• SafeWeb: a Middleware for securing Ruby-based web applications

      Hosek, Petr; Migliavacca, Matteo; Papagiannis, Ioannis; Eyers, David M.; Evans, David; Shand, Brian; Bacon, Jean; Pietzuch, Peter; Imperial College London; University of Cambridge; et al. (Springer, 2011-12-12)
      Web applications in many domains such as healthcare and finance must process sensitive data, while complying with legal policies regarding the release of different classes of data to different parties. Currently, software bugs may lead to irreversible disclosure of confidential data in multi-tier web applications. An open challenge is how developers can guarantee these web applications only ever release sensitive data to authorised users without costly, recurring security audits. Our solution is to provide a trusted middleware that acts as a “safety net” to event-based enterprise web applications by preventing harmful data disclosure before it happens. We describe the design and implementation of SafeWeb, a Ruby-based middleware that associates data with security labels and transparently tracks their propagation at different granularities across a multi-tier web architecture with storage and complex event processing. For efficiency, maintainability and ease-of-use, SafeWeb exploits the dynamic features of the Ruby programming lan- guage to achieve label propagation and data flow enforcement. We evaluate SafeWeb by reporting our experience of implementing a web-based cancer treatment application and deploying it as part of the UK National Health Service (NHS).
    • SAHARA: A Simplified AtmospHeric Correction AlgoRithm for Chinese gAofen Data: 1. Aerosol Algorithm.

      She, Lu; Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong; Che, Yahui; Guang, Jie; University of Derby; Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Bremen (2017-03-09)
      The recently launched Chinese GaoFen-4 (GF4) satellite provides valuable information to obtain geophysical parameters describing conditions in the atmosphere and at the Earth’s surface. The surface reflectance is an important parameter for the estimation of other remote sensing parameters linked to the eco-environment, atmosphere environment and energy balance. One of the key issues to achieve atmospheric corrected surface reflectance is to precisely retrieve the aerosol optical properties, especially Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). The retrieval of AOD and corresponding atmospheric correction procedure normally use the full radiative transfer calculation or Look-Up-Table (LUT) methods, which is very time-consuming. In this paper, a Simplified AtmospHeric correction AlgoRithm for gAofen data (SAHARA) is presented for the retrieval of AOD and corresponding atmospheric correction procedure. This paper is the first part of the algorithm, which describes the aerosol retrieval algorithm. In order to achieve high-accuracy analytical form for both LUT and surface parameterization, the MODIS Dark-Target (DT) aerosol types and Deep Blue (DB) similar surface parameterization have been proposed for GF4 data. Limited Gaofen observations (i.e., all that were available) have been tested and validated. The retrieval results agree quite well with MODIS Collection 6.0 aerosol product, with a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.72. The comparison between GF4 derived AOD and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations has a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. The algorithm, after comprehensive validation, can be used as an operational running algorithm for creating aerosol product from the Chinese GF4 satellite.
    • Sample size determination algorithm for fingerprint-based indoor localization systems

      Kanaris, Loizos; Kokkinis, Akis; Fortino, Giancarlo; Liotta, Antonio; Stavrou, Stavros (Elsevier, 2016)
    • A scaled power product recurrence examined using matrix methods

      Larcombe, Peter J.; Fennessey, Eric J.; University of Derby (The Institute of Combinatorics and its Applications, 2016-09)
      A scaled power product recurrence is examined here via a matrix approach which both recovers and extends some recent results found using standard difference equations theory alone. Closed forms for the associated sequence terms are derived for a range of recursion parameter conditions in which so called Catalan polynomials are integral to the process.
    • Scheduling air traffic controllers

      Conniss, Richard; Curtis, Tim; Petrovic, Sanja; University of Nottingham (PATAT, 2014-08-26)
      The effective rostering of Air Traffic Controllers is a complex and under researched area of the personnel scheduling literature. An effective method to produce real world rosters for controllers requires the ability to model shifts, breaks, multiple tasks and their associated qualifications, to rotate staff through all the tasks for which they are qualified to maintain skill levels, the requirement to train staff whilst continuing normal operations and an ability to reroster in the event of unexpected events. Examples in the literature that examine some of these components include shift scheduling, break planning and multi skilled staff. We shall present an algorithm that can effectively model many of the features of the ATC rostering problem, and produce useful real world rosters for operational use.
    • An SDN-enhanced load balancing technique in the cloud system.

