• Simulation based approach to evaluate modular manufacturing system in the apparel industry

      Hanthiringe, Gamini; Liyanage, Kapila; The Open University of Sri Lanka (PTJ Europe Limited, 2008-01)
      The Sri Lankan garment industry needs to become competitive to face the quota-free global challenges, and it is imperative for the garment industry to acquire most appropriate and advanced technology, as well as modern operations management techniques. Many Sri Lankan apparel manufacturing companies are moving towards lean concept, especially into modular manufacturing from traditional line production systems. Recent interactions with local apparel manufacturing companies revealed that most factories could not achieve desired results through modular systems, due to various causes such as resources and capacity issues, operational issues and production strategies and commitment. Furthermore, it appears that many apparel manufactures are uncertain about the outcomes of the modular system with respect to their own situations before implementing in a real system. Therefore, it is very important to compare performance and operational characteristics of the modular system, over the line production systems before adoption of such changes. These changes are costly and time consuming in the real situation, and many manufactures are resistant to these changes, especially while production are running for existing orders. This paper discusses how computer simulation model as a testing ground to show comparison of the production performance in two systems; line and modular, before they are implemented as real systems
    • Spatial and economic smart strategies for the 21st-Century metropolitan city of Naples.

      Caperna, Antonio; Tracada, Eleni; Minervino, Guglielmo; Alatalo, Elina; Cerreta, Maria; International Society of Biourbanism; University of Derby; Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria; University of Tampere; University of Naples (Springer Nature, 2018-06-01)
      The assumption of Neoliberalism in the economy has multiplied exponentially financing speculation, and produced several “distortions” both in the social system and in the job market: the destruction of a welfare program, the attack to the right of the labor market and workers right, the powerful growing of financial institutions supported by the ICT. This means the need to identify a new epistemological approach, suggesting a conceptual framework for ecological economics based on systemic principles of life and a shift from techno-city to a human city. A model, called the homological smart city, could be a new way, based on direct citizen participation, peer-to-peer community, neuroergonomics, biophilic design, and biourban economics. The operational character of this model is explored by analyzing the most recent Italian experiences in reaction to the diffused crisis conditions. Several villages, towns and cities have seen a slow phenomenon of the revival of local communities, for the merit of grassroots’ initiatives of social innovation constituted mostly of young people that, leveraging on their capabilities and a peer-to-peer network supported by the ICT, promote a novel vision for the future of their community, building a more sustainable urban system. Through a change of paradigm, the human being is put at the centre of the system and its designing, considering social innovators as the key actors of change and local assets as the key resources for the implementation of Biourbanism principles. In the above perspective, the experience of a new biourban strategy named “mushrooming”, implemented in Finland, constitutes a good example of practice-oriented to consider diversification as a principle of life in a city and developed by testing with real-life conditions. The Finnish experience was started to build a network to foster interaction between small self-organized co-working communities, by taking into account spatial and economic processes that emerged due to this. These processes were able to activate connected diversification, recognized as a systemic principle of life that fits the context of urban development especially well. The principle of connected diversification drives the methodological process structured for the case study of the Metropolitan City of Naples, one of the 14 Italian metropolitan cities, with a specific attention for the 16 municipalities of the Coast Area. Starting from vulnerability and resilience concepts, the study dealt according to a multi-methodological approach, based on a GeoDesign process supported by multi-criteria analysis, multi-group analysis, and spatial analysis. The elaboration of Spatial Opportunity Maps (SOMs) is the output of a multidimensional evaluation process that leads to the identification of a biourban strategy, characterized by human smart spatial solutions, place-based and situated actions. The enhancement of the coastal area of the Metropolitan City of Naples can be considered as a prerequisite for the activation of a process-oriented to the identification of “homogeneous zones”, conceived not only as areas with similar characteristics but, above all, as territories where it is possible to promote networks of opportunities between the various municipalities and their communities. Cooperation has conceived a source of mutual benefit and involves a mutual convenience, based on the constant construction of bonds and relationships and the interdependence determined by spatial proximity. Economic processes require cooperative-collaborative behaviours between the various components and become increasingly territorialised, and therefore more resilient and, at the same time, less and less associated with the production of negative environmental impact.
    • Students’ views on the incorporation of commercial awareness in real estate education

