• Combined degrees & employability: a comparative analysis of single and joint honours graduates of UK universities.

      Pigden, Louise; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (West East Institute, 2016-08)
      Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the popularity and number of combined or joint degrees in English and Welsh Universities. Combined or joint honours represent 10% of all undergraduates. 50,000 out of 500,000 currently enrolled on all honours degrees. This significant and special way of learning therefore warrants scrutiny. Combined degrees enable students to enroll on two or more subjects, with varying levels of integration of the courses, which leads to either a BA or BSc honours joint award. The growing number of students on such degrees across universities in England and Wales has led to a debate as to the intrinsic value of such degrees especially in relation to graduate employability and career opportunities. This paper examines the nature and relative attractiveness of combined degrees and explores the employability of combined honours degree graduates in comparison with single honours degree graduates.
    • Commercial awareness in real estate courses

      Poon, Joanna; University of Salford (Chartered Institute of Taxation Ghana, 2014-08-20)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how and to what extent commercial awareness is embedded within the curriculum of the UK Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS)-accredited real estate courses. It also discusses the development of commercial awareness taxonomy. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the research findings of questionnaire survey and interviews with RICS-accredited real estate course providers in the UK. The questionnaire aimed to gather course directors’ views on the definitions and components of commercial awareness and identify what skills and attributes are required for its development. It also evaluated how commercial awareness has been embedded in the real estate courses. The aim of the interview was to gain deeper insight on how components of commercial awareness are embedded in real estate courses and nine interviews were conducted. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded to identify similar themes. The frequency of the answer in the questionnaire and comments from interviewees is presented. Findings: The UK real estate academics agreed the most important definition of commercial awareness as that of a “person's ability on understanding of the economics of business”. They agreed that “strategic” is the most important component for commercial awareness, followed with “financial” and “process”. However, the “financial” component is embedded the most in the curriculum. The most important skill and attribute for commercial awareness development are “ability to define and solve problems” and “ability and willingness to update professional knowledge”, respectively. Commercial awareness was embedded in the overall curriculum and the key element for developing it is through having “practical experience”. Originality/value: This project is the first to conduct an in-depth analysis of commercial awareness in real estate education. It also develops the pioneer commercial awareness taxonomy.
    • A comparative study of separated boundary layer transition on a flat plate with a blunt/semi-circular leading edge

      Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS), 2011-07)
      Boundary layer may separate due to an adverse pressure gradient or due to flow geometry and when a laminar boundary layer separates the free shear layer formed is very unstable even at low Reynolds number, undergoing a transition process to turbulence. This paper presents a comparative numerical study of the transition process in a separated boundary layer induced by changes of curvature of the surface. The geometry is a flat plate with two different leading edges: a blunt and a semi-circular. One of the main purpose of the study is to identify how similar or how different the transition process is with two different leading edges. It is evident that for both cases (blunt and semi-circular leading edges) the primary two-dimensional instability originates from the free shear layer of the separation bubble via the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism. Three-dimensional motions develop under any small spanwise disturbances and similar coherent structures have been observed in both cases, strongly indicating that the whole transition process is very similar.
    • Competency expectations for property professionals in Australia

