• Arthropod-microbe interactions on vertebrate remains: Potential applications in the forensic sciences.

      Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Benbow, M. Eric; Barnes, Kate M.; Jordan, Heather R.; Texas A&M University; Michigan State University; University of Derby; Mississippi State University (John Wiley and Sons, 2017-04-08)
      Understanding the process of insect colonization of human remains is a core area of research by forensic entomologists, with several recent studies suggesting that microbial communities influence the process and timing of colonization. Such information is crucial for determining when colonization occurred as related to the postmortem interval (PMI). This chapter reviews the basic field of forensic entomology; the phases of insect behavior associated with their detection, location, and utilization of the remains as postulated by Matuszewski (Matuszewski, S. (2011) Estimating the pre-appearance interval from temperature in Necrodes littoralis L. (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Forensic Science International, 212, 180–188) and Tomberlin et al. (Tomberlin, J. K., R. Mohr, M. E. Benbow, et al. 2011. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology. Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 401–421.); and how microbes play a key role mediating this process. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential future directions related to microbe–insect interactions in association with vertebrate remains decomposition, and this is potentially important to forensics.
    • Pseudoscorpions, an understudied and ideal microscopic study organism.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; Andrews, Liam; University of Derby (Quekett Microscopical Club, 2017)
    • Technical note: A specimen measuring device for the stereo microscope.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; University of Derby (Quekett Microscopical Club, 2016-12)
    • Impacted third molar

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Royal Photographic Society, 2016-12)
      The Anglo-Saxon owner of this upper jawbone may have experienced severe dental pain from the impacted wisdom tooth, upper left. The tooth has forced its way sideways through the bone, instead of erupting in its proper place beside the other molars. The specimen comes from the Little Chester Collection, Derby Museum and Art Gallery.
    • Origin and evolution of silicic magmas at ocean islands: Perspectives from a zoned fall deposit on Ascension Island, South Atlantic.

      Chamberlain, Katy J.; Barclay, Jenni; Preece, Katie; Brown, Richard J.; Davidson, Jon P.; University of Durham; University of East Anglia (2016-11-15)
      Ascension Island, in the south Atlantic is a composite ocean island volcano with a wide variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions evident in its ~ 1 million year subaerial history. In this paper, new observations of a unique zoned fall deposit on the island are presented; the deposit gradationally changes from trachytic pumice at the base, through to trachy-basaltic andesite scoria at the top of the deposit. The key features of the eruptive deposits are described and are coupled with whole rock XRF data, major and trace element analyses of phenocrysts, groundmass glass and melt inclusions from samples of the compositionally-zoned fall deposit to analyse the processes leading up to and driving the explosive eruption. Closed system crystal fractionation is the dominant control on compositional zonation, with the fractionating assemblage dominated by plagioclase feldspar and olivine. This fractionation from the trachy-basaltic andesite magma occurred at pressures of ~ 250 MPa. There is no evidence for multiple stages of evolution involving changing magmatic conditions or the addition of new magmatic pulses preserved within the crystal cargo. Volatile concentrations range from 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% H2O and progressively increase in the more-evolved units, suggesting crystal fractionation concentrated volatiles into the melt phase, eventually causing internal overpressure of the system and eruption of the single compositionally-zoned magma body. Melt inclusion data combined with Fe–Ti oxide modelling suggests that the oxygen fugacity of Ascension Island magmas is not affected by degree of evolution, which concentrates H2O into the liquid phase, and thus the two systems are decoupled on Ascension, similar to that observed in Iceland. This detailed study of the zoned fall deposit on Ascension Island highlights the relatively closed-system evolution of felsic magmas at Ascension Island, in contrast to many other ocean islands, such as Tenerife and Iceland.
    • Professional Language: Understanding and being understood

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2016-11)
      Language is a vital means of communication and education plays a key role in developing both our general language capabilities but also our use of "Professional language". Learning a professional language is like being inducted into the profession through the shared use of arcane and often obscure words and terminology. What makes sense to a “Professional" could well be gobbledygook/meaningless/nonsense to anyone else. This CPD activity is designed to encourage us to think about how we speak and communicate. In a multicultural country we have to be aware of both how we communicate and also how colleagues and patients are communicating.
    • Developing badge eco-systems to support engagement in class-based and online learning

