• Surface Stability in Drylands is Influenced by Dispersal Strategy of Soil Bacteria

      Elliott, David R.; Thomas, Andrew D.; Strong, Craig L.; Bullard, Joanna; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, University of Derby (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019-10-09)
      Microbial adaptations for survival and dispersal may directly influence landscape stability and potential for dust emission in drylands where biological soil crusts (biocrusts) protect mineral soil surfaces from wind erosion. In the Lake Eyre basin of central Australia we operated a wind tunnel on sandy soils and collected the liberated material, which was subjected to DNA sequencing to identify the microbial community composition. Microbial composition of entrained dust was compared with that of the source sand dune soil in addition to nearby claypan and nebkha soils, and water channels which together form a recycling sediment transport system. Wind was found to preferentially liberate 359 identified taxa from sand dunes whereas 137 identified taxa were found to resist wind erosion. Water channel communities included many taxa in common with the soil samples. We hypothesise that the ease with which soil microbes become airborne is often linked to whether the organism is adapted for dispersal by wind or vegetative growth, and that biocrust organisms found in water channels may sometimes use a fluvial dispersal strategy which exploits rare flooding events to rapidly colonise vast pans which are common in drylands. We explain likely geomorphic implications of microbial dispersal strategies which are a consequence of organisms engineering the environment to provide their particular needs. By identifying microbes fitting expectations for these dispersal strategies based on differential abundance analyses, we provide a new perspective for understanding the role of microbiota in landscape stability.
    • The significance of metasomatic alteration surrounding carbonatite complexes as a REE-enrichment indicator

      Broom-Fendley, S.; Wall, F.; Elliott, Holly; University of Exeter (Taylor and Francis, 2019-07-24)
    • Diatremes act as fluid conduits for Zn-Pb mineralization in the SW Irish Ore field

      Gernon, Thomas M.; Roberts, Stephen; Boyce, Adrian J.; Hewson, Chad; Elliott, Holly; University of Southampton (GeoScienceWorld, 2019-02-28)
      Irish-type mineralization is commonly attributed to fault-controlled mixing of a seawater-derived, sulfur-rich fluid and basement-derived, metal-rich fluid. However, maar-diatreme volcanoes discovered in close spatial and temporal association with Zn-Pb mineralization at Stonepark in the Limerick basin (southwest Ireland) bring a new dimension to established geologic models and may increase the deposit-scale prospectivity in one of the world’s greatest Zn-Pb districts. Stonepark exhibits many incidences of dolomitic black matrix breccias with associated Zn-Pb mineralization, the latter typically occurring within 150 m of the diatremes. Highly negative δ34S pyrite values within country rock-dominated black matrix breccias (–12 to –34‰) are consistent with sulfide precipitation from bacteriogenic sulfur reduction in seawater-derived brines. However, δ34S values of Zn-Pb sulfides replacing black matrix breccias (–10 to 1‰) reflect multiple sulfur sources. Diatreme emplacement both greatly enhanced country rock fracture permeability and produced conduits that are filled with porous volcaniclastic material and extend down to basement rock types. Our δ34S data suggest that diatremes provide more efficient fluid pathways for basement-derived fluids. The diatremes introduce another potential sulfur source and facilitate a greater input of metal-rich basement-derived hydrothermal fluid into the system compared to other Irish-type deposits such as Navan and Lisheen, evidenced by Stonepark’s more positive modal δ34S value of –4‰. Irish-type deposits are traditionally thought to form in association with extensional basement faults and are considered unrelated to extensive Carboniferous magmatism. Our results indicate that a direct link exists between diatreme volcanism and Zn-Pb mineralization at Limerick, prompting a reevaluation of the traditional Irish-type ore formation model, in regions where mineralization is spatially associated with volcanic pipes.
    • Prospectivity Mapping for Epithermal Deposits of Western Milos Using a Fuzzy Multi Criteria Evaluation Approach Parameterized by Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data

