• Understanding key motivations for using a hotel gamified application.

      Parapanos, Demos; Michopoulou, Elina; University of Derby (Springer., 2018-12-15)
      While hospitality has been one of the industries that have been keen to adopt and use various technologies, the proliferation of gamification application is still to materialise. It is therefore very interesting to investigate the potential benefits of gamified applications for both demand and supply in the area of the hospitality industry by identifying the motives of individuals’ when they use a hotel-gamified application. Since fun has become the requirement to ensure continuous demands for many products or services, companies and organizations feel the need to involve fun in their offerings to secure continuity in consumption and use. Hence, this study aims to understand the meaning of fun for individuals when they will use a hotel-gamified application. Visual material was prepared so the interviewees would have an idea of how a hotel-gamified application would look if it were in existence today based on the current definitions of gamification.
    • Hotel social media metrics: The ROI dilemma.

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Moisa, Delia Gabriela; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier, 2018-06-11)
      This study offers a perspective of social media performance measurement techniques adopted by hoteliers, with a focus on financial returns. The research adopted a qualitative approach, data was collected through semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Findings indicate that ROI is understood as an umbrella concept, where engagement rates, customer response and volume of likes and comments are most important. However, the element of ROI in the form of financial outcomes derived from social media remains elusive. This research contributes to social media adoption literature by investigating current social media measurement practices within the hospitality industry. While hotel managers employ diverse strategies for social media deployment, the focus on the effectiveness of these strategies is questionable, particularly considering financial metrics. This study presents key metrics currently used, but more importantly highlights which aspects of social media performance measurement are neglected and the gap they create in assessing social media strategies holistically and effectively.
    • The interrelationship between place symbolism, memory and voluntary income schemes (VIS): The ‘stick up for Stanage’ campaign.

      Marson, Duncan; Pope, Emma; University of Derby (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI), 2018-05)
    • Spa services and wellness activities within the surf tourism experience; the case study of Jersey, Channel Islands.

      Iliuta, Maria-Alexandra; Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby; University of Derby, Derby, UK; University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-03-23)
      This paper explores the feasibility of developing spa and wellness activities within the surf tourism experience in Jersey (Channel Islands) from the surf traveller’s perspective. Using this worldview, we evaluate a surf tourism offer in Jersey. Through an analysis of the lifestyle and attitudes of today’s surf traveller, we offer preliminary suggestions to marketers and surf lodge owners to capitalise on this unique target market. The conceptual position, that we term Swellness, refers to the perceived wellness dimensions and benefits of surfing. We identify that spa and wellness elements are feasible add-ons for surf product development. The study has also revealed an openness towards other wellness-related concepts, such as Surf Set Fitness or man­made wave surfing parks. Furthermore, the research has shown that wellness and personal responsibility for well-being are part of a surf subculture.
    • Local community attitudes and perceptions towards thermalism.

      Fleur, Stevens; Azara, Iride; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Derby; Department HRSM, College of Business, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department HRSM, College of Business, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department HRSM, College of Business, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-02-28)
      Thermalism is enjoying a global resurgence of interest as consumers seek out ethical, natural, and place-based wellness experiences. In Europe, the ‘success rate of healing through thermalism has maintained the high reputation of thermal springs with curative powers’. However, thermalism has been culturally lost in the UK. This study focuses on a UK historical spa site currently undergoing restoration. Once restored, this will be one of three UK's only spa hotels with direct access to natural thermal mineral waters. An ethnographic case study design was used to explore community's perceptions and attitudes towards thermalism and the wellness tourism development model being implemented on location. Findings suggest that memories of the values and virtues of thermalism persist within the community and that, if harnessed, can play a significant role in supporting the local and national wellness agenda. However, findings also suggest that the reintroduction of thermal tourism in the location is perceived by the community as a luxury commodity reserved exclusively for the wealthy and elite members of society. Thermalism is a social and cultural resource and thus attention should be paid to ensure that any wellness tourism development model follows a cultural participatory logic and not solely an economic one.
    • Guest introduction: Making sense of event experiences.

      Ramsbottom, Olivia; Michopoulou, Eleni; Azara, Iride; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
    • Understanding mega-events success and customer satisfaction.

