• Polarimetric SAR image semantic segmentation with 3D discrete wavelet transform and Markov random field

      Bi, Haixia; Xu, Lin; Cao, Xiangyong; Xue, Yong; Xu, Zongben; University of Derby; University of Bristol; Shanghai Em-Data Technology Co., Ltd.; Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China; University of Derby (IEEE, 2020-06-02)
      Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image segmentation is currently of great importance in image processing for remote sensing applications. However, it is a challenging task due to two main reasons. Firstly, the label information is difficult to acquire due to high annotation costs. Secondly, the speckle effect embedded in the PolSAR imaging process remarkably degrades the segmentation performance. To address these two issues, we present a contextual PolSAR image semantic segmentation method in this paper.With a newly defined channelwise consistent feature set as input, the three-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (3D-DWT) technique is employed to extract discriminative multi-scale features that are robust to speckle noise. Then Markov random field (MRF) is further applied to enforce label smoothness spatially during segmentation. By simultaneously utilizing 3D-DWT features and MRF priors for the first time, contextual information is fully integrated during the segmentation to ensure accurate and smooth segmentation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conduct extensive experiments on three real benchmark PolSAR image data sets. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves promising segmentation accuracy and preferable spatial consistency using a minimal number of labeled pixels.
    • Policing as a Service in the Cloud

      Zargari, Shahrzad A.; Smith, Anthony; University of Derby (2013-09)
      Security and Privacy are fundamental concerns in cloud computing both in terms of legal complications and user trust. Cloud computing is a new computing paradigm, aiming to provide reliable, customized, and guaranteed computing dynamic environment for end-users. However, the existing security and privacy issues in the cloud still present a strong barrier for users to adopt cloud computing solutions. This paper investigates the security and privacy challenges in cloud computing in order to explore methods that improve the users' trust in the adaptation of the cloud. Policing As A Service can be offered by the cloud providers with the intention of empowering the users to monitor and guard their assets in the cloud. This service is beneficial both to the cloud providers and the users. However, at first, the cloud providers may only be able to offer basic auditing services due to undeveloped tools and applications. Similar to other services delivered in the cloud, this service can be purchased by the users to gain some control over their data. The sub services of the proposed service can be Privacy As A Service and Forensics As A Service. These services give the cloud users a sense of transparency and having control over their data in the cloud while better security and privacy safeguards are sought.
    • Policing as a Service in the Cloud (Extended)

      Zargari, Shahrzad A.; Smith, Anthony; University of Derby; Sheffiels Hallam University (2014-10-22)
      Security and privacy are fundamental concerns in cloud computing both in terms of legal complications and user trust. Cloud computing is a new computing paradigm, aiming to provide reliable, customized, and guaranteed computing dynamic environment for end users. However, the existing security and privacy issues in the cloud still present a strong barrier for users to adopt cloud computing solutions. This paper investigates the security and privacy challenges in cloud computing in order to explore methods that improve the users’ trust in the adaptation of the cloud. Policing as a Service can be offered by the cloud providers with the intention of empowering users to monitor and guard their assets in the cloud. This service is beneficial both to the cloud providers and the users. However, at first, the cloud providers may only be able to offer basic auditing services due to undeveloped tools and applications. Similar to other services delivered in the cloud, users can purchase this service to gain some control over their data. The subservices of the proposed service can be Privacy as a Service and Forensics as a Service. These services give users a sense of transparency and control over their data in the cloud while better security and privacy safeguards are sought.
    • Policy development and implementation in the Bretton Woods institutions: A consideration of the legality, human right impact and effectiveness of their programmes

      Self, Richard; University of Derby (2011-12)
      Previous research investigating the legality of the IMF and World Bank Structural Adjustment Programmes has emphasised the need for additional conditionality to be imposed on the recipient nations to enhance their Human Rights performance. This paper, however, evaluates the legality of the conditionality terms imposed in many of the Structural Adjustment Programmes developed and imposed by the IMF and the World Bank on recipient nations from a different perspective; that of the impact and results of the programmes on Human Rights achievements by the recipient nations and also the legality of conditionality clauses within the terms of the charters of the Bretton Woods organisations about which there has been much scholastic debate. This is approached from the basis of the nature of the institutions and their governing Articles of Agreement together with the approach to interpretation of these Articles by the Legal Counsel; taking the works of Ibrahim Shihata (a Senior Vice-President and General Counsel to the World bank) as evidence of the institutional approach. This is contrasted with the works of one of the chief Economists of the World Bank, Prof. Joseph Stiglitz, which develops the economic framework for analysis of the impact. Research shows that many of the Bretton Woods institution purposes have not been achieved in many of the countries involved as recipients, as will be analysed later. Indeed there are many documented cases where the results are the direct opposite of these purposes, as will be further analysed. An external view of this is developed from the SAPRIN studies undertaken in conjunction with the World Bank between 1995 and 2001 which provides a basis for comparison to relevant International Human Rights Treaties as evidence. Specifically, the following are used as benchmarks for this analysis; the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and ILO Convention No 87 treaties. It is concluded, on the basis of the impact of the Structural Adjustment programmes reviewed in the SAPRIN study, that the Structural Adjustment programmes failed both the test of economic efficiency and the test of legality in Human Rights terms. However, there are no courts of competent jurisdiction in which claims can be brought against the Bretton Woods organisations.
    • A polynomial based construction of periodic Horadam sequences

