• Bioclimatic rehabilitation of an open market place by a computational fluid dynamics simulation assessment

      Zoras, Stamatis; Dimoudi, Argyro; Evagelopoulos, Vasilis; Lyssoudis, Spyros; Dimoudi, Sofia; Tamiolaki, Anna-Maria; Stathis, Vasilis; Polyzakis, Apostolos; Deligiorgi, Euterpi; Democritus University of Thrace (Springer, 2015-08-24)
      These days urban design of open spaces is strongly related to bioclimatic techniques and practices. It is here presented the procedure of a bioclimatic study by the use of simulation tools. The area of an open market place is characterized of decreased human thermal comfort conditions during summer time. The employment of computational fluid dynamics has contributed in the understanding of what interventions should be made at the open space in order to succeed the defined thermal related targets. Table of the proposed rehabilitation explains what the interventions would contribute in the improvement of the local environment.
    • Biophilic urban developments following dynamic flows of tree-shaped architectures

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby (International Information and Engineering Technology Association, 2016)
      Latest theories and practices in Biophilic designs of the urban space regard the urban fabric as being composed of several interrelated layers of energetic structure influencing each other in a non-linear manner primarily. The interaction between two or more interfaces of the urban space layers evolves into new and non-predictable properties. Evolution and creation of new boundaries/interfaces follows laws related to fractal growth; most of the times this particular evolution is defined by laws of physics, such as Thermodynamics and Constructal Law. Designs that do not follow these laws may produce anti-natural and hostile environments, which do not fit into human beings’ evolution, and thus, fail to enhance life by all means. The author of this paper should like to illustrate how new developments of urbanism worldwide currently work upon conceptual and town planning models based not only upon cutting-edge technology, but also upon natural laws and patterns of life and human behaviours strictly related to flaws and movement dictated by natural phenomena. When abrupt interruption of the urban structure has occurred, a consequent design solution does not even guarantee flowing and freedom to morph. It is impossible to create harmonic designs which naturally “unite the animate with the inanimate”, as Adrian Bejan and Sylvie Lorente affirm, whenever urban sprawl fails to encompass Biophilic solutions related to tree-shaped architectures. The author argues that Constructal invasion into the urban space “as fundamental problems of access to flow: volume to point, area to point, line to point, and the respective reverse flow directions” can only guarantee high standard quality of life in either contemporary or future cities developments.
    • Biourbanism: Towards a new epistemology in the architects’ education

      Tracada, Eleni; Caperna, Antonio; University of Derby; International Society of Biourbanism (2015-11-06)
      Contemporary culture has generated new challenges for architectural education systems. Globalization, fast urbanisation, climate change, natural and environmental degradation, is a set of interconnected challenges. In the same way contemporary architecture has become part of the new global culture in which images have become a substitute for reality. According to Baudrillard′s terms, architecture could be seen as the supreme medium of contemporary visual culture, especially in its potential to influence the individual′s perception of reality as a component of the mass–media system. Social sciences studies demonstrate that contemporary architecture can affect negatively everyday urban life; Psychology and medicine show how space design can nurture or damage our well-being. The above challenges call for new epistemological and scientific foundations of architecture and urbanism. Education should be the first step to help us to produce really sustainable new design for the 21st century. In this paper, we argue that a new educational approach in Biourbanism has the potential to educate the next generation of architects and enable them to create original and human oriented designs. This paper describes how the integration of Biourbanism principles could improve the quality of architectural education; it will introduce you to the theoretical framework, such as the structural approach and the laws of form, and emergent fields, such as Neurophysiology and Environmental Psychology; it will show you some practical experiences applied by our team in three consecutive summer schools and in some modules taught in HE in the UK recently. The paper will discuss that, by embedding Biourbanism learning objectives in Higher Education today, we do not only set clear learning outcomes in specific modules and programmes, but also we can generate sound educational assessment methods guaranteeing focused future predictions of urban growth. The use of live projects in the delivery of modules linked to Biophilic Design and Biourbanism can offer us the opportunity to get educators from a variety of disciplines, from sciences, design and architecture. Hence, active learners should be able to morph the future of urban space by successfully inputting their educational experiences into innovative new designs governed by Biourbanism. Early investigation and research carried out during projects offers the opportunity to teachers and learners to share common experiences and evaluate important factors of anticipation of future events, such as the life span of urban areas and their future mutations; these processes are necessary to the survival and evolution of both natural and built environments.
    • Blockchain application in supply chain chemical substance reporting.

