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday in the market town of Ashbourne, in Derbyshire. Sometimes referred to as "mob football," Shrovetide can arguably be perceived as the quintessential sensorial and fully immersive event, being played out across town and involving the entire community. The event is also a unique tourism spectacle and a tool for tourism destination positioning. This article presents some of the results of a larger study that looks at challenges in the matter of events safety and the impacts that this has on event survival and the sustainable development of local communities. Findings highlight the need to support communities to learn from events in order to preserve them as they are essential for the maintenance of a unique and inimitable community identity.
    • Book review: Cultural tourism

      Azara, Iride; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-11-05)
      Review of Cultural Tourism (2nd ed.), edited by Hilary du Cros and Bob McKercher, Abingdon, Routledge, 2014, 270 pp., £33.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0415833974
    • Challenges in managing peripheral workers within diverse environments.

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Melpignano, Claudia; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2019-03-21)
      This paper explores the HR issues that tour operators experience in the planning, coordination and management of tours revolving around cycling events. It does so by using a tour operator based in the UK as a case study and by deploying a qualitative ethnographic approach. This methodology was deemed as the most fitting to enable an in-depth and rich analysis of the issues that characterise the complex management of core (office-based employees) and peripheral workers (tour guides on the event site). Not only do the different operations, time frames, environments and activities within which the employees operate result in the company’s workforce division into two distinctive groups, but they also determine low levels of professional satisfaction and motivation among the tour guides. Investigating the stances held by the company’s employees in relation to the difficulties encountered in the workplace is necessary to develop a strategy that allows for retaining peripheral workers, for creating synergy between the two different teams, and consequently for ensuring the achievement of the organization’s goals and objectives. The findings highlight how the adoption of HR practices that aim at enhancing the company’s internal marketing would entail an optimistic shift in the tour guides’ perception of their position within the company, resulting in improved product delivery and reduced absenteeism, burnout and turnover challenges
    • The complexity of decision-making processes and IoT adoption in accommodation SMEs

      Pappas, Nikolaos; Caputo, Andrea; Pellegrini, Massimiliano Matteo; Marzi, Giacomo; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Sunderland; University of Trento, Italy; University of Lincoln; University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy; University of Lincoln; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-01-18)
      The current competitive scenario is fast-moving toward an integration of sophisticated technological innovations, i.e. smart solutions for hospitality, in particular the accommodation industry. Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are able to connect and let communicate different devices to craft a personalized customer experience. Given the undeniable impact for the hospitality sector, the decisions about adopting smart solutions are not always linear: benefits and limitations co-exist and need to be weighed against each other. By adopting fsQCA, this paper compares several decision-making factors that may influence the willingness to adopt IoT, surveying owners/managers in the Greek accommodation industry. Results show four types of decision-making: (i) rational, a weighted evaluation of risks and opportunities; (ii) enthusiast, mostly highlighting benefits to gain a competitive advantage; (iii) cautious, emphasizing risks and barriers to innovate; and (iv) futurist, a consideration of future technological necessities related to the increasing digitalization.
    • Conserving Italian World Heritage Sites through live music events: Exploring barriers and opportunities

      Azara, Iride; Melpignano, Claudia; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication, 2019-09-18)
      Consumers’ demands for innovative forms of heritage consumption combined with a desire for long lasting memories have highlighted the role that staged events and other live music performances at cultural and historical sites can play in the conservation of these assets. However, to date, research on these aspects remains fragmented and indeed lacking within the Italian landscape. Building on these considerations, this paper explores the tensions inherent the re-use and conservation of Italian cultural and historical assets through live events. The research uses three WHS sites distributed across the Italian territory as case studies to identify the positions of different stakeholders involved in the production of live music performances. A qualitative, comparative, case study design has been deemed as the most fitting to enable an in-depth investigation of the stances held by public and private sector organisations involved in the staging of events at WHS and to enable a rich analysis of the issues. Findings show significant ideological and cultural barriers impacting the use of staged live events at such venues. Besides suggesting a cross-sectorial cooperative approach to help rejuvenate these WH sites and to generate funding for conservation purposes findings suggest the need to develop a sustainable strategy for managing national heritage assets incorporating clear guidelines on the re-use of WH sites.
    • Distributed leadership in DMOs: a review of literature and directions for future research

