• How Influencing Behaviours Can Accelerate the Transition to a Water Sensitive City.

      Ramkissoon, H; Smith, L. D. G; Kneebone, S. C; Monash University (CRC for Water Sensitive Cities, 31/01/2015)
      his Behaviour Assessment Database has been compiled as part of the CRC Water for Sensitive Cities project on 'Accelerating to Water Sensitive Cities by Influencing Behaviour' (Project A2.2). The overarching goal of this research project is to develop and test interventions that seek to change desirable behaviours, primarily in residents, to assist a movement toward water sensitive cities.
    • Visitors' experience, place attachment and sustainable behaviour at cultural heritage sites: a conceptual framework

      Buonincontri, P; Marasco, A; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (MDPI, 26/06/2017)
      Sustainable tourism research has attracted wide interest from scholars and practitioners. While several heritage sites are mandated to provide optimum visitor satisfaction with increasing competition in the market, managers of heritage sites face growing challenges in striking a balance between consumption and conservation. This calls for promoting more sustainable behaviours among consumers of heritage. This study proposes a conceptualization of sustainable behaviour for heritage consumers. Using the attitude–behaviour relationship underpinned by the Theory of Reasoned Action, it develops and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates visitors’ heritage experiences, their attachment to heritage sites, and their general and site-specific sustainable heritage behaviour and presents their interrelationships as proposed hypotheses. Theoretical contributions and practical implications for heritage site managers are discussed.
    • Samadhi spa & wellness retreat

      Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 23/08/2013)
    • The satisfaction-place attachment relationship: Potential mediators and moderators.

      Ramkissoon, H; Mavondo, F. T; Monash University (Elsevier, 23/05/2015)
      Researchers use place satisfaction as a dependent variable extensively since place has implications for a range of performance measures. This study reverses the relationships suggesting place satisfaction as a useful antecedent to place attachment. Place satisfaction, measured as visitors' summative evaluation of their experience is likely to be more positively associated with place dependence, identity, affect, and social bonding. The findings of this study support this contention and establish that one of the principal mechanisms linking place satisfaction to place attachment is pro-environmental behavioral intention (PEB). The study further finds that gender moderates the relationship between PEB and place attachment. The conditional indirect effect of place satisfaction on place attachment is significant only for male visitors. The article closes with implications of the study for academics and practitioners.
    • Proenvironmental behavior: critical link between satisfaction and place attachment in Australia and Canada

      Ramkissoon, H; Mavondo, F. T.; Monash University (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 23/03/2017)
      This study explores issues of scale equivalence and generalizability in national parks. Visitors' place satisfaction, proenvironmental behavior, and place attachment are measured across two qualitatively distinct populations in Australia and Canada. Techniques employed in this cross-country study bring an important contribution to tourism research. The primary focus is to establish measure equivalence before undertaking hypothesis testing using structural equation modeling on a sample of 339 repeat visitors at the Dandenong Ranges National Park, Australia, and 296 repeat visitors at the Bruce Peninsula National Park, Canada. Results from both samples indicate (a) there is measure equivalence between the Australian and Canadian samples allowing comparability of findings, (b) a positive and significant effect of visitor place satisfaction on proenvironmental behavioral intentions, (c) a significant and positive influence of proenvironmental behavioral intention on place attachment (place identity, place dependence, place social bonding, place affect), and (d) a significant and negative effect of visitor place satisfaction on place social bonding. The main finding relates to the promotion of proenvironmental behaviors among national park users that—in addition to individual benefits—provides environmental sustainability as well as practical benefits for park managers and society.
    • Role of ethnic cultural events to build an authentic destination image

      Shabnam, S; Choudhury, A; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Taylor and Francis, 21/12/2018)
      Local festivals are becoming increasingly important tourist attractions for the sophisticated tourist in quest of new authentic experiences (Ramkissoon and Uysal, 2014; Ramkissoon, 2015, 2016). The extent to which local festivals can grow as a point of attraction for international tourists while ful?lling their social and cultural roles at the national level is an issue of immense importance to social and cultural policymakers and destination marketers. This chapter explores the local festival of ‘Pohela Boishakh’, which is the celebration of the Bengali New Year. It is recognised by UNESCO as ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity’ and identified as the largest national event of Bangladesh, a developing economy with crucial geo-political importance in the South Asian region, with substantial economic promises for the local population (UNESCO, 2016). This chapter draws on Getz et al. (2006)’s framework to explore festival stakeholder relationships, especially resource dependency issues, with a view to advancing the application of stakeholder theory to festival tourism, festival management and marketing in an integrated manner. Implications for tourism and event management along with theoretical advances are discussed with suggestions for future research in the field.
    • Leadership in destination management organisations.