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (University of Cambridge, 2018-09-28)
      Cryptocurrencies have gained prominence in recent years due to: (1) potential large increase in values; (2) transferability between different users, and (3) security and; (4) traceability of data enabled by blockchain methods. Blockchains utilize an underlying digital ledger system which enables data to be encrypted, recorded and traced in a more efficient manner than traditional paper and electronic based systems. Chemical regulations impose the need on industry to record the use of hazardous chemicals, which can vary from: (1) simple reporting, through to; (2) permits to continue the use substances, until alternative substances are identified; or even (3) substances become restricted for use, within specific use cases, or restricted from use outright. The importance of obtaining supply chain chemical substance reporting cannot be understated, without accurate supply chain data, and concise internal product definitions, the process of identifying chemical substances: (1) where used; (2) if they appear on the finished part, or; (3) only used in the process of manufacture, or (4) used in maintenance and repair of parts. The process of collating supply chain chemical substance reporting is lengthy process as data needs to be requested, collated, checked, verified and rolled up to assess potential business continuity risks, as well as varying levels of reporting activity back to employees, consumers and chemical regulators.
    • Buckling analysis of piezo-magnetoelectric nanoplates in hygrothermal environment based on a novel one variable plate theory combining with higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory.

      Malikan, Mohammad; Nguyen, Van Bac; Islamic Azad University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-04-17)
      In the present investigation, a new first-order shear deformation theory (OVFSDT) on the basis of the in-plane stability of the piezo-magnetoelectric composite nanoplate (PMEN) has been developed, and its precision has been evaluated. The OVFSDT has many advantages compared to the conventional first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) such as needless of shear correction factors, containing less number of unknowns than the existing FSDT and strong similarities with the classical plate theory (CPT). The composite nanoplate consisted of BaTiO3-CoFe2O4, a kind of material by which coupling between piezoelectric and piezomagnetic in nanosize was established. The plate is surrounded by a motionless and stationary matrix that is embedded in a hygrothermal surround in order to keep it more stable, and to take into consideration the influences of the moisture and temperature on the plate's mechanical behavior. The governing equilibrium equations for the smart composite plate have been formulated using the higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory within which both stress nonlocality and second strain gradient size-dependent terms are taken into account by using three independent length scale parameters. The extracted equations are solved by utilizing the analytical approaches by which numerical results are obtained with various boundary conditions. In order to evaluate the proposed theory and methods of solution, the outcomes in terms of critical buckling loads are compared with those from several available well-known references. Finally, after determining the accuracy of the results of the new plate theory, several parameters are investigated to show the influences of material properties of the ceramic composite nanoplate on the critical buckling loads.
    • Building Related Symptoms, Energ, and Thermal Comfort in the Workplace: Personal and Open Plan Offices

      Shahzad, Sally; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; Hughes, Ben; Calautit, John Kaiser; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh; University of Sheffield (2016)
      This study compared building-related symptoms in personal and open plan offices, where high and low levels of control over the thermal environment were provided, respectively. The individualized approach in Norway provided every user with a personal office, where they had control over an openable window, door, blinds, and thermostat. In contrast, the open plan case studies in the United Kingdom provided control over openable windows and blinds only for limited occupants seated around the perimeter of the building, with users seated away from the windows having no means of environmental control. Air conditioning was deployed in the Norwegian case study buildings, while displacement ventilation and natural ventilation were utilized in the British examples. Field studies of thermal comfort were applied with questionnaires, environmental measurements, and interviews. Users’ health was better in the Norwegian model (28%), while the British model was much more energy efficient (up to 10 times). The follow-up interviews confirmed the effect of lack of thermal control on users’ health. A balanced appraisal was made of energy performance and users’ health between the two buildings.
    • Bypass transition in separated-reattached flows under elevated free-stream turbulence

      Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (2017-10)
      Laminar-to-turbulent transition is of great practical interest as it occurs in many engineering flows and often plays a critical role in aerodynamics and heat transfer performance of those flow devices. There could be many routes through transition, depending on flow configuration, geometry and the way in which transition is initiated by a wide range of possible background disturbances such as free-stream turbulence, pressure gradient, acoustic noise, wall roughness and obstructions, periodic unsteady disturbance and so on. This paper presents a brief overview of transition in general and focuses more on the transition process in the free shear layer of separated-reattached flows, demonstrating that above certain free-stream turbulence intensity a so called bypass transition could occur
    • CFD and Wind Tunnel Study of the Performance of a Multi-Directional Wind Tower with Heat Transfer Devices

      Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben; O'Connor, Dominic; Shahzad, Sally; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (2015)
      The aim of this work was to investigate the performance of a multi-directional wind tower integrated with heat transfer devices (HTD) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel analysis. An experimental scale model was created using 3D printing. The scale model was tested in a closed-loop wind tunnel to validate the CFD data. Numerical results of the supply airflow were compared with experimental data. Good agreement was observed between both methods of analysis. Smoke visualisation test was conducted to analyse the air flow pattern in the test room attached underneath it. Results have indicated that the achieved indoor air speed was reduced by up to 17% following the integration of the cylindrical HTD. The effect of varying the number of HTD on the system's thermal performance were investigated. The work highlighted the potential of integrating HTD into wind towers in reducing the air temperature. The technology presented here is subject to a UK patent application (PCT/GB2014/052263).
    • CFD and wind tunnel study of the performance of a uni-directional wind catcher with heat transfer devices

      Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben; Shahzad, Sally; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (2015-04-28)
      Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel analysis were conducted to investigate the performance of a uni-directional wind catcher. A detailed experimental benchmark model was created using rapid prototyping and tested in a closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel. An accurate geometrical representation of the wind tunnel test set-up was recreated in the numerical modelling. Experimental results for the indoor and external airflow, supply rate, and pressure coefficients were compared with the numerical results. Smoke visualisation experiment was also conducted to further analyse the detailed airflow structure within the wind catcher and also inside the test room. Following the successful validation of the benchmark CFD model, cylindrical Heat Transfer Devices (HTD) were integrated into the uni-directional wind catcher model to reduce the temperature of air induced into the ventilated space. The findings of the CFD study displayed that the proposed wind catcher was capable of reducing the supply temperature by up to 12 K within the micro-climate depending on the outdoor air speed. However, the addition of the cylindrical HTD also reduced the air supply rates by up to 20–35%.
    • A CFD investigation of effects of flow-field geometry on transient performance of an automotive polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

      Choopanya, Pattarapong; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby; University of Sussex (Begell House, 2015)
      A three-dimensional, multispecies, multiphase polymer electrolyte (PEM) fuel cell model was developed in order to investigate the effect of the flow-field geometry on the steady-state and transient performances of the cell under an automotive operation. The two most commonly used designs, parallel and single-serpentine flow fields, were selected as they offer distinctive species transport modes of diffusion-dominant and convection-dominant flows in the porous layers, respectively. It was found that this difference in flow mode significantly effects membrane hydration, the key parameter in determining a successful operation. In a steady run, a serpentine flow field increased the averaged current density under the wet condition due to superior water removal, but this had a negative effect on the cell in the way that it caused membrane dry-out if dry reactant gases were used. The transient operation, on the other hand, seemed to favor the combination of a serpentine flow field and dry reactant gases, as it helped in the removal of product water and speeded up the transport of reacting species to the reactive site to find equilibrium at the new state with minimum time delay and current overshoot or undershoot, which is the most important aspect of a dynamic system.
    • CFD simulation for predicting the wind effect on the high rise building NET Tower Surabaya.

      Mudjanarko, Sri Wiwoho; Harmanto, Dani; Setiawan, M. Ikhsan; University of Derby; Universitas Narotama (Narotama University Press, 2015-11)
      The use of CFD is becoming a norm in the predicting the fluid flow in engineering especially in the mechanical engineering. However, concern has raised over the urban design area on the predicting the quality air and wind on the rise building / skyscraper. There are number of development of rise building is being built on the developing country where concern on the wind effect over pedestrian sometime is neglected. The aim and objective of this paper is demonstrating the us e of CFD over a high rise building in Indonesia and taking a case study on the new propose building at NET Tower Narotama University Surabaya, Indonesia. The CFD will be based on one direction of wind and one velocity. The CFD will be based on the finite method. The predicted result will be showed that the distribution of velocity and pressure field will be shown. The case study is intended to provide a support and guidance for the future studies on developing a propose rise building in Surabaya in particular and Indonesia in general CFD simulation for predicting the wind effect on the high rise building: NET Tower Surabaya.
    • CFD simulation of solder paste flow and deformation behaviours during stencil printing process.

      Thakur, Vishal; Mallik, Sabuj; Vuppala, Vamsi; University of Greenwich (Wireilla Scientific Publications, 2015-02)
      In 20th century, Electronics elements have become most significant part of the regular life. The main heart of electronic element is PCB which supports and manages mostly machines and equipments these days. Therefore manufacturing of board and assembly of electronic elements is one of the crucial and significant objectives for most of the companies. Better life of PCB’s depends on electronic elements and its assembly with board. Solder paste is used as adhesive material for assembly purpose. It is deposited on board using stencil and electronic elements are mounted on it and heated for strong bond. This study investigates on factors affecting stencil printing process due to variation in squeegee speed and density of solder paste. This study is based on computational fluid dynamics virtual simulation. Prototype is developed for modelling purpose and simulation software is used to simulate the flow behaviour of solder paste during stencil printing process.
    • CFD study of effusion cooling