      Bryson, David; Hadi, Munib; Petronzi, Dominic; University of Derby (International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2016-11)
      Abstract Background Badges enable academic and non-academic learners to collect and display their achievements and to enhance their training and qualification repertoire. To support engagement in class-based and online modules we have introduced badge ecosystems backed up by University quality assurance procedures. This paper presents two case studies which exemplify the application of badges at the University of Derby and the possibilities for future developments of badge ecosystems. Class-based: Forensic anthropology/Osteology A sequence of badges in the Forensic Anthropology module was implemented to support students as they develop their understanding of osteology and anatomy. In this context, the implementation of badges relies on the use of learning outcomes that support learning and the assessment of practical knowledge as well as student’s ability to observe key features in the subject. Online MOOCs The University of Derby (UoD) have incorporated badges in a series of MOOCs that include: “Bridging the Dementia Divide: Supporting People Living with Dementia (2015); Digital.Me: Managing your Digital Self (2015); Operations Management (2016); a re-run of Supporting People Living with Dementia (2016) and Autism, Asperger’s and ADHD (2016). Throughout these, badges were used to reward degrees of completion and have an association with a favourable average completion rate across four of the MOOCs. The use of badges at the University has been led by academics staff and the Innovation Hub as part of a Badges Working Group. The innovative approaches to badges and badge ecosystems have been supported by the development of a University infrastructure for badge development including: • Schema to back-up micro-credentialing • Quality assurance processes and • University badge server The UoD Working Badges Group and Quality Assurance The use of digital badges supported by the University’s quality framework means that we are rewarding meaningful learning, have increased badge credibility with our own badge server for issuing badges. In this way we have assured the integrity of the badges not just being University of Derby by branding but through the University as the issuing organization. Conclusion The UoD has incorporated badges to provide recognition for the learning, achievements and contributions of our class-based and MOOC learners, and the credibility of our badges will increase further as we move towards further implementation by academics and departments through the use of the badge framework. This could allow our digital credentials to be used by partners and other educational institutions and will act as an incentive for the UoD to continue its focus on badge development, quality and credibility.
    • Insect microscopy.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; University of Derby (Crowood Press, 2016-08-26)
    • Complex subvolcanic magma plumbing system of an alkali basaltic maar-diatreme volcano (Elie Ness, Fife, Scotland)

      Upton, B.G.J.; Ugra, R.; Yücel, C.; Taylor, R.N.; Elliott, Holly; University of Southampton (Elsevier, 2016-08-17)
      Alkali basaltic diatremes such as Elie Ness (Fife, Scotland) expose a range of volcanic lithofacies that points to a complex, multi-stage emplacement history. Here, basanites contain phenocrysts including pyrope garnet and sub-calcic augites from depths of ~60km. Volcanic rocks from all units, pyroclastic and hypabyssal, are characterised by rare earth element (REE) patterns that show continuous enrichment from heavy REE (HREE) to light REE (LREE), and high Zr/Y that are consistent with retention of garnet in the mantle source during melting of peridotite in a garnet lherzolite facies. Erupted garnets are euhedral and unresorbed, signifying rapid ascent through the lithosphere. The magmas also transported abundant pyroxenitic clasts, cognate with the basanite host, from shallower depths (~35–40km). These clasts exhibit wide variation in texture, mode and mineralogy, consistent with growth from a range of compositionally diverse melts. Further, clinopyroxene phenocrysts from both the hypabyssal and pyroclastic units exhibit a very wide compositional range, indicative of polybaric fractionation and magma mixing. This is attributed to stalling of earlier magmas in the lower crust — principally from ~22 to 28km — as indicated by pyroxene thermobarometry. Many clinopyroxenes display chemical zoning profiles, occasionally with mantles and rims of higher magnesium number (Mg#) suggesting the magmas were mobilised by juvenile basanite magma. The tuffs also contain alkali feldspar megacrysts together with Fe-clinopyroxene, zircon and related salic xenoliths, of the ‘anorthoclasite suite’ — inferred to have crystallised at upper mantle to lower crustal depths from salic magma in advance of the mafic host magmas. Despite evidence for entrainment of heterogeneous crystal mushes, the rapidly ascending melts experienced negligible crustal contamination. The complex association of phenocrysts, megacrysts and autoliths at Elie Ness indicates thorough mixing in a dynamic system immediately prior to explosive diatreme-forming eruptions.
    • Targeting Src in endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer

      Manek, Roxanne; Pakzamir, Elham; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Pejovic, Tanja; Sowter, Heidi M.; Gayther, Simon A.; Lawrenson, Kate; University of Southern California; Oregon Health and Science University; University of Derby; et al. (Nature, 2016-08-15)
      The SRC proto-oncogene is commonly overexpressed or activated during cancer development. Src family kinase inhibitors are approved for the treatment of certain leukemias, and are in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. Src signaling is activated in endometriosis, a precursor of clear cell and endometrioid subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancers (OCs). We examined the expression of phosphorylated Src (Src-pY416) in 381 primary OC tissues. Thirty-six percent of OCs expressed Src-pY416. Src-pY416 expression was most common in endometriosis-associated OCs (EAOCs) (P=0.011), particularly in clear cell OCs where 58.5% of cases expressed Src-pY416. Src-pY416 expression was associated with shorter overall survival (log rank P=0.002). In vitro inhibition of Src signaling using 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(dimethylethyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2) resulted in reduced anchorage-independent and -dependent growth, and in three-dimensional cell culture models PP2 disrupted aggregate formation in Src-pY416-positive but not in Src-pY416-negative cell lines. These data suggest that targeting active Src signaling could be a novel therapeutic opportunity for EAOCs, and support the further pre-clinical investigation of Src family kinase inhibitors for treating OCs expressing Src-pY416.
    • Comparative Assessment of Copper, Iron, and Zinc Contents in Selected Indian (Assam) and South African (Thohoyandou) Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Samples and Their Infusion: A Quest for Health Risks to Consumer

      Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Kutu, Funso Raphael; Mehra, Aradhana; Khare, Puja; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Bora, Krishnamoni; Boruah, Romesh Kumar; University of Derby (Springer, 2016-06-23)
      Abstract: The current study aims to assess the infusion pattern of three important micronutrients namely copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents from black tea samples produced in Assam (India) and Thohoyandou (South Africa). Average daily intakes and hazardous quotient were reported for these micronutrients. Total content for Cu, Fe and Zn varied from 2.25 to 48.82 mg kg-1, 14.75 to 148.18 mg kg-1 and 28.48 to 106.68 mg kg-1 respectively. The average contents of each of the three micronutrients were higher in tea leaves samples collected from South Africa than those from India while the contents s in tea infusions in Indian samples were higher than in South African tea samples. Results of this study revealed that the consumption of not more than 600 mL tea infusion produced from 24 g of made tea per day may be beneficial to human in terms of these micronutrients content. Application of nonparametric tests revealed that most of the data sets do not satisfy the normality assumptions. Hence, Powered by Editorial Manager® and ProduXion Manager® from Aries Systems Corporation the use of both parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis that subsequently revealed significant differences in elemental contents among Indian and South African tea.
    • Microbial effects on the development of forensically important blow fly species

      Crooks, Esther R.; Bulling, Mark T.; Barnes, Kate M.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-06-03)
      Colonisation times and development rates of specific blow fly species are used to estimate the minimum Post Mortem Interval (mPMI). The presence or absence of bacteria on a corpse can potentially affect the development and survival of blow fly larvae. Therefore an understanding of microbial-insect interactions is important for improving the interpretation of mPMI estimations. In this study, the effect of two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) on the growth rate and survival of three forensically important blow fly species (Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria) was investigated. Sterile larvae were raised in a controlled environment (16:8 h day: night light cycle, 23:21 °C day: night temperature cycle and a constant 35% relative humidity) on four artificial diets prepared with 100 μl of 105 CFU bacterial solutions as follows: (1) E. coli, (2) S. aureus, (3) a 50:50 E. coli:S. aureus mix and (4) a sterile bacteria-free control diet. Daily measurements (length, width and weight) were taken from first instar larvae through to the emergence of adult flies. Survival rates were also determined at pupation and adult emergence. Results indicate that bacteria were not essential for the development of any of the blow fly species. However, larval growth rates were affected by bacterial diet, with effects differing between blow fly species. Peak larval weights also varied according to species-diet combination; C. vomitoria had the largest weight on E. coli and mixed diets, C. vicina had the largest weight on S. aureus diets, and treatment had no significant effect on the peak larval weight of L. sericata. These results indicate the potential for the bacteria that larvae are exposed to during development on a corpse to alter both developmental rates and larval weight in some blow fly species.
    • The impact of growth promoters on muscle growth and the potential consequences for meat quality

      Parr, Tim; Mareko, Molebeledi H. D.; Ryan, Kevin J. P.; Hemmings, Krystal M.; Brown, David M.; Brameld, John M.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-04-20)
      To meet the demands of increased global meat consumption, animal production systems will have to become more efficient, or at least maintain the current efficiency utilizing feed ingredients that are not also used for human consumption. Use of growth promoters is a potential option for increasing production animal feed efficiency and increased muscle growth. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the mechanisms by which the growth promoters, beta-adrenergic agonists and growth hormone, mediate their effects, with specific consideration of the aspects which have implications for meat quality.
    • Pilot study investigating the prevalence of oral Human Papilloma Viral (HPV) infection in young adults