      Poon, Joanna; Brownlow, Michael; University of Salford (Emerald Group Publishing, 2014)
      Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the competency expectations for property professionals in Australia. It further discusses differences in competency expectations between property professionals who have different professional backgrounds, such as valuers or non-valuers, and property professionals who work in different sectors or different-sized companies and who have differing amounts of experience. The competencies identified in this paper include knowledge areas, skills and attributes. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the research findings of a questionnaire survey sent to Australian Property Institute members, which aimed to gather Australian property professionals' views on the knowledge, skills and attributes required to perform their roles effectively. The percentage of the respondents who provided different choices of given answers for each of the 31 knowledge areas, 20 skills and 21 attributes was identified and discussed. The professional backgrounds of the respondents were also identified to see whether these impact on competency expectations for property professionals. Content analysis was used to analyse written comments collected in the questionnaire. Findings: The most important categories of knowledge, skill and attribute for Australian property professionals are valuation, effective written communication and practical experience, respectively. The least important are international real estate, second language and creativity. Knowledge of rural valuation is very important in Australia, although this has not been mentioned in previous studies. Professional backgrounds have a large influence on Australian property professionals' views on knowledge requirements, but less so on skills and attributes. Practical implications: The findings of this paper can be used as guidance for property professionals in their professional development plan. In addition, property course providers can use the research findings of this paper to inform their curriculum development and redesign. Originality/value: This project is the first to identify the comprehensive competency expectations of property professionals as a whole in Australia. At the same time, it identifies differences in the competency expectations of property professionals who have different professional backgrounds. Similar types of study have been conducted in the UK, the USA, Hong Kong and New Zealand but not yet in Australia. An understanding of the knowledge, skills and attributes required for property professionals is important for continuing professional development, curriculum development and the redesign of relevant property courses in order to maintain performance and competitiveness in the property sector.
    • Competitive product pricing extended producer responsibility and the circular economy.

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (Institute of Research, Learning and Development, 2018-01-23)
      In an increasingly competitive marketplace selling products at the most competitive price is the norm, however emerging trends towards extended producer responsibility (EPR), sustainability and the circular economy have augmented the traditional pricing model. This paper contributes to literature by identifying a research gap relating to product pricing models, EPR and the needs of sustainability and the circular economy. The research reported was designed to address how theoretical and real-world models could potentially work to address the research gap.
    • Computational and field test analysis of thermal comfort performance of user-controlled thermal chair in an open plan office

      Shahzad, Sally; Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben; Nasir, Diana S. N. M.; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Applied Energy, 2016)
      In this study, a thermal chair prototype was developed that allowed individual control over the temperature settings of the backrest and the seat. Limited research is focused on different methods to provide individual user control over the thermal environment. This is particularly difficult to achieve in an open plan office setting, where changing the temperature in one area directly influences the comfort and satisfaction of other occupants seated nearby. In this study, the application of the thermal chair was analysed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and field-test analysis in an open plan office in Leeds, UK during winter. The results of the CFD model indicated an improvement in local thermal comfort of the user,. The CFD analysis provided detailed analysis of the thermal distribution around a siting manikin and was used to design and construct the thermal chair. the results of the field data survey indicated a great improvement in users’ comfort (19%) and satisfaction (35%). This study concludes that local thermal control of the occupant improves their overall thermal comfort. It recommends further work to optimise the design of the thermal chair and also to improve the modelling for better predictions.
    • Computational and Wind Tunnel Study of the Performance of a Multi-Directional Wind Tower with Heat Transfer Devices. International Conference on Applied Energy

      Calautit, John Kaiser; O'Connor, Dominic; Hughes, Ben; Shahzad, Sally; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (2015)
      The aim of this work was to investigate the performance of a multi-directional wind tower integrated with heat transfer devices (HTD) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel analysis. An experimental scale model was created using 3D printing. The scale model was tested in a closed-loop wind tunnel to validate the CFD data. Numerical results of the supply airflow were compared with experimental data. Good agreement was observed between both methods of analysis. Smoke visualisation test was conducted to analyse the air flow pattern in the test room attached underneath it. Results have indicated that the achieved indoor air speed was reduced by up to 17% following the integration of the cylindrical HTD. The effect of varying the number of HTD on the system's thermal performance were investigated. The work highlighted the potential of integrating HTD into wind towers in reducing the air temperature. The technology presented here is subject to a UK patent application (PCT/GB2014/052263).
    • A conceptual framework for combining artificial neural networks with computational aeroacoustics for design development.