      Larcombe, Peter J.; Fennessey, Eric J.; University of Derby (The Institute of Combinatorics and its Applications (ICA), 2016-03)
      A recent matrix based approach to the study of self-repeating Horadam sequences has identified a mechanism to produce guaranteed (and arbitrary) periodicity through a novel formulation for the two governing parameters in the defining linear Horadam recurrence equation. We consider this further here, giving supporting examples to illustrate the methodology which utilises so called Catalan polynomials.
    • Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks with Variable Interference

      Chincoli, Michele; Syed, Aly; Exarchakos, George; Liotta, Antonio (Hindawi, 2016)
    • Practical considerations for subwoofer arrays and clusters in live sound reinforcement.

      Hill, Adam J.; University of Derby (Audio Engineering Society, 2017-08-21)
      The central theories behind low-frequency directionality with subwoofer clusters and arrays are well-known, but there are practical considerations that are essential to understand. This paper highlights key areas such as: the acoustic center, directionality of so-called omnidirectional sources, performance stage effects, and inter-unit decorrelation methods, primarily through the use of hemi-anechoic measurements with secondary analysis via electroacoustic simulations.
    • Precision measurement of the mass difference between light nuclei and anti-nuclei.

      ALICE Collaboration; Barnby, Lee; University of Birmingham (Springer Nature, 2015-08-17)
      The measurement of the mass differences for systems bound by the strong force has reached a very high precision with protons and anti-protons. The extension of such measurement from (anti-)baryons to (anti-)nuclei allows one to probe any difference in the interactions between nucleons and anti-nucleons encoded in the (anti-)nuclei masses. This force is a remnant of the underlying strong interaction among quarks and gluons and can be described by effective theories, but cannot yet be directly derived from quantum chromodynamics. Here we report a measurement of the difference between the ratios of the mass and charge of deuterons (d) and anti-deuterons (d-bar ), and 3He and nuclei carried out with the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment)4 detector in Pb–Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76  TeV. Our direct measurement of the mass-over-charge differences confirms CPT invariance to an unprecedented precision in the sector of light nuclei. This fundamental symmetry of nature, which exchanges particles with anti-particles, implies that all physics laws are the same under the simultaneous reversal of charge(s) (charge conjugation C), reflection of spatial coordinates (parity transformation P) and time inversion (T).
    • Predictive no-reference assessment of video quality

      Vega, Maria Torres; Mocanu, Decebal Constantin; Stavrou, Stavros; Liotta, Antonio (Elsevier, 2017)
    • Predictive Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

      Chincoli, Michele; Syed, Aly Aamer; Mocanu, Decebal; Liotta, Antonio (IEEE, 2016)
    • Prescribed $k$-symmetric curvature hypersurfaces in de Sitter space

      Ballesteros-Chávez, Daniel; Klingenberg, Wilhelm; Lambert, Ben; Silesian University of Technology, Kaszubska; University of Durham; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2020-11-26)
      We prove existence of compact spacelike hypersurfaces with prescribed k - curvature in de Sitter space, where the prescription function depends on both space and the tilt function.
    • Privacy and trust in smart camera sensor networks

      Adnane, Asma; Loughlin, Michael; University of Derby (ARES, 2015-08)
      The emerging technologies of Smart Camera Sensor Networks (SCSN) are being driven by the social need for security assurance and analytical information. SCSN are deployed for protection and for surveillance tracking of potential criminals. A smart camera sensor does not just capture visual and audio information but covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum. It constitutes of intelligent onboard processor, autonomous communication interfaces, memory and has the ability to execute algorithms. The rapid deployment of smart camera sensors with ubiquitous imaging access causes security and privacy issues for the captured data and its metadata, as well as the need for trust and cooperation between the smart camera sensors. The intelligence growth in this technology requires adequate information security with capable privacy and trust protocols to prevent malicious content attacks. This paper presents, first, a clear definition of SCSN. It addresses current methodologies with perspectives in privacy and trust protection, and proposes a multi-layer security approach. The proposed approach highlights the need for a public key infrastructure layer in association with a Reputation-Based Cooperation mechanism.
    • Privacy region protection for H.264/AVC with enhanced scrambling effect and a low bitrate overhead

