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Major events programming in a city: Comparing three approaches to portfolio design.Antchak, Vladimir; Pernecky, Tomas; University of Derby; Auckland University of Technology (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2017-11-08)Event portfolio design is increasingly important from both academic and industry perspectives. The purpose of this article is to discuss and conceptualize the strategic process of event portfolio planning and development in different urban contexts in New Zealand. A qualitative multiple case study was conducted in three cities: Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin. Primary data were collected by interviewing city event planners from city councils and relevant council controlled organizations. Secondary data were obtained by the analysis of the relevant documents, including city event policies and strategies, annual reports, statements, and activity plans. Thematic analysis revealed the existence of distinctive portfolio approaches in the studied cases, which can be compared and differentiated by applying the following parameters: Formality, Intentionality, Directionality, and Rhythmicity. Together, these parameters represent a "built-in equalizer" that can be used to balance the opposing values of diverse approaches and adjust them within current city objectives. The article provides a rich and broad context, which enables an understanding of the strategic nature of event portfolios and their implementation within a wider city development agenda.