• A further modification of Dioni’s mounting media to allow staining,clearing and mounting of Acari

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; University of Derby (2018-09-10)
      Modified Dioni’s media has previously been presented as an alternative to tradition Gum Chloral mounting media for microscopical specimens. This paper aims to explore a further modification of Dioni’s mounting media with the objective to provide a simple solution to clear, stain and mount Acari specimens in regions where obtaining Chloral Hydrate based media is problematic.
    • The influence of trees, shrubs, and grasses on microclimate, soil carbon, nitrogen, and CO2 efflux: Potential implications of shrub encroachment for Kalahari rangelands.

      Thomas, Andrew David; Elliott, David R.; Dougill, Andrew John; Stringer, Lindsay Carman; Hoon, Stephen Robert; Sen, Robin; Aberystwyth University; University of Derby; University of Leeds; Manchester Metropolitan University; Department of Geography and Earth Sciences; Aberystwyth University; Aberystwyth SY23 3DB UK; Environmental Sustainability Research Centre; University of Derby; Derby DE22 1GB UK; School of Earth and Environment; University of Leeds; Leeds LS2 9JT UK; School of Earth and Environment; University of Leeds; Leeds LS2 9JT UK; School of Science and the Environment; Manchester Metropolitan University; Manchester M1 5GD UK; School of Science and the Environment; Manchester Metropolitan University; Manchester M1 5GD UK (Wiley, 2018-03-30)
      Shrub encroachment is a well‐documented phenomenon affecting many of the world's drylands. The alteration of vegetation structure and species composition can lead to changes in local microclimate and soil properties which in turn affect carbon cycling. The objectives of this paper were to quantify differences in air temperatures, soil carbon, nitrogen, and CO2 efflux under trees (Vachellia erioloba), shrubs (Grewia flava), and annual and perennial grasses (Schmidtia kalahariensis and Eragrostis lehmanniana) collected over three seasons at a site in Kgalagadi District, Botswana, in order to determine the vegetation‐soil feedback mechanism affecting the carbon cycle. Air temperatures were logged continuously, and soil CO2 efflux was determined throughout the day and evening using closed respiration chambers and an infrared gas analyser. There were significant differences in soil carbon, total nitrogen, CO2 efflux, light, and temperatures beneath the canopies of trees, shrubs, and grasses. Daytime air temperatures beneath shrubs and trees were cooler compared with grass sites, particularly in summer months. Night‐time air temperatures under shrubs and trees were, however, warmer than at the grass sites. There was also significantly more soil carbon, nitrogen, and CO2 efflux under shrubs and trees compared with grasses. Although the differences observed in soils and microclimate may reinforce the competitive dominance of shrubs and present challenges to strategies designed to manage encroachment, they should not be viewed as entirely negative. Our findings highlight some of the dichotomies and challenges to be addressed before interventions aiming to bring about more sustainable land management can be implemented.
    • Post-feeding activity of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on common domestic indoor surfaces and its effect on development.

      Robinson, Louise; Bryson, David; Bulling, Mark T.; Sparks, N.; Wellard, K. S.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-03-13)
      Developmental data of forensically important blowflies used by entomologists to estimate minimum post mortem interval (mPMI) are established under controlled laboratory conditions for various temperature ranges throughout the stages of egg, 1st-3rd instar, puparia, and adult fly emergence. However, environmental conditions may influence the patterns of development and behaviour of blowflies, potentially impacting on these established development rates. Previous studies investigating indoor colonisation have focused on the delay to oviposition, with behaviour during the post-feeding phase in this setting often overlooked. The environment in which third instar larvae disperse when searching for a pupariation site may vary drastically at both outdoor and indoor scenarios, influencing the activity and distance travelled during this phase and possibly affecting developmental rates. This study investigated the effect of eight common domestic indoor surfaces on dispersal time, distance travelled, and behaviour of post-feeding Lucilia sericata as well as any resulting variation in development. It was found that pupariation and puparia length within a pupariation medium of sawdust (often used in laboratory settings) produced comparable results with that of carpeted environments (those deemed to be 'enclosed'). Non-carpeted environments (those which were 'exposed') produced a delay to pupariation likely due to increased activity and energy expenditure in searching for pupariation sites which enabled burial. In addition, the observed speed of travel during dispersal was seen via time lapse photography to be greater within 'exposed' conditions. Larvae which dispersed upon burnt laminate flooring were observed to travel faster than in all other conditions and showed the only significant variation (P=0.04) in the day of emergence in comparison to the control condition of sawdust. This study has demonstrated that wandering phase activity is affected by the environmental surface which has potential implications for estimating both the distance travelled by dispersing larvae in indoor conditions and with further research, may be a consideration in mPMI calculations.
    • Current issues: patient perception of clinical photography.

