• Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on carrion, a note of the behaviour and a review of the literature.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; Dye, Alex; University of Derby; Rothamsted Research (Andrew Smith Print Ltd., 2017-11-25)
      The Honeybee Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) traditionally feeds on the nectar of flowers (Núñez, 1977). A number of workers of A. mellifera were observed on whole pig carrion in woodland in Riseholme Lincoln (Grid reference SK978754) on 10 of October 2017. This paper aims to look at this odd behaviour in context of the literature.
    • Forensic entomology

      Barnes, Kate M.; University of Derby (CRC Press, 2013-05-23)
    • Microbial effects on the development of forensically important blow fly species

      Crooks, Esther R.; Bulling, Mark T.; Barnes, Kate M.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-06-03)
      Colonisation times and development rates of specific blow fly species are used to estimate the minimum Post Mortem Interval (mPMI). The presence or absence of bacteria on a corpse can potentially affect the development and survival of blow fly larvae. Therefore an understanding of microbial-insect interactions is important for improving the interpretation of mPMI estimations. In this study, the effect of two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) on the growth rate and survival of three forensically important blow fly species (Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria) was investigated. Sterile larvae were raised in a controlled environment (16:8 h day: night light cycle, 23:21 °C day: night temperature cycle and a constant 35% relative humidity) on four artificial diets prepared with 100 μl of 105 CFU bacterial solutions as follows: (1) E. coli, (2) S. aureus, (3) a 50:50 E. coli:S. aureus mix and (4) a sterile bacteria-free control diet. Daily measurements (length, width and weight) were taken from first instar larvae through to the emergence of adult flies. Survival rates were also determined at pupation and adult emergence. Results indicate that bacteria were not essential for the development of any of the blow fly species. However, larval growth rates were affected by bacterial diet, with effects differing between blow fly species. Peak larval weights also varied according to species-diet combination; C. vomitoria had the largest weight on E. coli and mixed diets, C. vicina had the largest weight on S. aureus diets, and treatment had no significant effect on the peak larval weight of L. sericata. These results indicate the potential for the bacteria that larvae are exposed to during development on a corpse to alter both developmental rates and larval weight in some blow fly species.
    • Nocturnal oviposition behavior of forensically important Diptera in Central England

      Barnes, Kate M.; Grace, Karon A.; Bulling, Mark T.; University of Derby; Department of Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Kedleston Road Derby DE22 1HE U.K; Department of Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Kedleston Road Derby DE22 1HE U.K; Department of Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Kedleston Road Derby DE22 1HE U.K (2015-11)
      Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England.
    • Post-feeding activity of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on common domestic indoor surfaces and its effect on development.

      Robinson, Louise; Bryson, David; Bulling, Mark T.; Sparks, N.; Wellard, K. S.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-03-13)
      Developmental data of forensically important blowflies used by entomologists to estimate minimum post mortem interval (mPMI) are established under controlled laboratory conditions for various temperature ranges throughout the stages of egg, 1st-3rd instar, puparia, and adult fly emergence. However, environmental conditions may influence the patterns of development and behaviour of blowflies, potentially impacting on these established development rates. Previous studies investigating indoor colonisation have focused on the delay to oviposition, with behaviour during the post-feeding phase in this setting often overlooked. The environment in which third instar larvae disperse when searching for a pupariation site may vary drastically at both outdoor and indoor scenarios, influencing the activity and distance travelled during this phase and possibly affecting developmental rates. This study investigated the effect of eight common domestic indoor surfaces on dispersal time, distance travelled, and behaviour of post-feeding Lucilia sericata as well as any resulting variation in development. It was found that pupariation and puparia length within a pupariation medium of sawdust (often used in laboratory settings) produced comparable results with that of carpeted environments (those deemed to be 'enclosed'). Non-carpeted environments (those which were 'exposed') produced a delay to pupariation likely due to increased activity and energy expenditure in searching for pupariation sites which enabled burial. In addition, the observed speed of travel during dispersal was seen via time lapse photography to be greater within 'exposed' conditions. Larvae which dispersed upon burnt laminate flooring were observed to travel faster than in all other conditions and showed the only significant variation (P=0.04) in the day of emergence in comparison to the control condition of sawdust. This study has demonstrated that wandering phase activity is affected by the environmental surface which has potential implications for estimating both the distance travelled by dispersing larvae in indoor conditions and with further research, may be a consideration in mPMI calculations.
    • Some records of Aphodiini (Scarabaeidae) on carrion.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; University of Derby (NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 2016)