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Giuliano, Chiara; University of Derby; Google (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
      The events industry is growing every year, the number of events is increasing, and their role in society is becoming more significant. Satisfied participants are the key to successful events and the main objective of event organizers. The aim of the article is to understand what costumers consider more important when attending mega-events. A quantitative survey design was adopted by deploying the American customer satisfaction index (ACSI) that included an event specific customer value package in the context of the EXPO Milan 2015 mega-event. Results demonstrate that expectations of visitors, staff, and volunteers vary considerably, and so do the levels of satisfaction. They also highlight that, alongside other customers' priorities such as cleanliness and safety, capacity plays a role in determining satisfaction. This article presents the summarized findings of a broader study.
    • Against all odds: Embedding new knowledge for event continuity and community well-being.

      Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, Peter; Greatorex, Jamie; University of Derby (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2018-02-01)
      Ashbourne Royal Shrovetide Football (ARSF) is a sporting event that occurs yearly on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday in the market town of Ashbourne, in Derbyshire. Sometimes referred to as "mob football," Shrovetide can arguably be perceived as the quintessential sensorial and fully immersive event, being played out across town and involving the entire community. The event is also a unique tourism spectacle and a tool for tourism destination positioning. This article presents some of the results of a larger study that looks at challenges in the matter of events safety and the impacts that this has on event survival and the sustainable development of local communities. Findings highlight the need to support communities to learn from events in order to preserve them as they are essential for the maintenance of a unique and inimitable community identity.
    • City rhythms and events.

      Antchak, Vladimir; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-01-04)
    • What is a learning town? Reflections on the experience at Wirksworth.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (The University of Naples Federico II, 2017-12)
      This paper explores the legacy of regeneration project work and knowledge management and transfer as a result of intervention through a charity designed to support new business opportunities, specifically in arts and entertainment, tourism, skills development and training. As part of the University of Derby’s own work-related learning and problem-based learning, a project team was assigned to work alongside the charity ‘New Opportunities in Wirksworth!’ (NOW!). A participant observation, action research approach has been used to elicit and analyse the knowledge transfer, both explicit and implicit. Staff and students from the University of Derby have been contracted to research tourism development specifically in festival supply and demand, the attractiveness of the destination and its key features the market, mining heritage and volunteer railway. Staff and students also committed to an events strategy, marketing the destination and finance for start-ups. The University is engaged in tacit and explicit knowledge transfers. Key stakeholders have reflected on a decade of achievements and both fails and success stories. Agendas for the future have been identified and the project NOW! Has a legacy of both tacit and explicit knowledge for the benefit of other communities. There is an ongoing desire to explore how both public and private sectors can benefit from knowledge sharing and to benefit ongoing problem-based learning in education and training.
    • Major events programming in a city: Comparing three approaches to portfolio design.

      Antchak, Vladimir; Pernecky, Tomas; University of Derby; Auckland University of Technology (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2017-11-08)
      Event portfolio design is increasingly important from both academic and industry perspectives. The purpose of this article is to discuss and conceptualize the strategic process of event portfolio planning and development in different urban contexts in New Zealand. A qualitative multiple case study was conducted in three cities: Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin. Primary data were collected by interviewing city event planners from city councils and relevant council controlled organizations. Secondary data were obtained by the analysis of the relevant documents, including city event policies and strategies, annual reports, statements, and activity plans. Thematic analysis revealed the existence of distinctive portfolio approaches in the studied cases, which can be compared and differentiated by applying the following parameters: Formality, Intentionality, Directionality, and Rhythmicity. Together, these parameters represent a "built-in equalizer" that can be used to balance the opposing values of diverse approaches and adjust them within current city objectives. The article provides a rich and broad context, which enables an understanding of the strategic nature of event portfolios and their implementation within a wider city development agenda.
    • Events and place experience: Improvisation with city rhythms and psychogeography.