      Kang, Byungseok; Choo, Hyunseung; Sungkyunkwan University (2016-12-07)
      The vast majority of Web services and sites are hosted in various kinds of cloud services, and ordering some level of quality of service (QoS) in such systems requires effective load-balancing policies that choose among multiple clouds. Recently, software-defined networking (SDN) is one of the most promising solutions for load balancing in cloud data center. SDN is characterized by its two distinguished features, including decoupling the control plane from the data plane and providing programmability for network application development. By using these technologies, SDN and cloud computing can improve cloud reliability, manageability, scalability and controllability. SDN-based cloud is a new type cloud in which SDN technology is used to acquire control on network infrastructure and to provide networking-as-a-service (NaaS) in cloud computing environments. In this paper, we introduce an SDN-enhanced Inter cloud Manager (S-ICM) that allocates network flows in the cloud environment. S-ICM consists of two main parts, monitoring and decision making. For monitoring, S-ICM uses SDN control message that observes and collects data, and decision-making is based on the measured network delay of packets. Measurements are used to compare S-ICM with a round robin (RR) allocation of jobs between clouds which spreads the workload equitably, and with a honeybee foraging algorithm (HFA). We see that S-ICM is better at avoiding system saturation than HFA and RR under heavy load formula using RR job scheduler. Measurements are also used to evaluate whether a simple queueing formula can be used to predict system performance for several clouds being operated under an RR scheduling policy, and show the validity of the theoretical approximation.
    • Search for a common baryon source in high-multiplicity pp collisions at the LHC

      Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, A.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-10-08)
      We report on the measurement of the size of the particle-emitting source from two-baryon correlations with ALICE in high-multiplicity pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV. The source radius is studied with low relative momentum p–p, pbar-pbar, p–Λ , and pbar-Λbar pairs as a function of the pair transverse mass m_T considering for the first time in a quantitative way the effect of strong resonance decays. After correcting for this effect, the radii extracted for pairs of different particle species agree. This indicates that protons, antiprotons, Λ s, and Λbar s originate from the same source. Within the measured m_T range (1.1–2.2) GeV/c^2 the invariant radius of this common source varies between 1.3 and 0.85 fm. These results provide a precise reference for studies of the strong hadron–hadron interactions and for the investigation of collective properties in small colliding systems.
    • Search for collectivity with azimuthal J/ψ -hadron correlations in high multiplicity p–Pb collisions at View the MathML source and 8.16 TeV.

      ALICE Collaboration; Barnby, Lee; STFC Daresbury Laboratory (Elsevier, 2018-05-10)
      We present a measurement of azimuthal correlations between inclusive J/ψ and charged hadrons in p–Pb collisions recorded with the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The J/ψ are reconstructed at forward (p-going, 2.03
    • Search for weakly decaying Λ̅ n̅ and ΛΛ exotic bound states in central Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV

      Alexandre, Didier; Barnby, Lee; Bhasin, Anju; Bombara, Marek; Evans, David; Graham, Katie; Jones, Peter; Jusko, Anton; Krivda, Marian; Lee, Graham; et al. (2016-01-10)
    • Security, cybercrime and digital forensics for IoT

      Atlam, Hany F.; Alenezi, Ahmed; Alassafi, Madini O.; Alshdadi, Abdulrahman A.; Wills, Gary B.; University of Southampton; Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt; Northern Border University, Rafha, Saudi Arabia; King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Springer International Publishing, 2019-11-14)
      The Internet of Things (IoT) connects almost all the environment objects whether physical or virtual over the Internet to produce new digitized services that improve people’s lifestyle. Currently, several IoT applications have a direct impact on our daily life activities including smart agriculture, wearables, connected healthcare, connected vehicles, and others. Despite the countless benefits provided by the IoT system, it introduces several security challenges. Resolving these challenges should be one of the highest priorities for IoT manufacturers to continue the successful deployment of IoT applications. The owners of IoT devices should guarantee that effective security measures are built in their devices. With the developments of the Internet, the number of security attacks and cybercrimes has increased significantly. In addition, with poor security measures implemented in IoT devices, the IoT system creates more opportunities for cybercrimes to attack various application and services of the IoT system resulting in a direct impact on users. One of the approaches that tackle the increasing number of cybercrimes is digital forensics. Cybercrimes with the power of the IoT technology can cross the virtual space to threaten human life, therefore, IoT forensics is required to investigate and mitigate against such attacks. This chapter presents a review of IoT security and forensics. It started with reviewing the IoT system by discussing building blocks of an IoT device, essential characteristic, communication technologies and challenges of the IoT. Then, IoT security by highlighting threats and solutions regarding IoT architecture layers are discussed. Digital forensics is also discussed by presenting the main steps of the investigation process. In the end, IoT forensics is discussed by reviewing related IoT forensics frameworks, discussing the need for adopting real-time approaches and showing various IoT forensics.
    • Self-Learning Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