      Wang, Yongsheng; O׳Neill, Máire; Kurugollu, Fatih; O׳Sullivan, Elizabeth; Queen's University, Belfast (Elsevier, 2015-05-12)
      While video surveillance systems have become ubiquitous in our daily lives, they have introduced concerns over privacy invasion. Recent research to address these privacy issues includes a focus on privacy region protection, whereby existing video scrambling techniques are applied to specific regions of interest (ROI) in a video while the background is left unchanged. Most previous work in this area has only focussed on encrypting the sign bits of nonzero coefficients in the privacy region, which produces a relatively weak scrambling effect. In this paper, to enhance the scrambling effect for privacy protection, it is proposed to encrypt the intra prediction modes (IPM) in addition to the sign bits of nonzero coefficients (SNC) within the privacy region. A major issue with utilising encryption of IPM is that drift error is introduced outside the region of interest. Therefore, a re-encoding method, which is integrated with the encryption of IPM, is also proposed to remove drift error. Compared with a previous technique that uses encryption of IPM, the proposed re-encoding method offers savings in the bitrate overhead while completely removing the drift error. Experimental results and analysis based on H.264/AVC were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. In addition, a spiral binary mask mechanism is proposed that can reduce the bitrate overhead incurred by flagging the position of the privacy region. A definition of the syntax structure for the spiral binary mask is given. As a result of the proposed techniques, the privacy regions in a video sequence can be effectively protected by the enhanced scrambling effect with no drift error and a lower bitrate overhead.
    • Privacy verification of photoDNA based on machine learning

      Nadeem, Muhammad Shahroz; Franqueira, Virginia N. L.; Zhai, Xiaojun; University of Derby, College of Engineering and Technology; University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering (The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), 2019-10-09)
      PhotoDNA is a perceptual fuzzy hash technology designed and developed by Microsoft. It is deployed by all major big data service providers to detect Indecent Images of Children (IIOC). Protecting the privacy of individuals is of paramount importance in such images. Microsoft claims that a PhotoDNA hash cannot be reverse engineered into the original image; therefore, it is not possible to identify individuals or objects depicted in the image. In this chapter, we evaluate the privacy protection capability of PhotoDNA by testing it against machine learning. Specifically, our aim is to detect the presence of any structural information that might be utilized to compromise the privacy of the individuals via classification. Due to the widespread usage of PhotoDNA as a deterrent to IIOC by big data companies, ensuring its ability to protect privacy would be crucial. In our experimentation, we achieved a classification accuracy of 57.20%.This result indicates that PhotoDNA is resistant to machine-learning-based classification attacks.
    • A privacy-preserved probabilistic routing index model for decentralised online social networks

      Yuan, Bo; Gu, Jiayan; Liu, Lu; University of Derby; University of Leicester (IEEE, 2020-04-09)
      Despite the tremendous success of online social networks (OSNs), centrally controlled OSNs have inherent issues related to lack of user privacy and single point of failure. These limitations have motivated the research community to shift the computing paradigm from a centralised architecture to decentralised alternatives. Existing research works mainly focused on the routing mechanisms using social information in decentralised OSNs, without considering the user's privacy. This paper proposes a self-organised decentralised architecture (SDA) that leverages privacy-preserved routing methods to facilitate query routing in decentralised social networks. This architecture encompasses a hash-based profiling model to characterise semantic features of the user's content with low dimensionality and privacy-aware mechanisms to organise similarity users into semantic communities. Furthermore, a probabilistic routing method is proposed to support efficient information dissemination and service discovery. The correctness and efficiency of our proposed approach are evaluated through simulations on real-world datasets. The experimental results demonstrated that our approach achieved a better topological structure with high routing efficiency.
    • Privacy-preserving crowd-sensed trust aggregation in the user-centeric internet of people networks