      Hristov, D; Ramkissoon, H; Monash University (Elsevier, 21/09/2016)
    • IT and Well-Being in Travel and Tourism

      Moisa, Delia; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Derby (Springer, 2022-10-27)
      Accelerating levels of stress and chronic disease have urged travellers to seek products and experiences that promote a holistic healthy living. However, in the context of increasingly integrated online and offline experiences, where technology does not always work in concert with human nature, tourists are facing the challenge of finding about how to best live a connected life. With travel being one of the most stress- inducing experiences we voluntarily subject ourselves to, tourism players are taking advantage of the latest technology to respond to the travellers’ changing needs and values, by designing innovative experiences that promote overall well-being. This chapter provides a review of the existing research on well-being related to the travel and tourism sector, while focusing on the link with technology advancements, especially the dual perspective of unplugging and intense technology use. As in all great technological revolutions, the digital traveller’s life may potentially unveil a dark side. However, the general consensus is that the positives of using technology within the travel and tourism sector will continue to outweigh the negatives. The chapter focuses on highlighting the different types of technology used to support the traveller’s state of well-being, as well as the role and impact of technology in relation to well-being while travelling.
    • Perceived Visitor Impacts of Cultural Heritage Tourism: The Role of Place Attachment in Memorable Visitor Experiences.

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby (Edward Elgar, 2022-07)
      This chapter is the first to develop and propose a single integrative model exploring associations between visitors’ perceived positive impacts of cultural heritage tourism, cultural heritage place attachment (with sub-dimensions of cultural place dependence, cultural place identity, cultural place affect and cultural place social bonding), visitors’ memorable cultural heritage experiences, and their revisit intentions and recommendation to cultural tourism attractions. Implications for sustainable cultural heritage consumption are discussed for the current COVID-19 and post-pandemic context.
    • Cultural tourism impacts and place meanings: Focusing on the value of domestic tourism

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022-05)
      People develop emotional bonds and meanings with the places they live in and visit. This is commonly referred to as place attachment, sense of place, or neighbourhood or community attachment. To ensure that tourism results in positive, community-wide social impacts, tourism planning processes should align visitor experiences and local inhabitants’ place meanings. In this chapter, I make a case for focusing on domestic tourism, in particular the visitation of tourism sites by people living nearby these places (dubbed ‘local visitors’), to build back the tourism economy in a more sustainable way after the COVID-19 pandemic. During pandemic times, domestic cultural tourism could: (i) contribute to local visitors’ place attachment and well-being; (ii) sustain at least part of the tourism economy; (iii) provide insights into how tourism should be organized so as to avoid future conflict between local inhabitants and external (international) visitors when the global tourism economy re-starts.
    • Social media and tourists’ behaviors: post-COVID-19

      Majeed, Salman; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby (Edward Elgar, 2022-02)
      We develop and propose a conceptual model to integrate the constructs of use of social media information, perceived travel risk of epidemic-hit destinations, anxiety, intentions to visit, and eWOM. The framework is intended to assist researchers to progress this field of study. Our framework is also important for tourism and hospitality stakeholders to better understand tourists’ perceptions and behaviors during and after destination crises, in order to devise appropriate strategies for destination competitiveness (Ramkissoon and Nunkoo, 2008, 2012; Ramkissoon and Uysal, 2011; Ramkissoon and Mavondo, 2017). Our study encourages future empirical testing of the proposed theoretical framework.
    • Evolving effects of COVID-19 safety precaution expectations, risk avoidance, and socio-demographics factors on customer hesitation toward patronizing restaurants and hotels