      McKee, Claire; Harmanto, Dani; Whitbrook, Amanda; University of Derby (Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Society (IEOM), 2018-03)
      This paper presents a preliminary method for improving the design and development process in a way that combines engineering design approaches based on learning algorithms and computational aeroacoustics. It is proposed that machine learning can effectively predict the noise generated by a coaxial jet exhaust by utilizing a database of computational experiments that cover a variety of flow and geometric configurations. A conceptual framework has been outlined for the development of a practical design tool to predict the changes in jet acoustics imparted by varying the fan nozzle geometry and engine cycle of a coaxial jet. It is proposed that computational aeroacoustic analysis is used to generate a training and validation database for an artificial neural network. The trained network can then predict noise data for any operational configuration. This method allows for the exploration of noise emissions from a variety of fan nozzle areas, engine cycles and flight conditions. It is intended that this be used as a design tool in order to reduce the design cycle time of new engine configurations and provide engineers with insight into the relationship between jet noise and the input variables.
    • Conjugate heat transfer predictions for subcooled boiling flow in a horizontal channel using a volume-of-fluid framework.

      Langari, Mostafa; Yang, Zhiyin; Dunne, Julian F.; Jafari, Soheil; Pirault, Jean-Pierre; Long, Chris A.; Thalackottore Jose, Jisjoe; University of Derby; University of Sussex (ASME Journals, 2018-06-07)
      The accuracy of CFD-based heat transfer predictions have been examined of relevance to liquid cooling of IC engines at high engine loads where some nucleate boiling occurs. Predictions based on: i) the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution, and ii) Large Eddy Simulation (LES), have been generated. The purpose of these simulations is to establish the role of turbulence modelling on the accuracy and efficiency of heat transfer predictions for engine-like thermal conditions where published experimental data is available. A multi-phase mixture modelling approach, with a Volume-of-Fluid interface-capturing method, has been employed. To predict heat transfer in the boiling regime, the empirical boiling correlation of Rohsenow is used for both RANS and LES. The rate of vapour-mass generation at the wall surface is determined from the heat flux associated with the evaporation phase change. Predictions via CFD are compared with published experimental data showing that LES gives only slightly more accurate temperature predictions compared to RANS but at substantially higher computational cost.
    • Control of spray evaporative cooling in automotive IC engines.

      Jafari, Soheil; Dunne, Julian F.; Langari, Mostafa; Yang, Zhiyin; Pirault, Jean-Pierre; Long, Chris A.; Thalackottore Jose, Jisjoe; University of Sussex; University of Derby (ASME Journals, 2018-05-07)
      A novel approach is proposed for precise control of two-phase spray evaporative cooling for thermal management of road vehicle internal combustion engines. A reduced-order plant model is first constructed by combining published spray evaporative cooling correlations with approximate governing heat transfer equations appropriate for IC engine thermal management. Control requirements are specified to allow several objectives to be met simultaneously under different load conditions. A control system is proposed and modelled in abstract form to achieve spray evaporative cooling of a gasoline engine, with simplifying assumptions made about the characteristics of the coolant pump, spray nozzle, and condenser. The system effectiveness is tested by simulation to establish its ability to meet key requirements, particularly concerned with precision control during transients resulting from rapid engine load variation. The results confirm the robustness of the proposed control strategy in accurately tracking a specified temperature profile at various constant load conditions, and also in the presence of realistic transient load variation.
    • Cost-effective manufacturing process for the development of automotive from energy efficient composite materials and sandwich structures

