• M2M-REP: Reputation system for machines in the internet of things.

      Azad, Muhammad Ajmal; Bag, Samiran; Hao, Feng; Salah, Khaled; Newcastle University; Khalifa University (2018-08-14)
      In the age of IoT (Internet of Things), Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication has gained significant popularity over the last few years. M2M communication systems may have a large number of autonomous connected devices that provide services without human involvement. Interacting with compromised, infected and malicious machines can bring damaging consequences in the form of network outage, machine failure, data integrity, and financial loss. Hence, users first need to evaluate the trustworthiness of machines prior to interacting with them. This can be realized by using a reputation system, which evaluates the trustworthiness of machines by utilizing the feedback collected from the users of the machines. The design of a reliable reputation system for the distributed M2M communication network should preserve user privacy and have low computation and communication overheads. To address these challenges, we propose an M2M-REP System (Machine to Machine REPutation), a privacy-preserving reputation system for evaluating the trustworthiness of autonomous machines in the M2M network. The system computes global reputation scores of machines while maintaining privacy of the individual participant score by using secure multi-party computation techniques. The M2M-REP system ensures correctness, security and privacy properties under the malicious adversarial model, and allows public verifiability without relying on a centralized trusted system. We implement a prototype of our system and evaluate the system performance in terms of the computation and bandwidth overhead.
    • Machine-learning-based side-channel evaluation of elliptic-curve cryptographic FPGA processor.

      Mukhtar, Naila; Mehrabi, Mohamad; Kong, Yinan; Anjum, Ashiq; University of Derby; Macquarie University (MDPI, 2018-12-25)
      Security of embedded systems is the need of the hour. A mathematically secure algorithm runs on a cryptographic chip on these systems, but secret private data can be at risk due to side-channel leakage information. This research focuses on retrieving secret-key information, by performing machine-learning-based analysis on leaked power-consumption signals, from Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of the elliptic-curve algorithm captured from a Kintex-7 FPGA chip while the elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) algorithm is running on it. This paper formalizes the methodology for preparing an input dataset for further analysis using machine-learning-based techniques to classify the secret-key bits. Research results reveal how pre-processing filters improve the classification accuracy in certain cases, and show how various signal properties can provide accurate secret classification with a smaller feature dataset. The results further show the parameter tuning and the amount of time required for building the machine-learning models
    • Man-In-The-Middle attacks in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks: Evaluating the impact of attackers’ strategies.

      Ahmad, Farhan; Adnane, Asma; Franqueira, Virginia N. L.; Kurugollu, Fatih; Liu, Lu; University of Derby; Loughborough University (MDPI, 2018-11-20)
      Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET), a vital component of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology, relies on communication between dynamically connected vehicles and static Road Side Units (RSU) to offer various applications (e.g., collision avoidance alerts, steep-curve warnings and infotainment). VANET has a massive potential to improve traffic efficiency, and road safety by exchanging critical information between nodes (vehicles and RSU), thus reducing the likelihood of traffic accidents. However, this communication between nodes is subject to a variety of attacks, such as Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attacks which represent a major risk in VANET. It happens when a malicious node intercepts or tampers with messages exchanged between legitimate nodes. In this paper, we studied the impact on network performance of different strategies which attackers can adopt to launch MITM attacks in VANET, such as fleet or random strategies. In particular, we focus on three goals of MITM attacks—message delayed, message dropped and message tampered. The simulation results indicate that these attacks have a severe influence on the legitimate nodes in VANET as the network experience high number of compromised messages, high end-to-end delays and preeminent packet losses.
    • Managing peer-to-peer networks with human tactics in social interactions

      Liu, Lu; Antonopoulos, Nikolaos; Mackin, Stephen (2007-11-14)
    • Mapping evolution of dynamic web ontologies

      Khattak, A.M.; Pervez, Z.; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Khan, A.M.; Latif, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Zayed University, United Arab Emirates; University of the West of Scotland; Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea; Innopolis University, Russia; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2015-01-03)
      Information on the web and web services that are revised by stakeholders is growing incredibly. The presentation of this information has shifted from a representational model of web information with loosely clustered terminology to semi-formal terminology and even to formal ontology. Mediation (i.e., mapping) is required for systems and services to share information. Mappings are established between ontologies in order to resolve terminological and conceptual incompatibilities. Due to new discoveries in the field of information sharing, the body of knowledge has become more structured and refined. The domain ontologies that represent bodies of knowledge need to be able to accommodate new information. This allows for the ontology to evolve from one consistent state to another. Changes in resources cause existing mappings between ontologies to be unreliable and stale. This highlights the need for mapping evolution (regeneration) as it would eliminate the discrepancies from the existing mappings. In order to re-establish the mappings between dynamic ontologies, the existing systems require a complete mapping process to be restructured, and this process is time consuming. This paper proposes a mapping reconciliation approach between the updated ontologies that has been found to take less time to process compared to the time of existing systems when only the changed resources are considered and also eliminates the staleness of the existing mappings. The proposed approach employs the change history of ontology in order to store the ontology change information, which helps to drastically reduce the reconciliation time of the mappings between dynamic ontologies. A comprehensive evaluation of the performance of the proposed system on standard data sets has been conducted. The experimental results of the proposed system in comparison with six existing mapping systems are provided in this paper using 13 different data sets, which support our claims.
    • MARINE: Man-in-the-middle attack resistant trust model IN connEcted vehicles

