• Dust aerosol optical depth retrieval and dust storm detection for Xinjiang Region using Indian National Satellite Observations

      Di, Aojie; Xue, Yong; Yang, Xihua; Leys, John; Guang, Jie; Mei, Linlu; Wang, Jingli; She, Lu; Hu, Yincui; He, Xingwei; et al. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2016-08-26)
      The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) is located near the western border of China. Xinjiang has a high frequency of dust storms, especially in late winter and early spring. Geostationary satellite remote sensing offers an ideal way to monitor the regional distribution and intensity of dust storms, which can impact the regional climate. In this study observations from the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) 3D are used for dust storm detection in Xinjiang because of the frequent 30-min observations with six bands. An analysis of the optical properties of dust and its quantitative relationship with dust storms in Xinjiang is presented for dust events in April 2014. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived using six predefined aerosol types shows great potential to identify dust events. Cross validation between INSAT-3D retrieved AOD and MODIS AOD shows a high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.92). Ground validation using AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) AOD also shows a good correlation with R2 of 0.77. We combined the apparent reflectance (top-of-atmospheric reflectance) of visible and shortwave infrared bands, brightness temperature of infrared bands and retrieved AOD into a new Enhanced Dust Index (EDI). EDI reveals not only dust extent but also the intensity. EDI performed very well in measuring the intensity of dust storms between 22 and 24 April 2014. A visual comparison between EDI and Feng Yun-2E (FY-2E) Infrared Difference Dust Index (IDDI) also shows a high level of similarity. A good linear correlation (R2 of 0.78) between EDI and visibility on the ground demonstrates good performance of EDI in estimating dust intensity. A simple threshold method was found to have a good performance in delineating the extent of the dust plumes but inadequate for providing information on dust plume intensity.
    • Dust detection and intensity estimation using Himawari-8/AHI observation.

      She, Lu; Xue, Yong; Yang, Xihua; Guang, Jie; Li, Ying; Che, Yahui; Fan, Cheng; Xie, Yanqing; University of Derby; Chinese Academy of Sciences; et al. (2018-03-21)
      In this study, simple dust detection and intensity estimation methods using Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) data are developed. Based on the differences of thermal radiation characteristics between dust and other typical objects, brightness temperature difference (BTD) among four channels (BT11–BT12, BT8–BT11, and BT3–BT11) are used together for dust detection. When considering the thermal radiation variation of dust particles over different land cover types, a dynamic threshold scheme for dust detection is adopted. An enhanced dust intensity index (EDII) is developed based on the reflectance of visible/near-infrared bands, BT of thermal-infrared bands, and aerosol optical depth (AOD), and is applied to the detected dust area. The AOD is retrieved using multiple temporal AHI observations by assuming little surface change in a short time period (i.e., 1–2 days) and proved with high accuracy using the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and cross-compared with MODIS AOD products. The dust detection results agree qualitatively with the dust locations that were revealed by AHI true color images. The results were also compared quantitatively with dust identification results from the AERONET AOD and Ångström exponent, achieving a total dust detection accuracy of 84%. A good agreement is obtained between EDII and the visibility data from National Climatic Data Center ground measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81, indicating the effectiveness of EDII in dust monitoring.
    • Joint retrieval of aerosol optical depth and surface reflectance over land using geostationary satellite data.

      She, Lu; Xue, Yong; Yang, Xihua; Leys, John; Guang, Jie; Che, Yahui; Fan, Cheng; Xie, Yanqing; Li, Ying; University of Derby; et al. (IEEE, 2018-09-26)
      The advanced Himawari imager (AHI) aboard the Himawari-8 geostationary satellite provides high-frequency observations with broad coverage, multiple spectral channels, and high spatial resolution. In this paper, AHI data were used to develop an algorithm for joint retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over land and land surface bidirectional reflectance. Instead of performing surface reflectance estimation before calculating AOD, the AOD and surface bidirectional reflectance were retrieved simultaneously using an optimal estimation method. The algorithm uses an atmospheric radiative transfer model coupled with a surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) model. Based on the assumption that the surface bidirectional reflective properties are invariant during a short time period (i.e., a day), multiple temporal AHI observations were combined to calculate the AOD and surface BRF. The algorithm was tested over East Asia for year 2016, and the AOD retrieval results were validated against the aerosol robotic network (AERONET) sites observation and compared with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Collection 6.0 AOD product. The validation of the retrieved AOD with AERONET measurements using 14 713 colocation points in 2016 over East Asia shows a high correlation coefficient: R = 0.88, root-mean-square error = 0.17, and approximately 69.9% AOD retrieval results within the expected error of ± 0.2· AODAERONET± 0.05. A brief comparison between our retrieval and AOD product provided by Japan Meteorological Agency is also presented. The comparison and validation demonstrates that the algorithm has the ability to estimate AOD with considerable accuracy over land.