      Chincoli, Michele; Liotta, Antonio (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2018)
    • Semantic mapping of discourse and activity, using Habermas’s theory of communicative action to analyze process

      Pianosi, Monica; Bull, Richard; Murtagh, Fionn; University of Derby (Springer, 2015-06-02)
      Our primary objective is evaluation of quality of process. This is addressed through semantic mapping of process. We note how this is complementary to the primacy of output results or products. We use goal-oriented discourse as a case study. We draw benefit from how social and political theorist, Jürgen Habermas, uses what was termed “communicative action”. An orientation in Habermas’s work, that we use, is analysis of communication or discourse. For this, we take Twitter social media. In our case study, we map the discourse semantically, using the correspondence analysis platform for such latent semantic analysis. This permits qualitative and quantitative analytics. Our case study is a set of eight carefully planned Twitter campaigns relating to environmental issues. The aim of these campaigns was to increase environmental awareness and behaviour. Each campaign was launched by an initiating tweet. Using the data gathered in these Twitter campaigns, we sought to map them, and hence to track the flow of the Twitter discourse. This mapping was achieved through semantic embedding. The semantic distance between an initiating act and the aggregate semantic outcome is used as a measure of process effectiveness.
    • Service-oriented system engineering

      Bessis, Nik; Zhai, Xiaojun; Sotiriadis, Stelios; Edge Hill University; University of Derby; University of Toronto (Elsevier, 2017-12-01)
      Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE) is one of the emerging research areas that involves a number of research challenges in engineering service-oriented systems, the architecture and computing paradigm as well as the development and management of service-oriented systems. Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) exploits services as the fundamental elements for developing computer-based systems. It has been applied to various areas and promotes fundamental changes to system architecture, especially changing the way software systems are being analyzed, architected, designed, implemented, tested, evaluated, delivered, consumed, maintained and evolved. The innovations of SOC also offer many interesting avenues of research for scientific and industrial communities. In this paper, we present the concepts of the SOSE from the related work. The motivation, opportunities and challenges of the SOSE is highlighted thereafter. In addition to this, a brief overview of accepted papers in our Special Issue on SOSE is presented. Finally we highlight and summarize this paper.
    • Severity Estimation of Plant Leaf Diseases Using Segmentation Method

      Entuni, Chyntia Jaby; Afendi Zulcaffle, Tengku Mohd; Kipli, Kuryati; Kurugollu, Fatih; Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia; University of Derby (2020-11-09)
      Plants have assumed a significant role in the history of humankind, for the most part as a source of nourishment for human and animals. However, plants typically powerless to different sort of diseases such as leaf blight, gray spot and rust. It will cause a great loss to farmers and ranchers. Therefore, an appropriate method to estimate the severity of diseases in plant leaf is needed to overcome the problem. This paper presents the fusions of the Fuzzy C-Means segmentation method with four different colour spaces namely RGB, HSV, L*a*b and YCbCr to estimate plant leaf disease severity. The percentage of performance of proposed algorithms are recorded and compared with the previous method which are K-Means and Otsu’s thresholding. The best severity estimation algorithm and colour space used to estimate the diseases severity of plant leaf is the combination of Fuzzy C-Means and YCbCr color space. The average performance of Fuzzy C-Means is 91.08% while the average performance of YCbCr is 83.74%. Combination of Fuzzy C-Means and YCbCr produce 96.81% accuracy. This algorithm is more effective than other algorithms in terms of not only better segmentation performance but also low time complexity that is 34.75s in average with 0.2697s standard deviation.
    • A short monograph on exposition and the emotive nature of research and publishing

      Larcombe, Peter J.; University of Derby (The Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA), 2016-04)
      Not altogether surprisingly – given that mathematicians are humans first and foremost, with as much variety in personality, inspiration, energy and temperament as found in any other societal grouping – within our own internal ranks there will always be a degree of discord and divisions of opinion on such things as the relative merits of ‘pure’ versus ‘applied’ mathematics, research versus instruction, rigorous versus heuristic arguments, theoretical versus practical work, conceptual versus computational analysis, problem-solvers versus theory-builders, anonymous versus declared refereeing, solo versus collaborative efforts, and so on. Overlaying most of these, the very essence of research and publishing raises separate sources of emotive contention, as does the virtue of writing expositively which is discussed here based partly as a result of some recent survey work by the author that also forms a starting point for the piece.
    • Simulation and experimental investigation into a photovoltaic and fuel cell hybrid integration power system for a typical small house application