      Azad, Muhammad; Perera, Charith; Bag, Samiran; Barhamgi, Mahmoud; Hao, Feng; University of Derby; Cardiff University; University of Warwick; Universite Claude Bernard Lyon (ACM, 2020)
      Today we are relying on the Internet technologies for various types of services ranging from personal communication to the entertainment. The online social networks (Facebook, twitter, youtube) has seen an increase in subscribers in recent years developing a social network among people termed as the Internet of People. In such a network, subscribers use the content disseminated by other subscribers. The malicious users can also utilize such platforms for spreading the malicious and fake content that would bring catastrophic consequences to a social network if not identified on time. People crowd-sensing on the Internet of people system has seen a prospective solution for the large scale data collection by leveraging the feedback collections from the people of the internet that would not only help in identifying malicious subscribers of the network but would also help in defining better services. However, the human involvement in crowd-sensing would have challenges of privacy-preservation, intentional spread of false high score about certain user/content undermining the services, and assigning different trust scores to the peoples of the network without disclosing their trust weights. Therefore, having a privacy-preserving system for computing trust of people and their content in the network would play a crucial role in collecting high-quality data from the people. In this paper, a novel trust model is proposed for evaluating the trust of the people in the social network without compromising the privacy of the participating people. The proposed systems have inherent properties of the trust weight assignment to a different class of user i.e. it can assign different weights to different users of the network, has decentralized setup, and ensures privacy properties under the malicious and honest but curious adversarial model. We evaluated the performance of the system by developing a prototype and applying it to different online social network dataset.
    • PriVeto: a fully private two round veto protocol.

      Samiran, Bag; Muhammad Ajmal, Azad; Feng, Hao; Warwick University; Derby University (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2018-12-04)
      Veto is a prerogative to unilaterally overrule a decision. A private veto protocol consists of a number of participants who wish to decide whether or not to veto a particular motion without revealing the individual opinions. Essentially all participants jointly perform a multi-party computation (MPC) on a boolean-OR function where an input of "1" represents veto and "0" represents not veto. In 2006, Hao and Zieli´ nski presented a two round veto protocol named Anonymous Veto network (AV-net), which is exceptionally efficient in terms of the number of rounds, computation and bandwidth usage. However, AV-net has two generic issues: 1) a participant who has submitted a veto can find out whether she is the only one who vetoed; 2) the last participant who submits her input can pre-compute the boolean-OR result before submission, and may amend her input based on that knowledge. These two issues generally apply to any multi-round veto protocol where participants commit their input in the last round. In this paper, we propose a novel solution to address both issues within two rounds, which are the best possible round efficiency for a veto protocol. Our new private veto protocol, called PriVeto, has similar system complexities to AV-net, but it binds participants to their inputs in the very first round, eliminating the possibility of runtime changes to any of the inputs. At the end of the protocol, participants are strictly limited to learning nothing more than the output of the boolean-OR function and their own inputs.
    • Production of 4He and 4He in Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV at the LHC.

      ALICE Collaboration; Barnby, Lee; STFC Daresbury Laboratory (Elsevier, 2017-12-27)
      Results on the production of 4He and 4He nuclei in Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV in the rapidity range | y |< 1, using the ALICE detector, are presented in this paper. The rapidity densities corresponding to 0–10% central events are found to be dN/dy4He = (0.8 ± 0.4 (stat) ± 0.3 (syst)) × 10−6 and dN/dy4He = (1.1 ± 0.4 (stat) ± 0.2 (syst)) × 10−6, respectively. This is in agreement with the statistical thermal model expectation assuming the same chemical freeze-out temperature (Tchem = 156 MeV) as for light hadrons. The measured ratio of 4He/4He is 1.4 ± 0.8 (stat) ± 0.5 (syst).
    • Production of deuterons, tritons, 3 He nuclei, and their antinuclei in pp collisions at √s = 0.9, 2.76, and 7 TeV.

      ALICE Collaboration; Barnby, Lee; STFC Daresbury Laboratory (APS Physics, 2018-02-21)
      Invariant differential yields of deuterons and antideuterons in p p collisions at √ s = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and the yields of tritons, 3 He nuclei, and their antinuclei at √ s = 7 TeV have been measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurements cover a wide transverse momentum ( p T ) range in the rapidity interval | y | < 0.5 , extending both the energy and the p T reach of previous measurements up to 3 GeV/ c for A = 2 and 6 GeV/ c for A = 3 . The coalescence parameters of (anti)deuterons and 3 ¯¯¯¯ He nuclei exhibit an increasing trend with p T and are found to be compatible with measurements in p A collisions at low p T and lower energies. The integrated yields decrease by a factor of about 1000 for each increase of the mass number with one (anti)nucleon. Furthermore, the deuteron-to-proton ratio is reported as a function of the average charged particle multiplicity at different center-of-mass energies.
    • Production of K∗(892)0 and ϕ(1020) in p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV

      Alexandre, Didier; Barnby, Lee; Evans, David; Graham, Katie; Jones, Peter; Jusko, Anton; Krivda, Marian; Lee, Graham; Lietava, Roman; Villalobos, Orlando; et al. (2016-04-30)