      Poon, Joanna; Brownlow, Michael; University of Salford (Emerald Group Publishing, 2014)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review how real estate students perceive and define commercial awareness, which is one of the most important employability skills. This paper also examines students’ perceptions about how their courses support and develop their commercial awareness. In addition, it compares students’ and academics’ views on commercial awareness and identifies whether there are any gaps. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the research findings of a questionnaire survey and e-mail discussions with students who are currently studying Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS)-accredited real estate courses in the UK. The questionnaire aimed to gather students’ views on the definitions and components of commercial awareness and identify what skills and attributes are required for its development. It also evaluates how commercial awareness has been embedded in the real estate courses. The aim of each discussion was to gain deeper insight on how components of commercial awareness are embedded in real estate courses, and 17 discussions were conducted. The contents of the e-mail discussions were analysed and similar themes were identified and coded. The frequency of the answer in the questionnaire and comments from interviewees is presented. The findings from students’ views have been compared to published research reporting UK RICS-accredited real estate course providers’ views on commercial awareness. In addition to descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test was used to identify the statistical significance between the academics’ and students’ views on commercial awareness. Findings: The UK real estate students agreed that the most important definition of commercial awareness is a “person's ability to understand the economics of business”. They agreed that “financial” component is the most important component of commercial awareness and it is the largest portion of their courses. The most important skill and attribute for commercial awareness development are “critical thinking” and “ability and willingness to update professional knowledge”, respectively. Although the descriptive analysis shows students and academics have different views on the definition and components of commercial awareness and its incorporation within real estate courses, the Fisher exact test shows that only a few elements are different enough to be statistically significant. This analysis shows that while students and academics have slightly different views on commercial awareness they are not very different. Commercial awareness is an important employability skill, thus, it is still necessary for real estate academics to re-visit the curriculum and to ensure learning outcomes related to commercial awareness have been clearly explained and communicated to students. Furthermore, it is vital for students to obtain practical experience in order to fully develop their commercial awareness. Originality/value: This paper is a pioneer study focused on reviewing real estate students’ views on commercial awareness, including identifying its definition, components and evaluating the extent to which commercial awareness has been embedded in their courses. It also identifies the skills and attributes that students thought were required for the development of commercial awareness. Furthermore, it discusses students’ preferred ways of enhancing their commercial awareness as part of the course they are studying. It is the first study identifying the statistical difference between students’ and academics’ views on commercial awareness. The understanding of students’ views on commercial awareness, their preferred delivery method and the divergence between students’ and academics’ views on commercial awareness can provide useful insights for course directors on the development and renewal of real estate course curriculum.
    • A study of real estate student satisfaction in Australia

      Poon, Joanna; University of Salford (Taylor & Francis, 2016-03-11)
      The paper aims to establish an overall review of satisfaction of real estate students in Australia. The Course Experience Questionnaire within the Australian Graduate Survey is used for this paper. Dimensionality reduction was used to prepare the information on the real estate courses used in this paper. Exploratory factor analysis was used to produce the list of student satisfaction factors. Six student satisfaction factors were identified, including Quality of staff and course (F1), Student learning environment (F2), Personal development of students (F3), Student services (F4), Appropriate assessment (F5) and Clear expectation (F6). Multiple and hierarchical regression analysis are used to identify the level of influence of demographic variables on each of the student satisfaction factors and the level of statistical significant prediction of individual student satisfaction factors on overall student satisfaction. Quality of staff and course is the most important predictor of real estate student satisfaction. Age is reviewed as the only demographic factor which is statically significant but has a negative impact on real estate student satisfaction. This paper identified some important elements for enhancing student satisfaction which universities can take on board for developing a strategy to enhance student satisfaction.
    • A study of the impacts of variable factors on built environment graduates’ prospects

      Poon, Joanna; Brownlow, Michael; University of Salford (Routledge, 2016-01-26)
      This paper investigates the impacts of variable factors, such as practical experience and factors related to study style, on employment outcomes and patterns of built environment graduates in Australia. This paper also compares the employment prospects of different built environment sub-disciplines, including Architecture, Construction, Real Estate and Urban Planning and Regional Studies. Practical experience and the possibility of work with final year employers after graduation were found to have a statistically significant impact on the employment outcomes for graduates of built environment and all of its sub-disciplines. However, degree level and type of university attended were not found to have a statistically significant impact. Attendance type and employment mode in the final year of study had a statistically significant impact on the employment patterns for graduates of built environment and all of its sub-disciplines. The graduates who studied part-time and worked full-time in their final year of study were more likely to secure full-time jobs after graduation. The findings of this paper can be used by built environment graduates to identify the variable factors which they can change in order to enhance their employment prospects.
    • A study on finite element of pre damaged stress concentration factor for a composite laminate member with central circular.