      Ferrier, Graham; Ganas, Athanassios; Pope, Richard; Miles, A. Jo; University of Hull; National Observatory of Athens; University of Derby; University of Bristol (MDPI, 2019-02-28)
      A Mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) approach using a GIS-based weighted linear combination implementation of a Multi-Criteria Evaluation approach utilising a fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to elucidate expert knowledge has been implemented to analyse the spatial distribution of epithermal deposits on the Island of Milos, Greece and model their association with exploration evidence data with the aim of providing insights into the controls on ore deposition. An integrated field and Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (DAIS) hyperspectral and thermal multispectral airborne remote sensing dataset supported by field mapping and laboratory analyses, has been utilised to resolve hydrothermal alteration and parameterise the MPM. This study has highlighted the intimate spatial relationship between topographic highs and locations with high grade silicified alteration at a number of locations. The ability of high spatial resolution multispectral Thermal InfraRed (TIR) remote sensing imagery, integrated with topographic data, to resolve these silicified topographic highs provides an additional tool in the exploration of epithermal deposits. The spatial relationships between silicified lithocaps, high-grade altered rocks, faulting and topographic highs were utilised in the development of the MPM model. A close association between the modelled results and the hydrothermal alteration mapped in the field supports the accuracy of this MPM approach.
    • Prospectivity mapping for high sulfidation epithermal porphyry deposits using an integrated compositional and topographic remote sensing dataset

      Ganas, Athanassios; Pope, Richard; Ferrier, Graham; University of Hull; National Observatory of Athens; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-02-26)
      The targeting and discovery of epithermal porphyry mineral deposits can be enhanced using a structured quantitative methodology to analyse the distribution of ore deposits and model their spatial association with exploration evidence providing improved understanding on the controls of ore deposition. A novel exploration tool integrating field and ASTER SWIR and TIR satellite imagery has been developed which provides an enhanced means of resolving surface expressions of the residual silica core of the lithocap. The alteration zones were clearly resolved by the remote sensing data and an intimate spatial relationship between high-grade altered rocks and topographic highs was identified at a number of locations. A Mineral Prospectivity Modelling (MPM) approach, parameterized by the results of the remote sensing study, using a GIS-based weighted linear combination implementation of a Multi-Criteria Evaluation approach and utilising a fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to elucidate expert knowledge has been implemented to target high sulfidation epithermal porphyry deposits on the Island of Lesvos, Greece. The results from this integrated altitudinal-compositional modelling approach closely matched the hydrothermal alteration mapped in the field supporting the accuracy of this MPM approach.
    • A further modification of Dioni’s mounting media to allow staining,clearing and mounting of Acari

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; University of Derby (2018-09-10)
      Modified Dioni’s media has previously been presented as an alternative to tradition Gum Chloral mounting media for microscopical specimens. This paper aims to explore a further modification of Dioni’s mounting media with the objective to provide a simple solution to clear, stain and mount Acari specimens in regions where obtaining Chloral Hydrate based media is problematic.
    • Post-feeding activity of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on common domestic indoor surfaces and its effect on development.

      Robinson, Louise; Bryson, David; Bulling, Mark T.; Sparks, N.; Wellard, K. S.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-03-13)
      Developmental data of forensically important blowflies used by entomologists to estimate minimum post mortem interval (mPMI) are established under controlled laboratory conditions for various temperature ranges throughout the stages of egg, 1st-3rd instar, puparia, and adult fly emergence. However, environmental conditions may influence the patterns of development and behaviour of blowflies, potentially impacting on these established development rates. Previous studies investigating indoor colonisation have focused on the delay to oviposition, with behaviour during the post-feeding phase in this setting often overlooked. The environment in which third instar larvae disperse when searching for a pupariation site may vary drastically at both outdoor and indoor scenarios, influencing the activity and distance travelled during this phase and possibly affecting developmental rates. This study investigated the effect of eight common domestic indoor surfaces on dispersal time, distance travelled, and behaviour of post-feeding Lucilia sericata as well as any resulting variation in development. It was found that pupariation and puparia length within a pupariation medium of sawdust (often used in laboratory settings) produced comparable results with that of carpeted environments (those deemed to be 'enclosed'). Non-carpeted environments (those which were 'exposed') produced a delay to pupariation likely due to increased activity and energy expenditure in searching for pupariation sites which enabled burial. In addition, the observed speed of travel during dispersal was seen via time lapse photography to be greater within 'exposed' conditions. Larvae which dispersed upon burnt laminate flooring were observed to travel faster than in all other conditions and showed the only significant variation (P=0.04) in the day of emergence in comparison to the control condition of sawdust. This study has demonstrated that wandering phase activity is affected by the environmental surface which has potential implications for estimating both the distance travelled by dispersing larvae in indoor conditions and with further research, may be a consideration in mPMI calculations.
    • The influence of trees, shrubs, and grasses on microclimate, soil carbon, nitrogen, and CO2 efflux: Potential implications of shrub encroachment for Kalahari rangelands.