      Hristov, Dean; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Naumov, Nick; University of Northampton; University of Derby; The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; University of Johannesburg, South Africa; Nexford University, Washington DC, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2020-07-27)
      Amidst key emergent challenges for Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) and destinations triggered by changes in the funding and governance landscape for tourism on a global scale, Distributed Leadership (DL) has emerged as a promising concept to provide a collaborative framework for channelling resources and leadership to cope with such changes. Current evidence from academic literature discussing the importance of embedding shared forms of leadership is scarce and few studies discuss the application of DL in the context of DMOs. The key purpose of the following conceptual study is to provide a critical overview of key DL contributions in the mainstream and DMO academic literature. The study seeks to examine the relevance of DL in the context DMOs with the purpose to stimulate future empirical investigations in the application of DL in DMO organisations.
    • Health, wellness and place attachment during and post health pandemics

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Majeed, Salman; UiT, The Arctic University of Norway; University of Derby, Derby Business School; University of Johanneshburg, Johannesburg Business School, South Africa; Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China (Frontiers, 2020-11-26)
      Therapeutic landscapes encapsulate healing and recovery notions in natural and built environmental settings. Tourists’ perceptions determine their decision making of health and wellness tourism consumption. Researchers struggle with the conceptualization of the term ‘therapeutic landscapes’ across disciplines. Drawing on extant literature searched in nine databases, this scoping review identifies different dimensions of therapeutic landscapes. Out of identified 178 literature sources, 124 met the inclusion criteria of identified keywords. We review the contribution and the potential of environmental psychology in understanding tourist behavior to promote health and wellness tourism destinations in a post COVID-19 context. We develop and propose conceptual framework comprising: (1) perceived goodness of therapeutic landscapes, (2) health and wellness consumption, (3) COVID-19 pandemic perceived health and wellness risk, (4) place attachment (5) re-visitation. We propose measurement scales, discuss implications and major issues in the immediate and post the COVID-19 pandemic to inform future research.
    • Information provision for challenging markets: the case of the accessibility requiring market in the context of tourism

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Buhalis, Dimitrios; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2013-07)
      The paper investigates the requirements of users with disabilities and the implications that these tourists have for developing accessible tourism information systems. A series of focus groups and interviews revealed the informational needs of people with disabilities, as well as the relevant technical difficulties involved in addressing these needs. The results indicated that the indispensable requirements include the following: (1) the veto or absolutely minimal prerequisites principle; (2) an indication of holistic accessibility paths; and (3) door-to-door access maps. The technical challenges identified focus on interoperability, content integration and personalization. The paper concludes by demonstrating how the tourism industry can overcome these challenges and address disabled travelers’ needs.
    • The interrelationship between place symbolism, memory and voluntary income schemes (VIS): The ‘stick up for Stanage’ campaign.

      Marson, Duncan; Pope, Emma; University of Derby (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI), 2018-05)
    • An investigation on the Acceptance of Facebook by Travellers for Travel Planning

      Enter, Nina; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Derby (2013-01)
      Due to the emergence of social media and web 2.0 applications within the last few years, tourists' travel behaviour and decision-making changed. This study investigates tourists' behavioural intentions to use Facebook for travel planning purposes. To address this objective, a combination of survey and 19 interviews provided qualitative and quantitative data. Results indicated that Information search, Sharing travel experiences and Trust were the main determinants of intention to use Facebook. In particular, travellers view Facebook as a tourism information source, they are more willing to share their experiences on their own profile rather than a providers page and that they trust other tourism related sites more than Facebook. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
    • Legacies from nurturers in tourism; Inspiring people for communities.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (The University of Aveiro, 2017)
      In this paper a review of pre-requisites for supply side competency in developing community based tourism is offered. Using an interpretive and phenomenological approach, the skills, aptitudes and capacity to nurture within the community, are considered in a focus on improving a destination’s ability to sustain tourism as an element of development. This development agenda is dependent on marshalling an array of skills in a complex, differentiated and individualised marketplace. It is difficult to achieve triple-bottom line sustainability without acknowledging key skills in nurturing planning, policy interpretation, building of networks and partnerships, building relationships with other hosts in the community, understanding and interpreting triple-bottom line sustainability, mentoring others, understanding lifestyle choices, innovating whilst at all times enjoying and living a chosen life (Tinsley and Lynch, 2001). Nine UK based informants prioritise the antecedents of successful tourism development from a community based approach. This paper seeks to identify and illuminate practices amongst stakeholders termed ‘nurturers’ that develop tourism and destinations through excitement of image and identity, engagement of many and often diverse groups of people, capturing values and beliefs that are often inimitable and working with supportive public sector stakeholders.
    • Local community attitudes and perceptions towards thermalism.