      Bryson, David; University of Derby; College of Life and Natural Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2018-01-30)
    • The PAX8 cistrome in epithelial ovarian cancer.

      Adler, Emily K.; Corona, Rosario I.; Lee, Janet M.; Rodriguez-Malave, Norma; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Sowter, Heidi M.; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Lawrenson, Kate; Gayther, Simon A.; University of Southern California; Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; University of Derby (Impact Journals, 2017-11-28)
      PAX8 is a lineage-restricted transcription factor that is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) precursor tissues, and in the major EOC histotypes. Frequent overexpression of PAX8 in primary EOCs suggests this factor functions as an oncogene during tumorigenesis, however, the biological role of PAX8 in EOC development is poorly understood. We found that stable knockdown of PAX8 in EOC models significantly reduced cell proliferation and anchorage dependent growth in vitro, and attenuated tumorigenicity in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and transcriptional profiling were used to create genome-wide maps of PAX8 binding and putative target genes. PAX8 binding sites were significantly enriched in promoter regions (p < 0.05) and superenhancers (p < 0.05). MEME-ChIP analysis revealed that PAX8 binding sites overlapping superenhancers or enhancers, but not promoters, were enriched for JUND/B and ARNT/AHR motifs. Integrating PAX8 ChIP-seq and gene expression data identified PAX8 target genes through their associations within shared topological association domains. Across two EOC models we identified 62 direct regulatory targets based on PAX8 binding in promoters and 1,330 putative enhancer regulatory targets. SEPW1, which isinvolved inoxidation-reduction,was identified as a PAX8 target gene in both cell line models. While the PAX8 cistrome exhibits a high degree of cell-type specificity, analyses of PAX8 target genes and putative cofactors identified common molecular targets and partners as candidate therapeutic targets for EOC.
    • Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on carrion, a note of the behaviour and a review of the literature.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; Dye, Alex; University of Derby; Rothamsted Research (Andrew Smith Print Ltd., 2017-11-25)
      The Honeybee Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1761) traditionally feeds on the nectar of flowers (Núñez, 1977). A number of workers of A. mellifera were observed on whole pig carrion in woodland in Riseholme Lincoln (Grid reference SK978754) on 10 of October 2017. This paper aims to look at this odd behaviour in context of the literature.
    • Detecting macroecological patterns in bacterial communities across independent studies of global soils.

      Ramirez, Kelly S.; Knight, Christopher G.; de Hollander, Mattias; Brearley, Francis Q.; Constantinides, Bede; Cotton, Anne; Creer, Si; Crowther, Thomas W.; Davison, John; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Dorrepaal, Ellen; Elliott, David R.; Fox, Graeme; Griffiths, Robert I.; Hale, Chris; Hartman, Kyle; Houlden, Ashley; Jones, David L.; Krab, Eveline J.; Maestre, Fernando T.; McGuire, Krista L.; Monteux, Sylvain; Orr, Caroline H.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Roberts, Ian S.; Robinson, David A.; Rocca, Jennifer D.; Rowntree, Jennifer; Schlaeppi, Klaus; Shepherd, Matthew; Singh, Brajesh K.; Straathof, Angela L.; Bhatnagar, Jennifer M.; Thion, Cécile; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; de Vries, Franciska T.; Netherlands Institute of Ecology; University of Manchester; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Sheffield; Bangor University; University of Tartu; University of Colorado; Umeå University; University of Derby; Centre of Ecology and Hydrology; University of Warwick; Agroscope; Universidad Rey Juan Carlos; University of Oregon; Teeside University; Wageningen University; Duke University; Natural England; Western Sydney University; Boston University; University of Aberdeen (Nature, 2017-11-20)
      The emergence of high-throughput DNA sequencing methods provides unprecedented opportunities to further unravel bacterial biodiversity and its worldwide role from human health to ecosystem functioning. However, despite the abundance of sequencing studies, combining data from multiple individual studies to address macroecological questions of bacterial diversity remains methodically challenging and plagued with biases. Here, using a machine-learning approach that accounts for differences among studies and complex interactions among taxa, we merge 30 independent bacterial data sets comprising 1,998 soil samples from 21 countries. Whereas previous meta-analysis efforts have focused on bacterial diversity measures or abundances of major taxa, we show that disparate amplicon sequence data can be combined at the taxonomy-based level to assess bacterial community structure. We find that rarer taxa are more important for structuring soil communities than abundant taxa, and that these rarer taxa are better predictors of community structure than environmental factors, which are often confounded across studies. We conclude that combining data from independent studies can be used to explore bacterial community dynamics, identify potential ‘indicator’ taxa with an important role in structuring communities, and propose hypotheses on the factors that shape bacterial biogeography that have been overlooked in the past.
    • Quantifying bioalbedo: a new physically based model and discussion of empirical methods for characterising biological influence on ice and snow albedo.