      Antchak, Vladimir; University of Derby (2017-09-14)
      Events have been increasingly used in place-making, where a lived space of a city is linked to a conceived and imaginative space through new meanings, symbols, identity, narrative and storytelling. Place-making requires the development and delivery of a unique and authentic experience. A place experience reflects people’s interaction with the physical, virtual and social environment of cities. Place experiencing stimulates imagery processing, 38 gives meaning and generates emotions. A symbiosis of events, cityscapes, images, and attached meanings generates an attractive aura of eventfulness which transforms city daily rhythms. Although different aspects of place experience through events have been discussed in the literature, the research on the multifaceted dimensions of such experience remains limited. The proposed research project aims at filling this gap by exploring the nature of lived experiences of an event place. Specifically, the study will investigate how a host city is being experienced during the course of city-scale events by different target groups, including local residents, event attendees and city visitors. A mixed method phenomenological approach is chosen as an appropriate research design. The research will combine phenomenology with quantitative surveys to cross-validate findings. The preliminary quantitative findings will review effects of events on a lived place experience and will be used to inform the phenomenological part where the nature of place experience will be explored in depth. Buxton, a spa town in Derbyshire, UK, is chosen as a location for data collection. The town is famous for its historic architecture, beautiful countryside and several large-scale cultural and music festivals. A mixed method phenomenological perspective of this research can provide richer insights into the nature of one’s own experience of a host city, as well as synthesise personal experiences with collective meanings about the place. The results of the research will have several contributions. Theoretically, the research will contribute to the place-making theory in tourism and events by providing a deeper understanding of place and event experience dimensions. Methodologically, the research will demonstrate the potential and appropriateness of phenomenology in event studies. Practically, the results of the research may be useful in planning of city event and tourism projects in order to design and deliver unique and authentic place experiences and synergise multiple meanings co-created by different actors.
    • Tourism and ethnodevelopment: Inclusion, empowerment and self determination – a case study of the Chatham Islands of New Zealand/Aotearoa.

      Cardow, Andrew; Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Goodfellow Publishers, 2017-08)
      In the twenty-first century indigenous tourism development research has focused on projects aligned with planning destinations diversifying and regenerating using tourism as a lever. There is an obvious impact upon indigenous and imported destination culture and society because of the effect of increased economic and environmental activities (Moyle & Evans 2008; Brown, 2009; Gurung & Seeland 2008; Hinch & Butler, 2009). This research examines public and private sector responses to the diversification of a sub-Antarctic island community through tourism. In particular the research will examine the policy changes undertaken by local government in respect to the indigenous tourism offering on the Islands. Since a more public and efficient transportation opened the Chatham Islands up to visitors, public sector policy has reinforced bi-culturalism in the vernacular, idiosyncratic and contingent approach to tourism. The focus however remains on economic and environmental sustainability based upon the conservation of indigenous tracts of land and sea with marine reserves and scarce and sacred territorial ambitions reigned in by the Moriori and the later Maori invaders (King, and Morrison 1990). Concurrently the private sector response has been driven by new migrants with ideologically confrontational demands that have both irked long-term residents and cut across public policy.
    • Game park tourism.

      Azara, Iride; Wilcockson, Helen; University of Derby; West Notts College (Sage, 2017-07-03)
      The term game park tourism is used to define a range of tourism experiences specifically occurring within the designated boundaries of a game park. These experiences range from nonconsumptive activities, such as wildlife photography, observational activities, arts, and painting, to consumptive practices, such as hunting in game parks, fishing, petting lions, riding elephants, and so on.
    • Portfolio of major events in Auckland: characteristics, perspectives and issues

      Antchak, Vladimir; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-04-11)
      Although event portfolios have become an integrated part of destination development, a lack of empirical research into the nature of portfolio design exists. A case study was conducted in Auckland, New Zealand, to explore the nature of the applied portfolio strategy in the city. The findings indicate that Auckland employs an outcomes-driven approach which is characterised by the orientation on economic outcomes, an ‘agnostic’ attitude to the compositional structure of the portfolio, an intensive bidding campaign and leveraging strategies. The current city’s reputation awards, successful event bids and positive economic indicators justify this approach. The identified issues, including a supply-led nature of the event portfolio and its predominantly quantitative measures of success, call for a revalidation of the approach. The results of the study contribute to the ongoing discourse about the value of event portfolios and their sustainable design in different urban destinations.
    • Legacies from nurturers in tourism; Inspiring people for communities.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (The University of Aveiro, 2017)
      In this paper a review of pre-requisites for supply side competency in developing community based tourism is offered. Using an interpretive and phenomenological approach, the skills, aptitudes and capacity to nurture within the community, are considered in a focus on improving a destination’s ability to sustain tourism as an element of development. This development agenda is dependent on marshalling an array of skills in a complex, differentiated and individualised marketplace. It is difficult to achieve triple-bottom line sustainability without acknowledging key skills in nurturing planning, policy interpretation, building of networks and partnerships, building relationships with other hosts in the community, understanding and interpreting triple-bottom line sustainability, mentoring others, understanding lifestyle choices, innovating whilst at all times enjoying and living a chosen life (Tinsley and Lynch, 2001). Nine UK based informants prioritise the antecedents of successful tourism development from a community based approach. This paper seeks to identify and illuminate practices amongst stakeholders termed ‘nurturers’ that develop tourism and destinations through excitement of image and identity, engagement of many and often diverse groups of people, capturing values and beliefs that are often inimitable and working with supportive public sector stakeholders.
    • Creating and storing a toolkit for pilgrimage and religious tourism sites.