      Fleur, Stevens; Azara, Iride; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Derby; Department HRSM, College of Business, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department HRSM, College of Business, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department HRSM, College of Business, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-02-28)
      Thermalism is enjoying a global resurgence of interest as consumers seek out ethical, natural, and place-based wellness experiences. In Europe, the ‘success rate of healing through thermalism has maintained the high reputation of thermal springs with curative powers’. However, thermalism has been culturally lost in the UK. This study focuses on a UK historical spa site currently undergoing restoration. Once restored, this will be one of three UK's only spa hotels with direct access to natural thermal mineral waters. An ethnographic case study design was used to explore community's perceptions and attitudes towards thermalism and the wellness tourism development model being implemented on location. Findings suggest that memories of the values and virtues of thermalism persist within the community and that, if harnessed, can play a significant role in supporting the local and national wellness agenda. However, findings also suggest that the reintroduction of thermal tourism in the location is perceived by the community as a luxury commodity reserved exclusively for the wealthy and elite members of society. Thermalism is a social and cultural resource and thus attention should be paid to ensure that any wellness tourism development model follows a cultural participatory logic and not solely an economic one.
    • Local community support in tourism in Mauritius – ray of light by LUX*

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Sowamber, Vishnee; University of Derby, UK; UiT, The Arctic University of Norway; Monash University, Australia; University of Johannesburg, South Africa (Routledge, 2020-11-30)
      Tourism development is said to be a priority sector for economic growth within Small Islands Developing States (SIDS), generating employment and foreign investment to these countries (Nunkoo & Ramkissoon, 2011a; b). SIDS also face fierce competition in maintaining their positioning competing with not only existing competitors but also with emerging destinations (Ramkissoon & Uysal, 2011; 2018; Seetaram & Joubert, 2018). Local communities have great expectations from the tourism industry as a source of employment, and they tend to be in support of tourism development in their country (Nunkoo & Ramkissoon, 2013). However, the local people also get impacted by adverse impacts from tourist activities including waste production, land use and depletion of resources (water, land, marine) (Kim, Uysal, & Sirgy, 2013; Ramkissoon & Durbarry, 2009). Further, local cultures might not always be well grasped by non-locals who work in the tourism sector. While many value diversity, some may tend to impose their own cultures at destinations if they are not well sensitized on respecting the local culture. An important remark in SIDS is that the employment salary provided to the locals is very often just enough for survival. It is a sector which operates 24/7, with work shifts comprising of odd hours, weekends, and public holidays. Tourism workers very often experience burnout if they do not have a manager who fuels them with motivation (Andereck & Nyaupane, 2011). To be able to sustain growth, tourism operators need to ensure that they are creating adequate value within the local community and for this, the local residents’ participation is important (Hwang, Chi & Lee, 2013). The tourism sector has the opportunity to demonstrate sustainable development through implementation of initiatives which involves stakeholder engagement and participation (Byrd, Ca´rdenas, & Greenwood, 2008; Nunkoo & Ramkissoon, 2017). This chapter uses the Mauritian hotel group LUX* Resorts and Hotels as a case study and discusses the ‘Ray of Light’ social initiative as part of its sustainable tourism development strategy. It further discusses strategies practitioners and policy-makers need to consider to promote sustainability at their organizations embracing tourism as an instrument for positive change.
    • Managing knowledge transfer partnership for a rural community: the outcomes at Wirksworth, UK