      Ahmad, Farhan; Kurugollu, Fatih; Adnane, Asma; Hussain, Rasheed; Hussain, Fatima; University of Derby; Loughborough university; Innopolis University, Russia; API Delivery & Operations, Royal Bank of Canada, Toronto, Canada (IEEE, 2020-01-17)
      Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET), a novel technology holds a paramount importance within the transportation domain due to its abilities to increase traffic efficiency and safety. Connected vehicles propagate sensitive information which must be shared with the neighbors in a secure environment. However, VANET may also include dishonest nodes such as Man-in-the-Middle (MiTM) attackers aiming to distribute and share malicious content with the vehicles, thus polluting the network with compromised information. In this regard, establishing trust among connected vehicles can increase security as every participating vehicle will generate and propagate authentic, accurate and trusted content within the network. In this paper, we propose a novel trust model, namely, Man-in-the-middle Attack Resistance trust model IN connEcted vehicles (MARINE), which identifies dishonest nodes performing MiTM attacks in an efficient way as well as revokes their credentials. Every node running MARINE system first establishes trust for the sender by performing multi-dimensional plausibility checks. Once the receiver verifies the trustworthiness of the sender, the received data is then evaluated both directly and indirectly. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance and accuracy of MARINE rigorously across three MiTM attacker models and the bench-marked trust model. Simulation results show that for a network containing 35% MiTM attackers, MARINE outperforms the state of the art trust model by 15%, 18%, and 17% improvements in precision, recall and F-score, respectively.
    • Matching Services with Users in Opportunistic Network Environments

      Smith, Anthony; Berry, Stuart; Hill, Richard; University of Derby (2014-07)
      Opportunistic Networks are a specific type of wireless ad hoc network where there is an absence of a continuous end-to-end path. The proliferation of mobile devices with Wi-Fi capability creates opportunities to forward packets by utilizing nodes as they present themselves. Such a dynamic networking environment enables services to be advertised by propagating from device to device, in order that all users in an area receive them. However, excessive propagation of service advertisements consumes energy from mobile devices, whilst also degrading the users' experience if they receive adverts for services that are misaligned with their personal interests. In this article we propose an architecture for a protocol and an algorithm that facilitates the matching of relevant service adverts with interested recipients in an Opportunistic Networking environment, whilst serving to minimize energy consumption.
    • Mathematical model of a constructional coanda effect nozzle.

      Trancossi, Michele; Stewart, Jill; Subhash, M; Angeli, Diego; Sheffield Hallam University (Physics Society of Iran., 2016)
      This paper analyses the ACHEON Coanda effect nozzle for aircraft propulsion, based on the dynamic equilibrium of two jet streams. The ACHEON concept, and, in particular, the HOMER nozzle, which is its main component, are presented, together with the literature milestones from which the idea originally stems. A subsystem analysis inspired by the principles of Constructal Theory is presented for the current architecture. A mathematical model of a 2D case of the system is developed, focusing on the combined effect of the mixing of the two streams and the Coanda adhesion over a convex surface. A validation of the model is also reported, based on 2D CFD analyses, under the hypothesis of incompressible flow. Results highlight that, in spite of its relative simplicity, the model produces accurate results.
    • Mathematicians can also write, right?

      Larcombe, Peter J; University of Derby (The Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA), 2019)
    • Mathematics as a mirror of painting.

