• Botnet detection used fast-flux technique, based on adaptive dynamic evolving spiking neural network algorithm

      Almomani, Ammar; Nawasrah, Ahmad Al; Alauthman, Mohammad; Betar, Mohammed Azmi Al; Meziane, Farid; Al-Balqa Applied University, Irbid, Jordan; Taibah University, Median, Saudia Arabia; Zarqa University, Jordan; University of Derby (Inderscience, 2021-01-28)
      A botnet refers to a group of machines. These machines are controlled distantly by a specific attacker. It represents a threat facing the web and data security. Fast-flux service network (FFSN) has been engaged by bot herders for cover malicious botnet activities. It has been engaged by bot herders for increasing the lifetime of malicious servers through changing the IP addresses of the domain name quickly. In the present research, we aimed to propose a new system. This system is named fast flux botnet catcher system (FFBCS). This system can detect FF-domains in an online mode using an adaptive dynamic evolving spiking neural network algorithm. Comparing with two other related approaches the proposed system shows a high level of detection accuracy, low false positive and negative rates, respectively. It shows a high performance. The algorithm's proposed adaptation increased the accuracy of the detection. For instance, this accuracy reached (98.76%) approximately.
    • Fog computing-based approximate spatial keyword queries with numeric attributes in IoV

      Li, Yanhong; Zhu, Rongbo; Mao, Shiwen; Anjum, Ashiq; South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China; Auburn University, USA; University of Derby (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020-01-10)
      Due to the popularity of on-board geographic devices, a large number of spatial-textual objects are generated in Internet of Vehicles (IoV). This development calls for Approximate Spatial Keyword Queries with numeric Attributes in IoV (ASKIV), which takes into account the locations, textual descriptions, and numeric attributes of spatial-textual objects. Considering huge amounts of objects involved in the query processing, this paper comes up with the ideal of utilizing vehicles as fog-computing resource, and proposes the network structure called FCV, and based on which the fog-based Top-k ASKIV query is explored and formulated. In order to effectively support network distance pruning, textual semantic pruning, and numerical attribute pruning simultaneously, a two-level spatial-textual hybrid index STAG-tree is designed. Based on STAG-tree, an efficient Top-k ASKIV query processing algorithm is presented. Simulation results show that, our STAG-based approach is about 1.87x (17.1x, resp.) faster in search time than the compared ILM (DBM, resp.) method, and our approach is scalable.
    • Fuzzy logic with expert judgment to implement an adaptive risk-based access control model for IoT

      Atlam, Hany F.; Walters, Robert J.; Wills, Gary B.; Daniel, Joshua; University of Southampton; Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt; Security Futures Practice, BT Research & Innovation, Ipswich, UK (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-01-28)
      The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming the future of the Internet with a large number of connected devices that are predicted to reach about 50 billion by 2020. With proliferation of IoT devices and need to increase information sharing in IoT applications, risk-based access control model has become the best candidate for both academic and commercial organizations to address access control issues. This model carries out a security risk analysis on the access request by using IoT contextual information to provide access decisions dynamically. This model solves challenges related to flexibility and scalability of the IoT system. Therefore, we propose an adaptive risk-based access control model for the IoT. This model uses real-time contextual information associated with the requesting user to calculate the security risk regarding each access request. It uses user attributes while making the access request, action severity, resource sensitivity and user risk history as inputs to analyze and calculate the risk value to determine the access decision. To detect abnormal and malicious actions, smart contracts are used to track and monitor user activities during the access session to detect and prevent potential security violations. In addition, as the risk estimation process is the essential stage to build a risk-based model, this paper provides a discussion of common risk estimation methods and then proposes the fuzzy inference system with expert judgment as to be the optimal approach to handle risk estimation process of the proposed risk-based model in the IoT system.
    • A GRU-based prediction framework for intelligent resource management at cloud data centres in the age of 5G

      Lu, Yao; Liu, Lu; Panneerselvam, John; Yuan, Bo; Gu, Jiayan; Antonopoulos, Nick; University of Leicester; University of Derby; Edinburgh Napier University (IEEE, 2019-11-19)
      The increasing deployments of 5G mobile communication system is expected to bring more processing power and storage supplements to Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile devices. It is foreseeable the billions of devices will be connected and it is extremely likely that these devices receive compute supplements from Clouds and upload data to the back-end datacentres for execution. Increasing number of workloads at the Cloud datacentres demand better and efficient strategies of resource management in such a way to boost the socio-economic benefits of the service providers. To this end, this paper proposes an intelligent prediction framework named IGRU-SD (Improved Gated Recurrent Unit with Stragglers Detection) based on state-of-art data analytics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, aimed at predicting the anticipated level of resource requests over a period of time into the future. Our proposed prediction framework exploits an improved GRU neural network integrated with a resource straggler detection module to classify tasks based on their resource intensity, and further predicts the expected level of resource requests. Performance evaluations conducted on real-world Cloud trace logs demonstrate that the proposed IGRU-SD prediction framework outperforms the existing predicting models based on ARIMA, RNN and LSTM in terms of the achieved prediction accuracy.
    • Intelligent data fusion algorithm based on hybrid delay-aware adaptive clustering in wireless sensor networks

      Liu, Xiaozhu; Zhu, Rongbo; Anjum, Ashiq; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Hao; Ma, Maode; Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China; South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China; University of Derby; Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Elsevier, 2019-10-04)
      Data fusion can effectively reduce the amount of data transmission and network energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However the existing data fusion schemes lead to additional delay overhead and power consumptions. In order to improve the performance of WSNs, an intelligent data fusion algorithm based on hybrid delay-aware clustering (HDC) in WSNs is proposed, which combines the advantages of single-layer cluster structure and multi-layer cluster structure, and adaptive selects the clustering patterns of the cluster by the decision function to achieve the tradeoff between network delay and energy consumption. The network model of HDC is presented, and theoretical analysis of the delay and energy consumption of single-layer cluster and multi-layer cluster are provided. And the energy efficient clustering algorithm and the dynamic cluster head re-selection algorithm are proposed to optimize network energy consumption and load balancing of the network. Simulation results show that, compared with the existing delay-aware models, the proposed scheme can effectively reduce the network delay, network energy consumption, and extend the network lifetime simultaneously.