      Wiltshier, Peter; Edwards, Mike; University of Derby (2014)
      Purpose – This paper aims to propose a knowledge transfer partnership (KTP) model, using higher education (HE) students researching in the UK. It is focused on community engagement via charitable trusts, New Opportunities Wirksworth (NOW) & Ecclesbourne Valley Rail (EVR). The researchers designed and implemented a pilot study that explored the potential of a small, yet attractive and active, market town to diversify and regenerate using tourism. This project, which has been funded by the UK Higher Education Innovation Fund (HEIF), has been devised to operate and monitor a KTP in the culturally important heritage market town of Wirksworth, in Derbyshire. Design/methodology/approach – A systems-thinking constructivist approach is used and employs problem-based learning (PBL) through engagement of students in research and data collection. The authors identified that skills for sustainable development within the community are dependent on the reintegration of complex, inter-dependent and inter-disciplinary factors. A holistic approach to the learning and knowledge shared within the community underpins UK initiatives to promote capacity development in ways to change knowledge applications across product and service boundaries. Therefore, in addition to encouraging diversification and regeneration through tourism, this project supported the University of Derby's academic agenda to promote experiential and entrepreneurial learning in students working at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. This paper accords with the current university initiatives to meet the student employability agenda through the application of PBL and knowledge management. Findings – The creation of outcomes and recommendations for Wirksworth's stakeholders provides sustainability through the knowledge creation and sharing processes. There are seven outcomes that chart a path to development and knowledge transfer (KT) and sharing. The authors simultaneously provided an environment for students to gain skills and a community to acquire new knowledge, and these are the outcomes and output of this project. New learning styles may support inclusive academic practice (see related samples of PBL such as Ineson and Beresford in HLST resources 2001). Implications for building a KT community through the social capital accumulated in the project are explored. Originality/value – In taking PBL from the classroom to the community, the authors have created a new KT environment in which skills can be acquired and a regeneration strategy can be tested in a work-or-practice-related setting. Students recognise that they are building learning for themselves that is unique in that it cannot be recreated in a classroom setting. The authors see this project developing into a robust long-term partnership between communities and institutions with KT benefits to teaching staff in addition to students. These benefits will include new skills for PBL, working collaboratively with partners in the community to develop key skills in HE students, innovation in assessment, inclusive learning and teaching, experiential and entrepreneurial learning in practice.
    • Managing knowledge transfer partnership for a rural community: the outcomes at Wirksworth, UK.

      Wiltshier, Peter; Edwards, Mike; University of Derby (2014)
      Purpose This paper proposes a knowledge transfer partnership model, using Higher Education (HE) students researching in the United Kingdom. It is focused on community engagement via charitable trusts, New Opportunities Wirksworth (NOW) & Ecclesbourne Valley Rail (EVR). The researchers designed and implemented a pilot study that explored the potential of a small, yet attractive and active, market town to diversify and regenerate using tourism. This project, which has been funded by the UK Higher Education Innovation Fund (HEIF), has been devised to operate and monitor a knowledge transfer partnership (KTP) in the culturally important heritage market town of Wirksworth, in Derbyshire.. Design, Methodology, Approach A systems-thinking constructivist approach is used (Checkland & Scholes, 1981; Kolb & Kolb, 2005) and employs problem-based learning (PBL) through engagement of students in research and data collection. We identified that skills for sustainable development within the community are dependent on the re-integration of complex, inter-dependent and inter-disciplinary factors. A holistic approach to the learning and knowledge shared within the community underpins UK initiatives to promote capacity development in ways to change knowledge applications across product and service boundaries (Taylor & Wilding 2009; Hislop 2009; Leitch, 2006; Dawe et al 2005; Wals et al 2002; Haskins 2003;;). Therefore, in addition to encouraging diversification and regeneration through tourism, this project supported the University of Derby’s academic agenda to promote experiential and entrepreneurial learning in students working at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. This paper accords with the current University initiatives to meet the student employability agenda through the application of PBL and knowledge management (KM). Findings The creation of outcomes and recommendations for Wirksworth’s stakeholders provides sustainability through the knowledge creation and sharing processes. There are seven outcomes that chart a path to development and knowledge transfer and sharing. We simultaneously provided an environment for students to gain skills and a community to acquire new knowledge, and these are the outcomes and output of this project (Hendry et al, 1999; Brown & King, 2000; Kolb & Kolb, 2005). New learning styles may support inclusive academic practice (see related samples of PBL such as Ineson (2001) and Beresford (2001) in HLST resources 2001). Implications for building a knowledge transfer community through the social capital accumulated in the project is explored (Ellis, 2010; Mulgan, 2010; Senge, 1994). Originality In taking PBL from the classroom to the community, we have created a new knowledge transfer environment in which skills can be acquired and a regeneration strategy can be tested in a work-or-practice related setting. Students recognise that they are building learning for themselves that is unique in that it cannot be recreated in a classroom setting. We see this project developing into a robust long-term partnership between communities and institutions with knowledge transfer benefits to teaching staff in addition to students. These benefits will include new skills for PBL, working collaboratively with partners in the community to develop key skills in HE students, innovation in assessment, inclusive learning and teaching, experiential and entrepreneurial learning in practice.
    • Mobilising the dome