      Khan, Laraib Alam; Mahmood, Ali Hasan; Hassan, Bilal; Sharif, Tahir; Khushnod, Shahaab; Khan, Zaffar; NED University of Engineering and Technology; Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering and Technology (CESET); GIK Institute for Science and Technology; Glyndwr University; University of Engineering and Technology; Department of Physics; Centre for Emerging Sciences; Engineering and Technology (CESET); Islamabad Pakistan; Department of Textile Engineering; NED University of Engineering & Technology; Karachi Pakistan; Department of Mechanical Engineering; GIK Institute for Science and Technology; Toppi Pakistan; Advanced Composite Training and Development Centre; Glyndwr University; Unit 5, Hawarden Industrial Park Deeside Flintshire; Department of Mechanical Engineering; Faculty of Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering; Advanced Materials and Smart Structures Laboratory; University of Engineering and Technology; Taxila Pakistan; Department of Physics; Centre for Emerging Sciences; Engineering and Technology (CESET); Islamabad Pakistan (Wiley, 2014-01)
      The advanced composite materials are increasingly being used in the automotives for their ultralight physical properties and super strong mechanical properties. This research examines the cost-effective single-step liquid resin infusion manufacturing process for developing all composite car body as the generally used sheet molding compound manufacturing process is highly capital intensive. Three different scaled down models of the Eco car were developed focusing on minimal weight and air drag coupled with aesthetics. Structural design and analysis was carried out using the Pro/E and Ansys tools. The Pro-E model was scaled up to generate computer-aided drafting drawings for tool development. Different stations were marked on the model and sliced virtually for development of pattern. Moreover, the mold was manufactured from carbon and glass/polyester composites for prototype manufacturing of the car body. This involved manual placement of desired number of carbon layers as preform on female side of the mold. The vacuum sucked the resin through a number of carefully selected entry ports which ensured effective resin distribution and impregnation. Polycarbonate wind shield was thermoformed in the convection oven according to streamlined geometry of car body and hinged. The car body was integrated with the compatible floor panels and accessories. The crumble zone shock absorber in the bumper was manufactured using successive layers of nomax honeycomb and polyvinyl chloride rigid foam to dampen the accidental shock. The car performed remarkably well in the Eco marathon race held at Malaysia, 35:97–104, 2014. POLYM. COMPOS., 2013. © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers
    • Creep properties of intact and fractured muddy siltstone.

      Hamza, Omar; Stace, Rod; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Elsevier, 2018-04-17)
      Time-dependent characterisation of rocks for the entire strain range (i.e. up to and beyond the yield point, where rocks are expected to be fractured) have received considerable attention for improving the long-term stability of deep underground openings. Although extensive experimental studies have been carried out on creep of different types of rocks, very limited studies exist which investigate intact as well as fractured rock samples taken from the same type of rock. In this paper, the time-dependent behaviour of muddy siltstone was investigated to determine and compare creep properties of intact and fractured rock samples. A series of multistage uniaxial and triaxial creep tests were conducted on the rock samples at room temperature. In addition, multistage triaxial testing was conducted on the rock (intact and fractured) to determine the instantaneous (short-term) stiffness and explore its correlation with creep properties. All stain curves showed an initial instantaneous strain followed by two phases of time-dependent strain including transient creep phase (particularly for the first loading stage) and a steady state creep phase. The results indicate that both the instantaneous and creep strain are proportional to the deviatoric stress and confining pressure. This is clearly evident in the fractured rock samples, where larger deviatoric stress resulted in an increased creep strain and strain rate. The relationship between axial strain and time was successfully fitted to Burgers creep model. In comparison with the intact rock, creep parameters (of the Burgers model) for the fractured rock were found to be significantly smaller, corresponding to the larger creep deformation and steady state creep rate experienced by the fractured rock samples. Despite this difference between the intact and fractured rock samples, the study showed a considerable correlation between the creep parameters of both types of rock samples and their instantaneous elastic modulus (obtained at typical confining pressures). Regression analysis revealed that creep parameters could be reasonably estimated from instantaneous elastic modulus using an exponential function. Furthermore, based on the experimental findings, an improved characterisation of time-dependent properties was proposed. We believe this approach provides a good basis for future research to enhance geotechnical modelling of long-term stability of abandoned mines as well as for the application of underground disposal of radioactive waste and oil and gas storage.
    • A critical comparison on biocompatibility of different phases of sol–gel derived calcium phosphates as bone graft materials

      Natesan, Kiruthika; Shah, W.; Le, Huirong; Tredwin, Christopher; University of Plymouth (2015-08-01)
    • A critical review of the impact of global warming on overheating in buildings.