      Cook, Joseph M.; Hodson, Andrew J.; Flanner, Mark; Gardner, Alex; Tedstone, Andrew; Williamson, Christopher; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Nilsson, Johan; Bryant, Robert; Tranter, Martyn; University of Sheffield; University of Derby; University Centre in Svalbard; California Institute of Technology; University of Michigan; University of Bristol; Aberystwyth University (Copernicus Publications, 2017-11-17)
      The darkening effects of biological impurities on ice and snow have been recognised as a control on the surface energy balance of terrestrial snow, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. With a heightened interest in understanding the impacts of a changing climate on snow and ice processes, quantifying the impact of biological impurities on ice and snow albedo (bioalbedo) and its evolution through time is a rapidly growing field of research. However, rigorous quantification of bioalbedo has remained elusive because of difficulties in isolating the biological contribution to ice albedo from that of inorganic impurities and the variable optical properties of the ice itself. For this reason, isolation of the biological signature in reflectance data obtained from aerial/orbital platforms has not been achieved, even when ground-based biological measurements have been available. This paper provides the cell-specific optical properties that are required to model the spectral signatures and broadband darkening of ice. Applying radiative transfer theory, these properties provide the physical basis needed to link biological and glaciological ground measurements with remotely sensed reflectance data. Using these new capabilities we confirm that biological impurities can influence ice albedo, then we identify 10 challenges to the measurement of bioalbedo in the field with the aim of improving future experimental designs to better quantify bioalbedo feedbacks. These challenges are (1) ambiguity in terminology, (2) characterising snow or ice optical properties, (3) characterising solar irradiance, (4) determining optical properties of cells, (5) measuring biomass, (6) characterising vertical distribution of cells, (7) characterising abiotic impurities, (8) surface anisotropy, (9) measuring indirect albedo feedbacks, and (10) measurement and instrument configurations. This paper aims to provide a broad audience of glaciologists and biologists with an overview of radiative transfer and albedo that could support future experimental design.
    • Transillumination of testicular hydrocele.

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (ClinMed International Library, 2017-11-01)
      Transillumination is a useful and inexpensive clinical tool that can be used for a range of conditions including testicular hydrocele. This paper gives a brief overview of the clinical use of transillumination in general, for testicular hydroceles and guidance for photography.
    • Can MOOCs meet your learning needs?

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-09-19)
      This paper looks at the role of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in fulfilling your learning needs; from looking at what MOOCs are through to examples of courses from different Universities and advice for completing a course. The sequence of activities takes you from looking at your learning needs, to finding a course, thinking about how to plan and prepare for learning using a MOOC then writing a review or reflecting on the impact of your learning.
    • Creating three dimensional, orientable, temporary invertebrate slides for photomicrography.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; University of Derby (The Amateur Entomologists' Society, 2017-09)
    • Writing a book review

      Bryson, David; Hudson, Robert Charles; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-06-08)
      Book reviews are a good way to get started with writing for a journal and this Learning and CPD activity takes you through the process of understanding the aims of book review, undertaking practice pieces through to reviewing a book and advice on the dos and don'ts of book reviewing.
    • Arthropod-microbe interactions on vertebrate remains: Potential applications in the forensic sciences.

      Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Benbow, M. Eric; Barnes, Kate M.; Jordan, Heather R.; Texas A&M University; Michigan State University; University of Derby; Mississippi State University (John Wiley and Sons, 2017-04-08)
      Understanding the process of insect colonization of human remains is a core area of research by forensic entomologists, with several recent studies suggesting that microbial communities influence the process and timing of colonization. Such information is crucial for determining when colonization occurred as related to the postmortem interval (PMI). This chapter reviews the basic field of forensic entomology; the phases of insect behavior associated with their detection, location, and utilization of the remains as postulated by Matuszewski (Matuszewski, S. (2011) Estimating the pre-appearance interval from temperature in Necrodes littoralis L. (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Forensic Science International, 212, 180–188) and Tomberlin et al. (Tomberlin, J. K., R. Mohr, M. E. Benbow, et al. 2011. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology. Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 401–421.); and how microbes play a key role mediating this process. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential future directions related to microbe–insect interactions in association with vertebrate remains decomposition, and this is potentially important to forensics.
    • Pseudoscorpions, an understudied and ideal microscopic study organism.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; Andrews, Liam; University of Derby (Quekett Microscopical Club, 2017)
    • Technical note: A specimen measuring device for the stereo microscope.