      Azara, Iride; Wakefield, Lisa; University of Derby (2016-09)
      More and more public and private tourism organisations are putting an emphasis on the creation of ‘memorable tourist experiences’ (Bærenholdt and Michael Haldrup, 2004; O’Dell, 2007 and Ennen and Van Maanen, 2013). It is now commonly accepted that technology plays a vital role in communication and interpretation and altogether in achieving this outcome, supporting tourism growth and instigating innovative responses to competition for tourist attraction (Neuhofer, Buhalis and Ladkin, 2012). This paper discusses how technology can be used to mobilise and reconceptualise a contested heritage space, focusing on an ongoing research project aimed at developing audio tours at the Devonshire Dome: a Grade II* listed building and iconic tourism landmark that dominates the Buxton 44 townscape (Sheller and Urry, 2006 and Haldrup and Larsen, 2006). Aimed at first-time visitor to Buxton, the exploration of the Dome encourages visitors to use the building under the terms and conditions of the Heritage Lottery Funds received in 2000. The terms of the HLF grant were that the building be made available to visitors and the community in perpetuity. The audio tours takes the visitors on a journey through time showcasing the building from a grand stable block; to a well-respected ‘hydropathic’ hospital before being given a new lease of life as a University campus. Preliminary findings, collected through a series of qualitative research interventions with visitors to the Dome and University stakeholders highlight the potential technology has to enable three competing heritage narratives of place to coexist simultaneously thus developing and reconfiguring people’s relationship with the place and the range of stakeholders involved in the delivery of the tourism product. The research contributes to the existing body of knowledge that aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of how technology can be used at heritage sites as both a key driver of change in helping to create and develop memorable experiences, redrafting visitor’s relationship with space and maximising effectiveness.
    • New Age visitors and the tourism industry.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2018-12-31)
      This conceptual paper establishes a framework for socially constructed research activity to help gauge the intention of travellers in more-developed countries (MDC) of the wealthy and largely affluent North to undertake forms of continuing personal and professional development (CPD) through their travel experiences. Human physiological needs have in large already been achieved for many in more developed countries and exceeded in terms of nourishment and entertainment. Humans are social and societal creatures and in need of realisation of their spiritual, intellectual and societal choices and selections. New spiritual values are threatened by monetarism, by an ‘enveloping outside world’, as Giddens terms it (Giddens, 1991; Giddens, 1994). We must look to the South for inspiration, for restoration of group values and creation of acceptable norms that define society and are elemental in the construction of society from the bottom up.
    • Portfolio of major events in Auckland: characteristics, perspectives and issues

      Antchak, Vladimir; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-04-11)
      Although event portfolios have become an integrated part of destination development, a lack of empirical research into the nature of portfolio design exists. A case study was conducted in Auckland, New Zealand, to explore the nature of the applied portfolio strategy in the city. The findings indicate that Auckland employs an outcomes-driven approach which is characterised by the orientation on economic outcomes, an ‘agnostic’ attitude to the compositional structure of the portfolio, an intensive bidding campaign and leveraging strategies. The current city’s reputation awards, successful event bids and positive economic indicators justify this approach. The identified issues, including a supply-led nature of the event portfolio and its predominantly quantitative measures of success, call for a revalidation of the approach. The results of the study contribute to the ongoing discourse about the value of event portfolios and their sustainable design in different urban destinations.
    • Spa services and wellness activities within the surf tourism experience; the case study of Jersey, Channel Islands.

      Iliuta, Maria-Alexandra; Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby; University of Derby, Derby, UK; University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-03-23)
      This paper explores the feasibility of developing spa and wellness activities within the surf tourism experience in Jersey (Channel Islands) from the surf traveller’s perspective. Using this worldview, we evaluate a surf tourism offer in Jersey. Through an analysis of the lifestyle and attitudes of today’s surf traveller, we offer preliminary suggestions to marketers and surf lodge owners to capitalise on this unique target market. The conceptual position, that we term Swellness, refers to the perceived wellness dimensions and benefits of surfing. We identify that spa and wellness elements are feasible add-ons for surf product development. The study has also revealed an openness towards other wellness-related concepts, such as Surf Set Fitness or man­made wave surfing parks. Furthermore, the research has shown that wellness and personal responsibility for well-being are part of a surf subculture.