      Djoudi, H; Benyahia, N; Badji, A; Bousbaine, Amar; Moualek, R; Aissou, S; Benamrouche, N; University of Tizi-Ouzou, Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria; French Naval Academy, Brest, France; Haute Alsace University, Mulhouse, France; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-08)
      The paper addresses the simulation of a novel real-time implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC) hybrid integration power system. The hybrid system has the potential of reducing the dependency on batteries, leading to reduced cost and increased life span of the whole system using the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The interface structure of the hybrid system has been explored incorporating the Maximum Power Point Technique (MPPT) for maximum power extraction. The simulation of the hybrid system including fuel cell, PhotoVoltaic panels (PVs) and battery has been carried out using SimPowerSystems. An innovative Real Time Interface (RTI) approach using the concept of the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) has been presented for a fast dynamic response of a closed loop control of the hybrid system. The corroboration of the hybrid system is validated experimentally, using a real photovoltaic panel connected to a PEM fuel cell emulator and battery. The PVs are controlled by the perturbation and observation Maximum Power point (MPP) technique and the PEM fuel cell is controlled through a boost DC-DC converter using current mode control. The whole system is implemented on the dSPACE 1103 platform for real-time interface and control strategies. The overall behavior of the hybrid system has been critically analyzed and corroboration of the simulated and experimental results have been presented.
    • A smart 3D ultrasonic actuator for unmanned vehicle guidance industrial applications

      Shafik, Mahmoud; Ashu, Mfortaw, Elvis; Nyathi, B.; University of Derby (UNSYS Digital, 2015-08-26)
      A smart piezoelectric ultrasonic actuator with multidegree of freedom for unmanned vehicle guidance industrial applications is presented in this paper. The proposed actuator is aiming to increase the visual spotlight angle of digital visual data capture transducer. Furthermore research are still undertaken to integrate the actuator with an infrared sensor, visual data capture digital transducers and obtain the trajectory of motion control algorithm. The actuator consists of three main parts, the stator, rotor and housing unit. The stator is a piezoelectric ring made from S42 piezoelectric material, bonded to three electrodes made from a material that has a close Characteristics to the S42. The rotor is a ball made from steel material. The actuator working principles is based on creating micro elliptical motions of surface points, generated by superposition of longitudinal and bending vibration modes, of oscillating structures. Transferring this motion from flexible ring transducer through the three electrodes, to the attached rotor, create 3D motions. The actuator Design, structures, working principles and finite element analysis are discussed in this paper. A prototype of the actuator was fabricated and its characteristics measured. Experimental tests showed the ability of the developed prototype to provide multidegree of freedom with typical speed of movement equal to 35 rpm, a resolution of less than 5μm and maximum load of 3.5 Newton. These characteristics illustrated the potential of the developed smart actuator, to gear the spotlight angle of digital visual data capture transducers and possible improvement that such microactuator technology could bring to the unmanned vehicle guidance and machine vision industrial applications.
    • Smart Anomaly Detection for Sensor Systems: Computational Intelligence Techniques for Sensor Networks and Applications

      Liotta, Antonio; Bosman, Hedde; Iacca, Giovanni (Springer Publishing Company, Incorporated, 2014)
    • Smart anomaly detection in sensor systems: A multi-perspective review

      Erhan, L.; Ndubuaku, M.; Di Mauro, M.; Song, W.; Chen, M.; Fortino, G.; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Liotta, A.; University of Derby; University of Salerno, Italy; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-10-15)
      Anomaly detection is concerned with identifying data patterns that deviate remarkably from the expected behavior. This is an important research problem, due to its broad set of application domains, from data analysis to e-health, cybersecurity, predictive maintenance, fault prevention, and industrial automation. Herein, we review state-of-the-art methods that may be employed to detect anomalies in the specific area of sensor systems, which poses hard challenges in terms of information fusion, data volumes, data speed, and network/energy efficiency, to mention but the most pressing ones. In this context, anomaly detection is a particularly hard problem, given the need to find computing-energy-accuracy trade-offs in a constrained environment. We taxonomize methods ranging from conventional techniques (statistical methods, time-series analysis, signal processing, etc.) to data-driven techniques (supervised learning, reinforcement learning, deep learning, etc.). We also look at the impact that different architectural environments (Cloud, Fog, Edge) can have on the sensors ecosystem. The review points to the most promising intelligent-sensing methods, and pinpoints a set of interesting open issues and challenges.
    • Smart device location services:- A reliable analytics resource?

      Self, Richard; University of Derby (2015-06-17)