      Thomas, Andrew David; Elliott, David R.; Dougill, Andrew John; Stringer, Lindsay Carman; Hoon, Stephen Robert; Sen, Robin; Aberystwyth University; University of Derby; University of Leeds; Manchester Metropolitan University; et al. (Wiley, 2018-02-24)
      Shrub encroachment is a well‐documented phenomenon affecting many of the world's drylands. The alteration of vegetation structure and species composition can lead to changes in local microclimate and soil properties which in turn affect carbon cycling. The objectives of this paper were to quantify differences in air temperatures, soil carbon, nitrogen, and CO2 efflux under trees (Vachellia erioloba), shrubs (Grewia flava), and annual and perennial grasses (Schmidtia kalahariensis and Eragrostis lehmanniana) collected over three seasons at a site in Kgalagadi District, Botswana, in order to determine the vegetation‐soil feedback mechanism affecting the carbon cycle. Air temperatures were logged continuously, and soil CO2 efflux was determined throughout the day and evening using closed respiration chambers and an infrared gas analyser. There were significant differences in soil carbon, total nitrogen, CO2 efflux, light, and temperatures beneath the canopies of trees, shrubs, and grasses. Daytime air temperatures beneath shrubs and trees were cooler compared with grass sites, particularly in summer months. Night‐time air temperatures under shrubs and trees were, however, warmer than at the grass sites. There was also significantly more soil carbon, nitrogen, and CO2 efflux under shrubs and trees compared with grasses. Although the differences observed in soils and microclimate may reinforce the competitive dominance of shrubs and present challenges to strategies designed to manage encroachment, they should not be viewed as entirely negative. Our findings highlight some of the dichotomies and challenges to be addressed before interventions aiming to bring about more sustainable land management can be implemented.
    • Current issues: patient perception of clinical photography.

      Bryson, David; University of Derby; College of Life and Natural Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-01-30)
    • Fenites associated with carbonatite complexes: A review

      Wall, F.; Chakhmouradian, A.R.; Siegfried, P.R.; Dahlgren, S.; Weatherley, S.; Finch, A.A.; Marks, M.A.W.; Dowman, E.; Deady, E.; Elliott, Holly; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-12-11)
      Carbonatites and alkaline-silicate rocks are the most important sources of rare earth elements (REE) and niobium (Nb), both of which are metals imperative to technological advancement and associated with high risks of supply interruption. Cooling and crystallizing carbonatitic and alkaline melts expel multiple pulses of alkali-rich aqueous fluids which metasomatize the surrounding country rocks, forming fenites during a process called fenitization. These alkalis and volatiles are original constituents of the magma that are not recorded in the carbonatite rock, and therefore fenites should not be dismissed during the description of a carbonatite system. This paper reviews the existing literature, focusing on 17 worldwide carbonatite complexes whose attributes are used to discuss the main features and processes of fenitization. Although many attempts have been made in the literature to categorize and name fenites, it is recommended that the IUGS metamorphic nomenclature be used to describe predominant mineralogy and textures. Complexing anions greatly enhance the solubility of REE and Nb in these fenitizing fluids, mobilizing them into the surrounding country rock, and precipitating REE- and Nb-enriched micro-mineral assemblages. As such, fenites have significant potential to be used as an exploration tool to find mineralized intrusions in a similar way alteration patterns are used in other ore systems, such as porphyry copper deposits. Strong trends have been identified between the presence of more complex veining textures, mineralogy and brecciation in fenites with intermediate stage Nb-enriched and later stage REE-enriched magmas. However, compiling this evidence has also highlighted large gaps in the literature relating to fenitization. These need to be addressed before fenite can be used as a comprehensive and effective exploration tool.
    • The PAX8 cistrome in epithelial ovarian cancer.