      Wiltshier, Peter; University of Derby (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2017)
      This paper reflects our abiding interest in our origins and of those religious and pilgrimage spaces that we attest to actively being part of our cultural inheritance. It explores options for, and barriers to, the creation of a repository of information to support practitioners and the clergy to maintain and develop these religious and pilgrimage sites. A model toolkit for storing collected knowledge is presented with illustrative examples from a range of sources. The examples used are largely drawn from a Northern / Western perspective.
    • Mobilising the dome

      Azara, Iride; Wakefield, Lisa; University of Derby (2016-09)
      More and more public and private tourism organisations are putting an emphasis on the creation of ‘memorable tourist experiences’ (Bærenholdt and Michael Haldrup, 2004; O’Dell, 2007 and Ennen and Van Maanen, 2013). It is now commonly accepted that technology plays a vital role in communication and interpretation and altogether in achieving this outcome, supporting tourism growth and instigating innovative responses to competition for tourist attraction (Neuhofer, Buhalis and Ladkin, 2012). This paper discusses how technology can be used to mobilise and reconceptualise a contested heritage space, focusing on an ongoing research project aimed at developing audio tours at the Devonshire Dome: a Grade II* listed building and iconic tourism landmark that dominates the Buxton 44 townscape (Sheller and Urry, 2006 and Haldrup and Larsen, 2006). Aimed at first-time visitor to Buxton, the exploration of the Dome encourages visitors to use the building under the terms and conditions of the Heritage Lottery Funds received in 2000. The terms of the HLF grant were that the building be made available to visitors and the community in perpetuity. The audio tours takes the visitors on a journey through time showcasing the building from a grand stable block; to a well-respected ‘hydropathic’ hospital before being given a new lease of life as a University campus. Preliminary findings, collected through a series of qualitative research interventions with visitors to the Dome and University stakeholders highlight the potential technology has to enable three competing heritage narratives of place to coexist simultaneously thus developing and reconfiguring people’s relationship with the place and the range of stakeholders involved in the delivery of the tourism product. The research contributes to the existing body of knowledge that aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of how technology can be used at heritage sites as both a key driver of change in helping to create and develop memorable experiences, redrafting visitor’s relationship with space and maximising effectiveness.
    • Virtual cultural tourism: six pillars of VCT using co-creation, value exchange and exchange value

      Wiltshier, Peter; Clarke, Alan; University of Derby, University of Pannonia (2016-02)
      This paper examines antecedents to the successful use of Virtual Cultural Tourism and the ways in which virtual realities can add value to Cultural Tourism offers. Success can be seen to derive from the deeper understanding of consumers’ preferences and motivations to engage with Virtual Cultural Tourism. It is also necessary to see these initiatives from the perspective of multiple stakeholders: the armchair traveller, the frequent flyer and the service provider at destinations. The latter include public sector providers such as park site managers, museum curators, interpretation and information services for tourism as well as the private sector developers.
    • Management Practices for the Development of Religious Tourism Sacred Sites: Managing expectations through sacred and secular aims in site development; report, store and access

      Wiltshier, Peter; Griffiths, Maureen; University of Derby (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2016)
      Through a distillation of practices reflective of the extant literature and socio-economic approaches to inclusive development of sites of religious experiences and worship, we posit that there are seven core conceptual approaches to support evolving site management needs. Therefore, developing sites of special significance necessarily requires the dissemination and sharing of both intellectual and practical contributions to meet those needs in a planned and stakeholder-driven approach. Traditional approaches to development emerged half a century ago with a focus on core competencies and the agreed understanding that open and fair competition would raise quality and assure reasonable profit margins. Creating awareness of services and products and mapping those to our marketing practices are the first two tools in the toolkit. Analysis and synthesis through primary research enables cleric and manager to grasp visitors’ and worshippers’ needs and develop audiences for sites. Fourthly we present the importance of maintenance and plans for developing sites to accommodate factors in both internal and external environments that acknowledge the requirement to remain competitive. Next, the importance of networks, grappling with the wider community and perhaps establishing a wider, even global, reach, is appraised as important. In seeking to tap into resources traditionally not employed in managing religious and pilgrimage sites we elevate the need for an enterprise culture (this enterprise culture is seen in the other papers in this special issue). The final offer includes dimensions of volunteering, nontraditional support networks, altruism and philanthropy which we name as ‘the third way'.