      Adlington Martin; Ceranic, Boris; University of Derby (2018-06)
      Over the last century global average temperatures have increased up to 1°F. Indeed, since records of comprehensive global temperatures were available as early as 1880, the evidence suggests that 2001-2010 decade has been shown to be the warmest. This change is having a direct impact in terms of an increase in extremely hot days and warm nights and a decrease in cold days. Evidence suggests that different parts of the world are warming at a faster rate than others. However, research predicts that the long-term impact of global warming is only set to increase. One of the major contributors of global warming is the impact of carbon emissions and in an effort to reduce these emissions the UK Government implemented changes to UK regulations, such as Part L conservation of heat and power that dictates improved thermal insulation and enhanced air tightness. The UK is fully committed to achieving its carbon targets under the climate Change Act 2008. However, there is a caveat that comes with these changes, as coupled with climate change they are likely to exacerbate the problem of overheating in buildings. And because of this growing problem the health effects on occupants of these buildings may well be an issue. Increases in temperature can perhaps have a direct impact on the human body’s ability to retain thermoregulation and therefore the effects of heat related illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat syncope and even death can be imminent. This review paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of current literature on the impact of global warming/climate change on overheating in buildings. Firstly, an overview of the topic will be presented followed by an examination of global warming/overheating research work from the last decade. These papers will form the body of the article and will be grouped into a framework matrix summarising the source material identifying the differing methods of analysis of the impact of global warming on overheating. Cross case evaluation will identify systematic relationships between different variables within the matrix.
    • A cross-country comparison on the use of blended learning in property education

      Poon, Joanna; University of Salford (Emerald Group Publishing, 2014)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the use of blended learning in property education courses in different countries. The rationale for this study is to fill the research gap in this area. The focus of previous research on blended learning has been on individual countries only, and there is yet to appear any research on a cross-country comparison. The purpose of this study is to identity the differences as well as the good practices using blended learning as a delivery approach in different countries As a result, individual countries can learn experience from another country. It is expected academics interested in using blended learning as a delivery approach will benefit from the research findings of this paper, through gaining an understanding of the advantages and challenges of using blended learning in different countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the research findings of questionnaire surveys and interviews with academics teaching property courses in Australia and the UK. The questionnaire aimed to gather academics’ views on blended learning, their reasons for using blended learning as a teaching method, their design of blended learning courses and the support they provide to students on dealing with web technology. The aim of the interviews was to gain deeper insight into the successful factors and challenges in the use of blended learning. In total, 16 interviews were conducted. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded to identify similar themes. Content analysis was used as a method to analyse the interview data. The frequency of the answer in the questionnaire and comments from interviewees is presented. Findings: The Australian and UK property academics have similar views on many aspects of blended learning. Their definitions of blended learning are similar as their reasons to use it as a teaching method. The commonly used teaching and learning activities in their blended learning courses in both countries are, again, similar, such as the use of lectures, case studies and guest lecturers. On the other hand, the academics in the two countries face different challenges. A challenge faced by the Australian property academics is to deliver online courses to students who have limited internet downloading capacity and broadband width. Australia is a very large country and has more regional and remote areas. Another challenge faced by the Australian academics is keeping up with the constant introduction of new teaching and learning technology by their universities. On the other hand, the UK academics faced a different challenge, which was to sufficiently engage and encourage students to contribute in online Discussion Boards. The finding is possibly because the UK study was conducted two years prior to the Australian study and the idea of online discussions was relatively new to students at the time. The conclusion drawn from this research is that “time” and the size of the country influence the use of blended learning. Originality/value: This project is the first to conduct a cross-country comparison on the use of blended learning in professionally accredited property courses.
    • Culture in sustainable infrastructure