      Chick, Andrew I. R.; University of Derby (Quekett Microscopical Club, 2016-12)
    • Impacted third molar

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Royal Photographic Society, 2016-12)
      The Anglo-Saxon owner of this upper jawbone may have experienced severe dental pain from the impacted wisdom tooth, upper left. The tooth has forced its way sideways through the bone, instead of erupting in its proper place beside the other molars. The specimen comes from the Little Chester Collection, Derby Museum and Art Gallery.
    • Origin and evolution of silicic magmas at ocean islands: Perspectives from a zoned fall deposit on Ascension Island, South Atlantic.

      Chamberlain, Katy J.; Barclay, Jenni; Preece, Katie; Brown, Richard J.; Davidson, Jon P.; University of Durham; University of East Anglia (2016-11-15)
      Ascension Island, in the south Atlantic is a composite ocean island volcano with a wide variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions evident in its ~ 1 million year subaerial history. In this paper, new observations of a unique zoned fall deposit on the island are presented; the deposit gradationally changes from trachytic pumice at the base, through to trachy-basaltic andesite scoria at the top of the deposit. The key features of the eruptive deposits are described and are coupled with whole rock XRF data, major and trace element analyses of phenocrysts, groundmass glass and melt inclusions from samples of the compositionally-zoned fall deposit to analyse the processes leading up to and driving the explosive eruption. Closed system crystal fractionation is the dominant control on compositional zonation, with the fractionating assemblage dominated by plagioclase feldspar and olivine. This fractionation from the trachy-basaltic andesite magma occurred at pressures of ~ 250 MPa. There is no evidence for multiple stages of evolution involving changing magmatic conditions or the addition of new magmatic pulses preserved within the crystal cargo. Volatile concentrations range from 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% H2O and progressively increase in the more-evolved units, suggesting crystal fractionation concentrated volatiles into the melt phase, eventually causing internal overpressure of the system and eruption of the single compositionally-zoned magma body. Melt inclusion data combined with Fe–Ti oxide modelling suggests that the oxygen fugacity of Ascension Island magmas is not affected by degree of evolution, which concentrates H2O into the liquid phase, and thus the two systems are decoupled on Ascension, similar to that observed in Iceland. This detailed study of the zoned fall deposit on Ascension Island highlights the relatively closed-system evolution of felsic magmas at Ascension Island, in contrast to many other ocean islands, such as Tenerife and Iceland.
    • Developing badge eco-systems to support engagement in class-based and online learning

      Bryson, David; Hadi, Munib; Petronzi, Dominic; University of Derby (International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2016-11)
      Abstract Background Badges enable academic and non-academic learners to collect and display their achievements and to enhance their training and qualification repertoire. To support engagement in class-based and online modules we have introduced badge ecosystems backed up by University quality assurance procedures. This paper presents two case studies which exemplify the application of badges at the University of Derby and the possibilities for future developments of badge ecosystems. Class-based: Forensic anthropology/Osteology A sequence of badges in the Forensic Anthropology module was implemented to support students as they develop their understanding of osteology and anatomy. In this context, the implementation of badges relies on the use of learning outcomes that support learning and the assessment of practical knowledge as well as student’s ability to observe key features in the subject. Online MOOCs The University of Derby (UoD) have incorporated badges in a series of MOOCs that include: “Bridging the Dementia Divide: Supporting People Living with Dementia (2015); Digital.Me: Managing your Digital Self (2015); Operations Management (2016); a re-run of Supporting People Living with Dementia (2016) and Autism, Asperger’s and ADHD (2016). Throughout these, badges were used to reward degrees of completion and have an association with a favourable average completion rate across four of the MOOCs. The use of badges at the University has been led by academics staff and the Innovation Hub as part of a Badges Working Group. The innovative approaches to badges and badge ecosystems have been supported by the development of a University infrastructure for badge development including: • Schema to back-up micro-credentialing • Quality assurance processes and • University badge server The UoD Working Badges Group and Quality Assurance The use of digital badges supported by the University’s quality framework means that we are rewarding meaningful learning, have increased badge credibility with our own badge server for issuing badges. In this way we have assured the integrity of the badges not just being University of Derby by branding but through the University as the issuing organization. Conclusion The UoD has incorporated badges to provide recognition for the learning, achievements and contributions of our class-based and MOOC learners, and the credibility of our badges will increase further as we move towards further implementation by academics and departments through the use of the badge framework. This could allow our digital credentials to be used by partners and other educational institutions and will act as an incentive for the UoD to continue its focus on badge development, quality and credibility.
    • Professional Language: Understanding and being understood

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2016-11)
      Language is a vital means of communication and education plays a key role in developing both our general language capabilities but also our use of "Professional language". Learning a professional language is like being inducted into the profession through the shared use of arcane and often obscure words and terminology. What makes sense to a “Professional" could well be gobbledygook/meaningless/nonsense to anyone else. This CPD activity is designed to encourage us to think about how we speak and communicate. In a multicultural country we have to be aware of both how we communicate and also how colleagues and patients are communicating.