      Chi, Christina G; Ekinci, Yuksel; Ramkissoon, Haywantee; Thorpe, Alistair; Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; University of Portsmouth; University of Derby; University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA (Taylor & Francis, 2022-01-08)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental impacts on hospitality businesses. Drawing on protection motivation theory (PMT), this study investigated what determined customer hesitation to patronize restaurants and hotels and whether such hesitation underwent changes in the duration of the pandemic. The research model was tested using three sets of survey data collected in December 2020 (n = 826), February 2021 (n = 832) and April 2021 (n = 808). The study found that expected COVID-19 safety precautions, COVID-19 risk avoidance, and demographic factors predicted customers’ hesitation to visit restaurant/hotel. The analysis also showed significant shifts in how expectations about safety precautions, risk avoidance, and demographics affected customers’ visit hesitation over time. These findings provide critical insights to restaurant and hotel managers and destination marketers. To ensure that customers feel safe and confident in visiting hotels and restaurants, managers should implement the recommended safety measures and clearly communicate the implementation of these measures to customers.
    • Let's All Play Together: Motivations of Different Gamification User Types

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Parapanos, Demos; University of Derby (IGI Global, 2022-01)
      Gamification is recognized as the next big thing in marketing by using game design elements in a nongame context. Producing desirable experiences and motivating users to remain engaged in an activity is one of the strengths of gamification. The introduction of digital social networks has become the biggest change regarding digital technology, also leading to the evolution and popularity of gamification. Although it is possible to design games, serious games, or gamified systems without knowing who the target users are, it is more likely to create a more engaging experience when these users are identified first. Taking this into consideration, this chapter will look to identify and present the motivations of individuals when using gamification systems. Identifying the motivations behind gamification usage and acknowledging the interaction between them will help organizations understand their audience and create more engaging experiences
    • Experiencing the Story: The Role of Destination Image in Film-Induced Tourism

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Siurnicka, Aleksandra; Moisa, Delia, Gabriela; University of Derby (IGI Global, 2022)
      The importance of destination image in film tourism has been recognized by scholars and practitioners. However, despite a large number of research papers related to the destination image within the field of film tourism, several issues remain unclear. This chapter provides insights into how movies influence the featured destination's image by focusing on specific film tourists' perceptions, their motivations, and emotional relation to the movies. The chapter begins by offering a film tourism definition followed by film tourist typology with the context of film fans. Then, factors influencing film tourism destination image are examined, in particular destination marketing activities, film-specific factors, and destination attributes. Two case studies will also be provided to better showcase the findings from the literature review. Theoretical and practical implications are also presented.
    • Stakeholder Requirements And Value Co-Creation In Events

      Wallace, Kevin; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Technology, Sydney; University of Derby (Cognizant, LLC, 2021-12-15)
      The festival and events sector comprises a wide range of stakeholders across the private, public and not-for-profit sectors. In order to achieve stakeholder satisfaction it is necessary to understand what is important to stakeholders, what they consider constitutes project success and what the factors and measures of that success may be. Once identified and effectively managed, meaningful evaluation can then be undertaken to assess success on stakeholder’s terms. This approach also provides an opportunity to consider value creation for stakeholders in relation to their measures of success. The purpose of this research is to develop a robust framework that enables success factors and measures to be identified and effectively measured as part of a holistic evaluation process which contributes to the identification of stakeholder value. Whilst research is regularly undertaken to assess impacts of festivals and their benefits to stakeholders, there can be competing agendas, project success can be interpreted in different ways with tensions and disagreements in relation to expected outcomes. It is therefore necessary to clearly understand stakeholder expectations, community dynamics and visitors and residents’ perceptions of impacts of festivals. A multi‐method inductive approach was used to capture the motivations and influences of the stakeholders as social actors during the Tour de Yorkshire (TdY) event. Using this event as a longitudinal case study over an 18-month period, the methodology comprised of qualitative questionnaires and interviews to engage a wide range of stakeholders and used the conceptual Stakeholder Sandwich as the core model to produce a framework and methodology to generate richer data. Results indicated that this model, framework and methodology proved to be effective for the understanding of stakeholder success factors and contributes towards the understanding of value co-creation for stakeholders in events and festivals. With the immense challenges currently facing the sector, such a framework could prove to be of significant value for practitioners and researchers alike.
    • Pro-sociality in times of separation and loss