      Ahmed, Tanveer; Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Shah, Atta Ur Rehman; Saeed, Hasan Aftab; University of Derby; National University of Science and Technology (Springer, 2018-08-13)
      The study investigates the pre damaged stress concentration factor (SCF) for a composite laminate member (CLM) with central circular hole subjected to tensile loading. The presence of holes yields high stress concentrations in the structural members termed as stress raiser and often regarded as an important design deriver. The pre damaged SCF refers to the stress concentrations within elastic (undamaged) range of the CLM prior to the failure initiation. The traditional experimental and analytical methods for the estimation of SCF offer macro level behaviour which is not considered appropriate for CLM where lamina by lamina behaviour is more significant. A meso level finite element (FE) model is presented to capture the lamina by lamina influence on the overall SCF for a CLM using commercial software Abaqus. The paper deals with the fundamental influencing factors such as laminae orientation effect, stress distribution effect around periphery of the hole, decaying effect and ligament effect on SCF for CLM. Analytical models have been formulated to validate the FE models. The results of FE models have been found in close agreement with the analytical results.
    • A study on the effect of ageing and intermetallic compound growth on the shear strength of surface mount technology solder joints.

      Nath, Jyotishman; Mallik, Sabuj; Borah, Anil; University of Greenwich; Assam Engineering College (Springer India, 2015-01-24)
      The effect of ageing and intermetallic compound formation on the surface mount solder joints and its shear strength behavior under extreme mechanical and thermal conditions have been discussed in this paper. The specimens used are solder paste (Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu), bench marker II printed circuit boards (PCB), resistors 1206 and the fabrication of solder joints makes use of conventional surface mount technology (SMT). Reflow process was carried out at a peak temperature of 250 °C and the test samples were exposed to isothermal ageing at a constant temperature of 150 °C for a period of 600 h. Shear test was conducted on the PCB’s. The shear strength of the solder joints rapidly increased during isothermal ageing to a certain time period and then started decreasing. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrograph of the solder joint and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) was performed on the solder sample to verify the formation of intermetallic compounds.
    • Studying the effect of “cool” coatings in street urban canyons and its potential as a heat island mitigation technique

      Georgakis, Chrissa; Zoras, Stamatis; Santamouris, Matheos; University of Athens; University of Thrace (Elsevier, 2014-10)
      Surface temperature measurements carried out during summer period, at canyons’ facades, pavements and street inside a deep urban canyon, in the center of Athens. At the same time experimental data of air temperature were collected through extensive monitoring in the center of the urban canyon. CFD simulations performed in order to calculate surface temperature in buildings’ facades and at street level as well as air temperature inside the canyon. On the first part of this study comparison carried out between the measured and calculated values for a) surface temperature for the initial coating and b) the air temperature in the center of a deep street urban canyon. The calculated data have been thoroughly analyzed and used as well for the CFD model validation. The second task of this work was the calculation of the surface and air temperature, inside the deep urban canyon, by using a “cool” coating and the possible mitigation of the heat island effect in the specific urban area. The use of “cool” coatings, providing high reflectivity of solar radiation on the materials used on pavements and walls inside a canyon, estimated able to decrease surface temperature up to 7–8 °C at ground level. The decrease on walls’ surface temperature estimated close to 2–3 °C. Ambient air temperature inside the urban street canyon may decrease up to 1 °C. The reduction of absorbed solar radiation may lead to the energy consumption and thermal comfort conditions in cities and fight the increased heat island effect.
    • Substitution local resources basalt stone scoria Lampung, Indonesia, as a third raw material aggregate to increase the quality of portland composite cement (PCC).