      Larcombe, Peter J.; University of Derby (Institute of Mathematics and its applications, 2017-12)
    • Measurement of azimuthal correlations of D mesons with charged particles in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV and p–Pb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV

      Barnby, Lee; Evans, David; Graham, Katie; Jones, Peter; Jusko, Anton; Lietava, Roman; Krivda, Marian; Alexandre, Didier; Villalobos, Orlando; Zardoshti, Nima; et al. (2017-04-17)
    • Measurement of charged jet production cross sections and nuclear modification in p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV

      Alexandre, Didier; Barnby, Lee; Bhasin, Anju; Bombara, Marek; Evans, David; Hanratty, Luke; Jones, Peter; Jusko, Anton; Krivda, Marian; Lee, Graham; et al. (2015-10-07)
    • Measurement of D-meson production versus multiplicity in p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV

      ALICE Collaboration; Barnby, Lee; University of Birmingham (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016-08-11)
      The measurement of prompt D-meson production as a function of multiplicity in p-Pb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC is reported. D0, D+ and D*+ mesons are reconstructed via their hadronic decay channels in the centre-of-mass rapidity range −0.96 < ycms< 0.04 and transverse momentum interval 1
    • Measurement of dijet kT in p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV

      Alexandre, Didier; Barnby, Lee; Bhasin, Anju; Bombara, Marek; Evans, David; Hanratty, Luke; Jones, Peter; Jusko, Anton; Krivda, Marian; Lee, Graham; et al. (2015-06-30)
    • Measurement of Ds+ production and nuclear modification factor in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV

      Alexandre, Didier; Barnby, Lee; Evans, David; Graham, Katie; Jones, Peter; Jusko, Anton; Krivda, Marian; Lee, Graham; Lietava, Roman; Zardoshti, Nima; et al. (2016-03-14)
    • Measurement of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays in p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV

      Alexandre, Didier; Barnby, Lee; Bhasin, Anju; Bombara, Marek; Evans, David; Graham, Katie; Jones, Peter; Jusko, Anton; Krivda, Marian; Lee, Graham; et al. (2016-03-10)
    • Measurement of jet suppression in central Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV

      Alexandre, Didier; Barnby, Lee; Bhasin, Anju; Bombara, Marek; Evans, David; Graham, Katie; Jones, Peter; Jusko, Anton; Krivda, Marian; Lee, Graham; et al. (2015-06-30)
    • Measurement of transverse energy at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV

      ALICE Collaboration; Barnby, Lee; European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN); University of Birmingham (American Physical Society, 2016-09-15)
      We report the transverse energy (ET) measured with ALICE at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV as a function of centrality. The transverse energy was measured using identified single-particle tracks. The measurement was cross checked using the electromagnetic calorimeters and the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles previously reported by ALICE. The results are compared to theoretical models as well as to results from other experiments. The mean ET per unit pseudorapidity (η), 〈dET/dη〉, in 0%–5% central collisions is 1737±6(stat.)±97(sys.) GeV. We find a similar centrality dependence of the shape of 〈dET/dη〉 as a function of the number of participating nucleons to that seen at lower energies. The growth in 〈dET/dη〉 at the LHC energies exceeds extrapolations of low-energy data. We observe a nearly linear scaling of 〈dET/dη〉 with the number of quark participants. With the canonical assumption of a 1 fm/c formation time, we estimate that the energy density in 0%–5% central Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV is 12.3±1.0 GeV/fm3 and that the energy density at the most central 80fm2 of the collision is at least 21.5±1.7 GeV/fm3. This is roughly 2.3 times that observed in 0%–5% central Au-Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV.
    • Measurement of Z0-boson production at large rapidities in Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV.

      ALICE Collaboration; Barnby, Lee; STFC Daresbury Laboratory (Elsevier, 2018-03-06)
      The production of Z0 bosons at large rapidities in Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV is reported. Z0 candidates are reconstructed in the dimuon decay channel (Z0 → μ+ μ−), based on muons selected with pseudo-rapidity −4.0 < η < −2.5 and pT > 20 GeV/c. The invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor, RAA, are presented as a function of rapidity and collision centrality. The value of RAA for the 0–20% central Pb–Pb collisions is 0.67 ± 0.11 (stat.) ± 0.03 (syst.) ± 0.06 (corr. syst.), exhibiting a deviation of 2.6σ from unity. The results are well-described by calculations that include nuclear modifications of the parton distribution functions, while the predictions using vacuum PDFs deviate from data by 2.3σ in the 0–90% centrality class and by 3σ in the 0–20% central collisions.
    • Measuring efficiency in opportunistic ad hoc networks

      Smith, Anthony; Hill, Richard; University of Derby; University of Derby, Distributed and Intelligent Systems Research Group (2011-11-30)
      Opportunistic Networks are examples of wireless, ad hoc networks where there is an absence of a continuous end-to-end path. The proliferation of mobile device usage creates opportunities for nodes to forward packets in a dynamic way, utilizing nodes as they present themselves. In more conventional, static network infrastructures, it is typical to measure efficiency of message passing between nodes. We review approaches to the measurement of efficiency in networks, and propose a qualitative and quantitative metrics framework and simulation model that would be suitable for the evaluation of performance in opportunistic networks.