      Ramkissoon, Haywantee; University of Derby; University of Johanneshburg (Elsevier, 2021-12-14)
      Humans are particularly drawn to social connections. Prosociality in times of loss and separation require intervention designs aimed at reinforcing social bonds to help those grieving. Pro-social behaviors reinforce social support, contributes to resilience, and promotes mental health, overall wellbeing and quality of life. This review summarizes multidisciplinary evidence from literature showing emerging trends in prosocial behavior, loss and separation research with adaptive pro-social interventions to promote resilience contributing to mental wellbeing and quality of life outcomes. A summary of research findings showing the digital transformation to promote pro-social behaviors for mental wellbeing is provided. Finally, new and classic evidence of prosocial behaviors for adaptation and resilience in the community is discussed to promote future prosociality in loss and separation.
    • Revisiting Value Co-Creation and Co-Destruction in Events: An Overview

      Azara, Iride; Pappas, Nikolaos; Michopoulou, Eleni; University of Derby; University of Sunderland (Cognizant, LLC, 2021-12-07)
      The examination of processes of value co-creation and co-destruction within events is now more pertinent than ever. Given the effects of constant sociocultural and environmental change and pandemic, and the huge challenges facing the sector, it is now more important than ever to understand what value is and how it can be created or destroyed. For instance, considering the engagement and involvement of audiences/ attendees it is important to explore the relationship between attendees’ motivations and frequency of attendance with their level of engagement. At the same time, there is a clear need of investigating additional factors that contribute to value co-creation in the context of events. Research should concentrate on understanding the different audiences, actors and stakeholders across different event contexts and settings within their respective value and distribution chains and within the wider event environment. The proliferation of events research is valuable therefore not just to expand this growing body of knowledge on a theoretical level; but events research has clear potential for use by event managers and producers in the events sector through the recovery process and beyond.
    • Machine Learning based Forecasting Systems for Worldwide International Tourists Arrival

      Mishra, Ram Krishn; Urolagin, Siddhaling; Jothi, J. Angel Arul; Nawaz, Nishad; Haywantee, Ramkissoon; BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Kingdom University, Riffa, Kingdom of Bahrain; University of Derby (The Science and Information Organisation, 2021-11)
      The international tourist movement has overgrown in recent decades, and travelers are considered a significant source of income to the tourism economy. When tourists visit a place, they spend considerable money on their enjoyment, travel, and hotel accommodations. In this research, tourist data from 2010 to 2020 have been extracted and extended with depth analysis of different dimensions to identify valuable features. This research attempts to use machine learning regression techniques such as Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Random Forest Regression (RFR) to forecast and predict worldwide international tourist arrivals and achieved forecasting accuracy using SVR is 99.4% and using RFR is 84.7%. The study also analyzed the forecasting deadlock condition after covid-19 in the sudden drop of international visitors due to lockdown enforcement by all countries.
    • Perspectives on experiences of tourists with disabilities: implications for their daily lives and for the tourist industry

      Rubio-Escuderos, Lucía; García-Andreu, Hugo; Michopoulou, Eleni; Buhalis, Dimitrios; University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain; University of Derby; Bournemouth University, Poole (Informa UK Limited, 2021-10-15)
      This study attempts to understand how people with disabilities (PwDs) interpret the dimensions that they consider important when on holiday. By understanding these dimensions, it becomes possible to identify and remove barriers to holiday-making and improve customer satisfaction. In particular, the study focuses on (a) what having a holiday means for PwDs and how travelling affects their lives; (b) the process of decision-making when PwDs organise a tourist experience; and (c) the roles played by travelling companions, associations and tourism companies. To that end, rich qualitative data were collected through 25 in-depth interviews with people with reduced mobility. Findings suggest that tourist experiences had a decisive impact on the perspective that PwDs have of their disability in their daily lives, with the feeling of independence being a crucial aspect. Factors such as limited negotiating scope, necessity of a care assistant, knowledge of the destination language or availability of state aid influence the decision-making process. Due to a particular service provided at Spanish stations, It is found that the train is the most valued transport for PwDs within Spain. This study contributes to accessible tourism theory by providing insights into the complexity of travelling with a disability and its impact on people’s daily lives.