      Rajiman; Alisjahbana, Sofia W.; Riyanto, Hery; Hasyim, Cholil; Setiawan, M. Ikhsan; Harmanto, Dani; Wajdi, Muh Barid Nizarudin; Tarumanagara University; Lampung University; Bakrie University; Darul Ulum University; Narotama University; University of Derby; STAI Miftahul Ula (Science Publishing Corporation, 2018)
      Domestic cement demand is increasing in line with the increase of development of property sector and construction sector. Cement is one of the important components in making a permanent building. The function of cement in a construction is as an adhesive material that affects the strength of a building. The process of making cement is divided into two groups, namely hydraulic cement and non-hydraulic cement. Hydraulic cement consists of Portland type cement and PCC type cement, PPC cement and slag cement. The type of PCC cement (Portland Composite Cement) is produced from grinding clinker with gypsum with the addition of third raw material. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of cement quality improvement with substitution of basalt scoria stone raw material as much as 0-10% as the third raw material. The source of basalt scoria stone originated from Lampung Timur, Indonesia. The fineness test showed cement fineness was 2983-3665 cm2/gr with minimum SNI standard 2800 cm2/gr. Residue test meets the requirements of SNI standard that is equal to 16,07% -18,55%. The compressive strength test was performed at ages 3, 7 and 28 days and obtained the result that the optimum compressive strength produced was 235, 314, 394 kg/cm2. Basalt rock usage as substitution material in cement production can decrease environmental pollution caused by clinker production. Based on the cost estimation analysis, the use of basalt stone can decrease the production cost which impact on the increase of profit
    • Sustainable Design and Building Information Modelling: Case Study of Energy Plus House, Hieron's Wood, Derbyshire UK

      Ceranic, Boris; Latham, Derek; Dean, Angela; University of Derby (2015-12)
      In this paper the method for sustainable design analysis (SDA) integration with building information modelling (BIM) is explored, through the prism of a complex case study based research. BIM model federation and integration challenges are reported, including issues with combining geometry and managing attribute data. The research defines SDA as rapid and quantifiable analysis of multitude of sustainable alternatives and ‘what if’ questions posed by a design team during the early stages of the project, when the benefits of correct decisions can significantly exceed the actual investment required. The SDA concept and BIM integration findings are explained from conceptualisation to calculation stage, emphasising the importance of an iterative over a linear approach. The research approach adopted has led to more informed sustainable solutions at earlier stages of project development, with a generally lower level of development (LOD) and computational/modelling effort required.
    • Sustainable geotechnics

      Hamza, Omar; University of Derby (International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings 11-12 September 2016, 2016-09-12)
      "Sustainable Geotechnics" may be considered as a discipline in ground engineering, appearing recently in the construction industry in response to the emerging Low Carbon Economy concerning the global challenges of climate change, diminishing fossil fuel reserves, and environmental management. In the UK Low Carbon Economy is often considered in terms of 'decarbonisation' of buildings, transport, industry, and power sector. This is to be addressed using a wide variety of sustainable approaches, which produce great challenges and opportunities to ground engineers. This paper discusses how the emerging Low Carbon Economy will affect the design and construction of low-carbon buildings and infrastructure as well as innovation covering some of the sustainable approaches recognized by ground engineering communities.
    • Sustainable infrastructure delivery in Nigeria: implementation of the analytic network process for contractor selection.

      Arowosafe, Oluwunmi; Oduyemi, Olufolahan; Ceranic, Boris; Dean, Angela; University of Derby; Southeast Missouri State University (EDP Open Website, 2018-10-31)
      Purpose: This paper presents research findings that involve the use of analytic network process (ANP) to select contractors for build–operate–transfer (BOT) infrastructure in Nigeria. To deliver sustainable infrastructure (SI), a responsive methodology is required for contractors' selection process, which combines judgement and data for an effective outcomes prediction. Design/methodology/approach: Theoretically grounded on a system theory, sustainable infrastructure delivery (SID) model has been developed in this study. At the deductive phase of the model is the integration of the ANP (a multicriteria decision-making technique) for data synthesis. To obtain decision criteria, 55 sustainability indicators for contractor selection were identified from the literature review. The criteria were first developed to a web-based questionnaire where respondents were requested to rank the importance of the criteria towards selecting contractors that deliver SI, using Likert scale of 1–5 (where “5” is very important and “1” is not important). The results were analysed using factor analysis. Data were further reduced to 16 variables after multicollinearity issues in the data set had been resolved. To weigh the relative importance of the 16 criteria among contractors, ANP methodology was adopted for the second-round questionnaire. The seven-man decision panel that completed the pairwise comparison survey was selected through a purposeful sampling technique. The final survey results were synthesised by Super Decisions (computer package that implements ANP) trial version to rank contractors' options and predict outcomes. Findings/results: Sensitivity analysis of the research findings reveals that the 16 criteria have differential comparative advantages, which requires critical judgement during contractor's pre-evaluation process. Although the overall priorities rank multinational construction corporations (MCC) higher than local construction companies (LCC), MCC are not absolute to deliver SI. LCC are sensitive to some key criteria that are critical to the actualisation SI agenda. Originality/value: This study fills the gap in the knowledge of SID in Nigeria. The study theoretically suggests a framework to harmonise sustainability indicators in contractor selection. The findings further provide feedbacks that can be incorporated to Government's Ministries, Department and Agencies (MDAs) procurement policy to promote SID.
    • Sustainable infrastructure delivery in Nigeria: implementation of the analytic network process for contractor selection.