      Omoregie, Alohan; Ehiorobo, Jacob O.; University of Bolton; University of Benin (Institution of Civil Engineers, 2011-06)
      The high failure rate of infrastructures around the world is alarming, most especially when such failures constrain economic growth and development. In most cases, existing institutions or strategies designed to maintain and reproduce effective infrastructures in areas that lack them have been mostly unsuccessful, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. A carefully conducted survey covering the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria confirms the low-level stability, supply, quality and maintenance of infrastructure and its services. Using the severity index in matrix order model developed in this study, major factors responsible for unsustainable infrastructure delivery and failures are identified. The paper further argues that these major factors are interrelated rather than being peculiar to Nigeria or sub-Saharan Africa. Suffice it to say that the effects of these problems are widespread and of global impact. However, what cuts across all the major factors responsible for unsustainable infrastructure delivery and high failure rates are gross institutional lapses. In view of the fact that sustainable infrastructure is essential for sustainable development, this paper emphasises the uniqueness of the recipients’ cultures and values alongside the integration of indigenous communities and infrastructure users: from conceptualisation to delivery within the framework for institutional building and sustainable infrastructure provision.
    • Culture in sustainable infrastructure: the polycentric cultural framework model

      Omoregie, Alohan; University of Bolton (Institution of Civil Engineers, 2012-03)
      The state of infrastructure and services is widely perceived as a measure of development and a major catalyst for growth in both developed and developing economies. However, financing, maintaining and replicating existing infrastructures in areas of need have been mostly ineffective. In view of the widespread failures and poor state of infrastructure and services, there is a need to review current delivery and procurement frameworks. Given that sustainable infrastructure is also an essential prerequisite for sustainable development, this paper presents a polycentric cultural framework for infrastructure and service delivery; a framework which emphasises the integration of infrastructure users, communities, public and private sectors throughout the process of conceptualisation to actual delivery of infrastructure, by taking the recipients’ culture, beliefs and values into account. The framework also emphasises the use of systemic referendum among stakeholders by way of the traditional consultative processes and the collaborative consensus paradigm to achieve an effective and sustainable delivery of infrastructure and services.
    • Damage in single lap joints of woven fabric reinforced polymeric composites subjected to transverse impact loading

      Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Hassan, Syed F.; Li, Shuguang; Day, Richard; National University of Sciences and Technology; University of Manchester; University of Nottingham; Glyndŵr University (Elsevier, 2015-02-16)
      Single lap joints of woven glass fabric reinforced phenolic composites, having four different overlap widths, were impacted transversely using a hemispherical impactor with different velocities in the low velocity impact range. The resulting damage was observed at various length scales (from micro to macro) using transmission photography, ultrasonic c-scan and x-ray micro tomography (XMT), in support of each other. These experimental observations were used for classification of damage in terms of damage scale, location (i.e. ply, interfaces between plies or bond failure between the two adherends) and mechanisms, with changing overlap width and impact velocity. In addition, finite element analysis was used to simulate delamination and disbond failure. These simulations were used to further explain the observed dependence of damage on overlap width and impact velocity. The results from these experiments and simulations lead to the proposal of a concept of lower and upper characteristic overlap width. These bounds relate the dominant damage pattern (i.e. scale, location and mechanism) with overlap width of the joint for a given impact velocity range.
    • Damped forced vibration analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes resting on viscoelastic foundation in thermal environment using nonlocal strain gradient theory

      Malikan, Mohammad; Nguyen, Van Bac; Tornabene, Francesco; Islamic Azad University; University of Derby; University of Bologna (Elsevier, 2018-08-01)
      In this paper, the damped forced vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is analyzed using a new shear deformation beam theory. The SWCNTs are modeled as a flexible beam on the viscoelastic foundation embedded in the thermal environment and subjected to a transverse dynamic load. The equilibrium equations are formulated by the new shear deformation beam theory which is accompanied with higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory where the influences of both stress nonlocality and strain gradient size-dependent effects are taken into account. In this new shear deformation beam theory, there is no need to use any shear correction factor and also the number of unknown variables is the only one that is similar to the Euler-Bernoulli beam hypothesis. The governing equations are solved by utilizing an analytical approach by which the maximum dynamic deflection has been obtained with simple boundary conditions. To validate the results of the new proposed beam theory, the results in terms of natural frequencies are compared with the results from an available well-known reference. The effects of nonlocal parameter, half-wave length, damper, temperature and material variations on the dynamic vibration of the nanotubes, are discussed in detail.
    • Design codes and design language

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby; Leeds College of Art & Design (Jeremy Mills Publishing Ltd, 2008)