      Knight, Gillian L.; Needham, Louise; Roberts, Sally; Ward, Derek; Univeristy of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-02-03)
      The rates of HPV related Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) within the UK have been steadily increasing, particular in young white men. The reasons behind this increase have not been elucidated, but maybe linked to higher prevalence of oral HPV infection in men. This pilot study aimed to establish a reproducible HPV oral screening method to investigate the rate of oral HPV infection in young healthy adults. The study found that 4% (3 men and 2 women)of the study cohort (N = 124) had a detectable oral HPV infection, which was found to be comparable with US based investigations. An interesting finding of this pilot study was that 80% of the HPV infected individuals smoked, and one of the HPV infected females had received the HPV vaccination. This preliminary data highlights the need for further investigation into the rates of oral HPV infection in the healthy community and to determine what particular lifestyle choices could be risk factors for infection and how the HPV vaccination programme will affect HPV infectivity levels in both women and men.
    • Some records of Aphodiini (Scarabaeidae) on carrion.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; University of Derby (NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 2016)
    • Age-related shifts in bacterial diversity in a reef coral

      Williams, Alex D.; Putchim, Lalita; Brown, Barbara E.; Sweet, Michael J.; University of Derby (Public Library of Science, 2015-12-23)
      This study investigated the relationship between microbial communities in differently sized colonies of the massive coral Coelastrea aspera at Phuket, Thailand where colony size could be used as a proxy for age. Results indicated significant differences between the bacterial diversity (ANOSIM, R = 0.76, p = 0.001) of differently sized colonies from the same intertidal reef habitat. Juvenile and small colonies (28 cm mean diam). Bacterial diversity increased in a step-wise pattern from juvenilessmallmedium colonies, which was then followed by a slight decrease in the two largest size classes. These changes appear to resemble a successional process which occurs over time, similar to that observed in the ageing human gut. Furthermore, the dominant bacterial ribotypes present in the tissues of medium and large sized colonies of C. aspera, (such as Halomicronema, an Oscillospira and an unidentified cyanobacterium) were also the dominant ribotypes found within the endolithic algal band of the coral skeleton; a result providing some support for the hypothesis that the endolithic algae of corals may directly influence the bacterial community present in coral tissues.
    • Teaching sedimentology: opportunities for interdisciplinary, variety, innovation and employability.

      Davies-Vollum, K. Siân; Satterfield, Dorothy; Suthren, Roger; Whiteley, Martin; University of Derby (British Sedimentological Research Group, 2015-12)
      The breadth of content and skills embodied by the subject of sedimentology provides the opportunity teach in multiple learning environments, engage in innovative teaching practice and embed employability skills. Field and practical-based work are essential components of sedimentology and provide opportunities to teach in different environments outside the normal classroom setting. This allows the inclusion of a variety of learning experiences, which can in turn address different student learning styles. Field-based studies in particular create learning environments that can contribute to transformative learning experiences. The emphasis on field and practical based learning experiences in sedimentology promotes experiential learning, founded on the tenets of Kolb’s learning cycle. For example field examination of clastic sequences can be used to determine their economic potential as oil, gas or water reservoirs, thus connecting experiential learning in the field with theoretical calculations. The use of a variety of teaching environments can also facilitate experimentation with innovative teaching practice. Teaching outdoors or in a laboratory or practical class setting opens up possibilities for using technology that may not be possible in a standard classroom setting. For example students can create mini documentaries in the field that focus on modern sedimentary environments and structures using simple equipment, multimedia presentation techniques and software. Sedimentology requires the development of a variety of field, practical, quantitative and problem solving skills. These skills are highly transferrable and can help build student employability. For example, students develop practical, geoscience specific skills in the study of an oil well, combining analysis and interpretations of thin sections, core and wireline data; in grain size analysis exercises they develop more generic statistical skills. Teaching sedimentology gives the instructor scope to create innovative, experiential learning exercises and assessments in which transferrable skills can be embedded across a variety of learning environments. The subject provides a rich learning experience for students and a stimulating teaching environment for instructors.
    • Nocturnal oviposition behavior of forensically important Diptera in Central England

      Barnes, Kate M.; Grace, Karon A.; Bulling, Mark T.; University of Derby; Department of Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Kedleston Road Derby DE22 1HE U.K; Department of Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Kedleston Road Derby DE22 1HE U.K; Department of Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Kedleston Road Derby DE22 1HE U.K (2015-11)
      Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England.
    • Ultraviolet fluorescence eggs: goose, duck and hen and rockhopper penguin

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (The Royal Photographic Society, 2015-09)