      Arowosafe, Oluwunmi; Oduyemi, Olufolahan; Ceranic, Boris; Dean, Angela; University of Derby; Southeast Missouri State University (EDP Sciences, 2018-10-31)
      This paper presents research findings that involve the use of Analytic Network Process (ANP) to select contractors for Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) infrastructure in Nigeria. To deliver sustainable infrastructure, a responsive methodology is required during selection process to combine judgement and data to effectively predict outcomes.
    • Sustainable manufacturing assessment: Approach and the trend towards life cycle sustainability analysis

      Gbededo, Mijoh Ayodele; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (2017-09-05)
      Recently, Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment framework has been launched for experts from different disciplinary fields to discuss and develop a holistic and integrated approach that supports effective sustainability decisions. Many authors have used different and combination of methodologies in support of this goal; some authors focus on competitive manufacturing with integrated environmental protection elements, some focus on energy and resource efficient technologies and eco-designs while other authors underscored the importance of holistic assessment of the three sustainability factors to drive effective sustainable manufacturing. However, it is evidence from the research that the existing approaches lack holistic and analytical approach that consolidates the objectives of other sustainable product development methods. This paper used a structured approach to a literature review to systematically examine sustainable manufacturing approach and the move from segmented assessment methods to the holistic and integrated Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis, and identify gaps both in practice and research within the manufacturing industry domain. In view of the result, the research proposed a framework that integrates goals that support progressive sustainable product development with methods that focus on the holistic quantitative analysis of the manufacturing production process.
    • Sustainable manufacturing assessment: Approach and the trend towards life cycle sustainability analysis.

      Gbededo, Mijoh Ayodele; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (2017-09-05)
      Recently, Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment framework has been launched for experts from different disciplinary fields to discuss and develop a holistic and integrated approach that supports effective sustainability decisions. Many authors have used different and combination of methodologies in support of this goal; some authors focus on competitive manufacturing with integrated environmental protection elements, some focus on energy and resource efficient technologies and eco-designs while other authors underscored the importance of holistic assessment of the three sustainability factors to drive effective sustainable manufacturing. However, it is evidence from the research that the existing approaches lack holistic and analytical approach that consolidates the objectives of other sustainable product development methods. This paper used a structured approach to a literature review to systematically examine sustainable manufacturing approach and the move from segmented assessment methods to the holistic and integrated Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis, and identify gaps both in practice and research within the manufacturing industry domain. In view of the result, the research proposed a framework that integrates goals that support progressive sustainable product development with methods that focus on the holistic quantitative analysis of the manufacturing production process.
    • Sustainable Sourcing and Innovative Use of Building Materials: Case Study of Energy Plus House, Hieron's Wood, Derbyshire UK

      Ceranic, Boris; Latham, Derek; Dean, Angela; University of Derby (NORTH ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY UNION, 2016-07)
      In this paper research on sustainable sourcing and innovative use of building materials is explored, through the prism of a complex case study of real building project. In particular, a novel use of sycamore as a structural material is investigated and reported. This includes methods and standards of its grading and classification, service classes and resistance to decay, in addition to results of its laboratory and in situ testing. A research method of longitudinal study is adopted, concentrating on the monitoring and assessment of its structural performance and conditions in which it might deteriorate. The study comprised of extensive desktop research on the sycamore properties, its standards and classification, followed by laboratory testing of its mechanical properties, namely bending strength and compression parallel to grain. In addition, an experimental build with half sycamore-half softwood structural timber frame was designed and constructed and early monitoring and assessment results reported. Finally, the in situ testing on the main building was undertaken, including visual observations, measurements of moisture content and wood decay detection. The latter was undertaken using digital micro probe to identify potential soft wood and cavities in sycamore and determine the extent of problems. So far research has established that sycamore can be applied to the structural and constructional aspects of building design and assembly, as long as due attention is paid to its detailing and resistance to decay and insect attack, moisture control, ventilation provision and service class uses. However, it has to be noted that the research findings of this project cannot be statistically extrapolated to a broader geographical extents, due to the locality of sycamore sourcing limited to within the site boundaries.
    • Sustainable supply chain quality management: A systematic review.