      Adler, Emily K.; Corona, Rosario I.; Lee, Janet M.; Rodriguez-Malave, Norma; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Sowter, Heidi M.; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Lawrenson, Kate; Gayther, Simon A.; University of Southern California; et al. (Impact Journals, 2017-11-28)
      PAX8 is a lineage-restricted transcription factor that is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) precursor tissues, and in the major EOC histotypes. Frequent overexpression of PAX8 in primary EOCs suggests this factor functions as an oncogene during tumorigenesis, however, the biological role of PAX8 in EOC development is poorly understood. We found that stable knockdown of PAX8 in EOC models significantly reduced cell proliferation and anchorage dependent growth in vitro, and attenuated tumorigenicity in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and transcriptional profiling were used to create genome-wide maps of PAX8 binding and putative target genes. PAX8 binding sites were significantly enriched in promoter regions (p < 0.05) and superenhancers (p < 0.05). MEME-ChIP analysis revealed that PAX8 binding sites overlapping superenhancers or enhancers, but not promoters, were enriched for JUND/B and ARNT/AHR motifs. Integrating PAX8 ChIP-seq and gene expression data identified PAX8 target genes through their associations within shared topological association domains. Across two EOC models we identified 62 direct regulatory targets based on PAX8 binding in promoters and 1,330 putative enhancer regulatory targets. SEPW1, which isinvolved inoxidation-reduction,was identified as a PAX8 target gene in both cell line models. While the PAX8 cistrome exhibits a high degree of cell-type specificity, analyses of PAX8 target genes and putative cofactors identified common molecular targets and partners as candidate therapeutic targets for EOC.
    • Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on carrion, a note of the behaviour and a review of the literature.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; Dye, Alex; University of Derby; Rothamsted Research (Andrew Smith Print Ltd., 2017-11-25)
      The Honeybee Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) traditionally feeds on the nectar of flowers (Núñez, 1977). A number of workers of A. mellifera were observed on whole pig carrion in woodland in Riseholme Lincoln (Grid reference SK978754) on 10 of October 2017. This paper aims to look at this odd behaviour in context of the literature.
    • Detecting macroecological patterns in bacterial communities across independent studies of global soils.

      Ramirez, Kelly S.; Knight, Christopher G.; de Hollander, Mattias; Brearley, Francis Q.; Constantinides, Bede; Cotton, Anne; Creer, Si; Crowther, Thomas W.; Davison, John; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; et al. (Nature, 2017-11-20)
      The emergence of high-throughput DNA sequencing methods provides unprecedented opportunities to further unravel bacterial biodiversity and its worldwide role from human health to ecosystem functioning. However, despite the abundance of sequencing studies, combining data from multiple individual studies to address macroecological questions of bacterial diversity remains methodically challenging and plagued with biases. Here, using a machine-learning approach that accounts for differences among studies and complex interactions among taxa, we merge 30 independent bacterial data sets comprising 1,998 soil samples from 21 countries. Whereas previous meta-analysis efforts have focused on bacterial diversity measures or abundances of major taxa, we show that disparate amplicon sequence data can be combined at the taxonomy-based level to assess bacterial community structure. We find that rarer taxa are more important for structuring soil communities than abundant taxa, and that these rarer taxa are better predictors of community structure than environmental factors, which are often confounded across studies. We conclude that combining data from independent studies can be used to explore bacterial community dynamics, identify potential ‘indicator’ taxa with an important role in structuring communities, and propose hypotheses on the factors that shape bacterial biogeography that have been overlooked in the past.
    • Quantifying bioalbedo: a new physically based model and discussion of empirical methods for characterising biological influence on ice and snow albedo.