      Bastas, Ali; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-02-03)
      Maintaining profitability measures while conducting business through environmentally and socially sustainable operations is an optimization challenge for organizations globally and for our society. Aiming to contribute to the research streams on this global challenge, this paper studies the state of the art literature on two management methodologies along with sustainability management from an integration perspective: quality management with its intraorganizational focus and supply chain management with its interorganizational view. The paper establishes key themes, trends and new avenues for research through a structured systematic review. The systematic review undertaken includes both descriptive analysis and thematic synthesis of state of the art quality management, sustainability and supply chain management integration literature. Integration synergies of quality and supply chain management were established including performance improvements and integration increasing the effect of both methodologies. Incorporation of sustainability into quality and supply chain management was identified to be a highly emerging area with multi-dimensional (financial, ecologic and social) approaches highly in need for more sustainable supply chains. Ultimately, a new, emerging research area was revealed: sustainable supply chain quality management. Although, several reviews were conducted on the quality, supply chain and sustainability management practices, this study is one of the very few, undertaken from the perspective of all three approaches and cumulative integration. This contribution provides an initial theoretical framework to guide future theory building on a fruitful research avenue.
    • Tailoring the interfacial adhesion of anodised TiO2 nanotubes on Ti-6Al-4V alloy for medical implants

      Danookdharree, Urvashi; Le, Huirong; Handy, Richard; Tredwin, Christopher; University of Plymouth (2014-09)
      Self-assembled nano-structure on the surface of bone/dental implants has attracted significant interest in the last few decades. In this context, anodic TiO2 nanotubes have been shown to have a beneficial effect on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation around implant [1-2]. However, there is uncertainty about the interfacial adhesion to substrate as a surface coating for medical implants [3]. In this study, the effects of anodising conditions on the morphology, composition and interfacial adhesion of the nanotubes grown on titanium alloy were investigated with various electrolytes, pH values and voltage seep rate.
    • Techno-economic assessment of the horizontal geothermal heat pump systems: A comprehensive review

      Cui, Yuanlong; Jie, Zhu; Ssennoga, Twaha; Junze, Chu; Hongyu, Bai; Xiangjie, Chen; Stamatis, Zoras; Zohreh, Soleimani; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-04-12)
      Geothermal heat pump has been widely recognized as one of the promising technologies for building applications because of its high energy efficiency and low operating expense, however the high capital investment and installation costs discourage building owners to choose such a system. The horizontal geothermal heat pump system with reduced cost is a viable option that would be utilized widely, the aim of this paper is to catalogue and critique a range of effective approaches for the horizontal geothermal heat pump systems in different regions based on techno-economic assessment data. A ground heat exchanger is a vital component of the horizontal geothermal heat pump. The state-of-the-art analytical and numerical models of the linear-loop, slinky-coil and spiral-coil ground heat exchangers are generalized, in addition to their advantages and disadvantages. A large number of economic evaluation methods for analysing the financial performance of the horizontal geothermal heat pump system are presented. At the end, the standpoints, recommendations and potential future study on the horizontal geothermal heat pump system are deliberated.
    • Theoretical perspectives in purchasing and supply chain management: an analysis of the literature

      Chicksand, Daniel; Watson, Glyn; Walker, Helen; Radnor, Zoe; Johnsen, Bob; Liyanage, Kapila; Warwick Business School (International Purchasing and Supply Education and Research Association, 2010-05-16)
      The research presented in this paper is work-in-progress and aims to investigate to what extent purchasing and supply chain management (SCM), as a relatively new area of academic enquiry, is ready or able to join the select group of modern scientific disciplines. The analysis indicates that the discipline lacks coherence and exhibits significant and increasingly interdisciplinary breath and is some way off becoming a natural science. Furthermore, it is argued that SCM research has diverse agendas and therefore it is unlikely that one dominant paradigm will emerge.