      Cook, J. M.; Hodson, Andrew J.; Flanner, Mark; Gardner, Alex; Tedstone, Andrew; Williamson, Christopher; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Nilsson, Johan; Bryant, Robert; Tranter, Martyn; et al. (Copernicus Publications, 2017-11-17)
      The darkening effects of biological impurities on ice and snow have been recognised as a control on the surface energy balance of terrestrial snow, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. With a heightened interest in understanding the impacts of a changing climate on snow and ice processes, quantifying the impact of biological impurities on ice and snow albedo (bioalbedo) and its evolution through time is a rapidly growing field of research. However, rigorous quantification of bioalbedo has remained elusive because of difficulties in isolating the biological contribution to ice albedo from that of inorganic impurities and the variable optical properties of the ice itself. For this reason, isolation of the biological signature in reflectance data obtained from aerial/orbital platforms has not been achieved, even when ground-based biological measurements have been available. This paper provides the cell-specific optical properties that are required to model the spectral signatures and broadband darkening of ice. Applying radiative transfer theory, these properties provide the physical basis needed to link biological and glaciological ground measurements with remotely sensed reflectance data. Using these new capabilities we confirm that biological impurities can influence ice albedo, then we identify 10 challenges to the measurement of bioalbedo in the field with the aim of improving future experimental designs to better quantify bioalbedo feedbacks. These challenges are (1) ambiguity in terminology, (2) characterising snow or ice optical properties, (3) characterising solar irradiance, (4) determining optical properties of cells, (5) measuring biomass, (6) characterising vertical distribution of cells, (7) characterising abiotic impurities, (8) surface anisotropy, (9) measuring indirect albedo feedbacks, and (10) measurement and instrument configurations. This paper aims to provide a broad audience of glaciologists and biologists with an overview of radiative transfer and albedo that could support future experimental design.
    • Transillumination of testicular hydrocele.

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (ClinMed International Library, 2017-11-01)
      Transillumination is a useful and inexpensive clinical tool that can be used for a range of conditions including testicular hydrocele. This paper gives a brief overview of the clinical use of transillumination in general, for testicular hydroceles and guidance for photography.
    • Can MOOCs meet your learning needs?

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-09-19)
      This paper looks at the role of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in fulfilling your learning needs; from looking at what MOOCs are through to examples of courses from different Universities and advice for completing a course. The sequence of activities takes you from looking at your learning needs, to finding a course, thinking about how to plan and prepare for learning using a MOOC then writing a review or reflecting on the impact of your learning.
    • Creating three dimensional, orientable, temporary invertebrate slides for photomicrography.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; University of Derby (The Amateur Entomologists' Society, 2017-09)
    • Writing a book review

      Bryson, David; Hudson, Robert Charles; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-06-08)
      Book reviews are a good way to get started with writing for a journal and this Learning and CPD activity takes you through the process of understanding the aims of book review, undertaking practice pieces through to reviewing a book and advice on the dos and don'ts of book reviewing.
    • Arthropod-microbe interactions on vertebrate remains: Potential applications in the forensic sciences.

      Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Benbow, M. Eric; Barnes, Kate M.; Jordan, Heather R.; Texas A&M University; Michigan State University; University of Derby; Mississippi State University (John Wiley and Sons, 2017-04-08)
      Understanding the process of insect colonization of human remains is a core area of research by forensic entomologists, with several recent studies suggesting that microbial communities influence the process and timing of colonization. Such information is crucial for determining when colonization occurred as related to the postmortem interval (PMI). This chapter reviews the basic field of forensic entomology; the phases of insect behavior associated with their detection, location, and utilization of the remains as postulated by Matuszewski (Matuszewski, S. (2011) Estimating the pre-appearance interval from temperature in Necrodes littoralis L. (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Forensic Science International, 212, 180–188) and Tomberlin et al. (Tomberlin, J. K., R. Mohr, M. E. Benbow, et al. 2011. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology. Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 401–421.); and how microbes play a key role mediating this process. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential future directions related to microbe–insect interactions in association with vertebrate remains decomposition, and this is potentially important to forensics.