      Yang, Zhiyin; Walton, Matthew; University of Derby (2012-09)
      The desire to increase the efficiency, i.e., reduce the specific fuel consumption and raise the thrust-to-weight ratio, of gas turbines has led to an increase in pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber and turbine. The operational life of the combustion chamber walls decreases with increased temperature thus an effective method of cooling must be used to protect the wall. Effusion cooling provides a practical solution to this engineering problem. A fundamental understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in effusion flow fields is required to make significant advances in cooling technology. At the same time, designers need a predictive design tool that allows quick turnaround times without the current build and break approach. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) presents the designer with the potential for an effective, fast and relatively accurate method of achieving this. This paper presents a computational study of effusion cooling applications using the Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes (RANS) approach. The need to evaluate the predictive capability of the Reynolds Stress Transport (RST) model when applied to Full Coverage Film-Cooling (FCFC) effusion scenarios is highlighted since two-equation Eddy-Viscosity (EV) models fail to predict turbulent anisotropy and therefore the complex flow mechanisms involved in effusion cooling flow fields. An isothermal and non-isothermal numerical study of effusion cooling flow is conducted. In the isothermal case the RST model is shown to be capable of predicting the injection, penetration, downstream decay and lateral mixing of the effusion jets reasonably well. In the non-isothermal case the laterally averaged cooling effectiveness across the plate is slightly under-predicted but still conforms to the general increasing trend.
    • A CFD study of twin Impinging jets in a cross-flow

      Ostheimer, Daniel; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (Bentham Open, 2012-01-17)
      A very complicated three-dimensional (3D) flow field is generated beneath a Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing (VSTOL) aircraft when it is operated near the ground. This flow field can be represented by the configuration of twin impinging jets along the spanwise direction in a cross-flow. This paper describes a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study of this flow using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The use of an RSM potentially offers a compromise between the computational efficiency of a two equation turbulence model and accuracy closer to that of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) although it will not be as accurate as LES. The current numerical results are validated against experimental data and the mean velocity profiles are reasonably well predicted by both the standard k-ε model and the RSM with slightly better prediction by the RSM. However, the Reynolds stress prediction by the RSM is poor compared with the experimental data, indicating that to capture the detailed unsteady flow features an LES is needed.
    • Challenges in compression testing of 3D angle-interlocked woven-glass fabric-reinforced polymeric composites.

      Shah, S. Z. H.; Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Khan, Laraib Alam; University of Manchester; National University of Sciences and Technology; Centre of Excellence in Applied Sciences and Technology; National Univ. of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of EME Campus NUST 46000, PK, e-mail: Zulfihs84@gmail.com; HITEC Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Taxila 47080, PK; and National Composites Certification and Evaluation Facility, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom GB(Corresponding author), e-mail: rizwan.choudhry@gmail.com; Centre of Excellence in Applied Sciences and Technology (CESAT), 44000 Islamabad, PK, e-mail: laraibkh@gmail.com (ASTM International, 2017-09)
      This paper describes the challenges in using testing standards such as D6641/D6641M-14, for determination of compressive strength of 3D angle interlocked glass fabric reinforced polymeric composites (3D-FRPC). It makes use of both experimental investigation and finite element analysis. The experimental investigation involved testing both 2D and 3D-FRPC using ASTM D6641/D6641M-14 and subsequent scanning electron microscopic imaging of failed specimens to reveal the stress state at failure. This was further evaluated using laminate level finite element (FE) analysis. The FE analysis required input of effective orthotropic elastic material properties of 3D-FRPC, which were determined by customizing a recently developed micro-mechanical model. The paper sheds new light on compressive failure of 3D angle interlocked glass fabric composites, as only scarce data is available in literature about this class of materials. It showed that although the tests produce acceptable strength values the internal failure mechanisms change significantly and the standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variance (COV) of 3D-FRPC comes out to be much higher than that of 2D-FRPC. Moreover, while reporting and using the test data some additional information about the 3D-fabric architecture, such as the direction of angle interlocking fabric needs to be specified. This was because, for 3D angle interlocking of fabric along warp direction, the strength values obtained in the warp and weft direction were significantly different from each other. The study also highlights that due to complex weave architecture it is not possible to achieve comparable volume fractions with 2D and 3D fabric reinforced composites using similar manufacturing parameters for the vacuum assisted resin infusion process. Thus, the normalized compressive strength values (normalized with respect to volume fraction) are the highest for 3D-FRPC when measured along the warp direction, they are at an intermediate level for 2D-FRPC and the lowest for 3D-FRPC, when measured in the weft direction.
    • A chemical substance reporting system for manufacturing companies

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (2017-09)
      While striving to mitigate the risk to human health and the environment, chemical substance regulations continue to impose greater legislative burdens on industry, which ultimately creates business continuity risk. Compliance to these regulations requires greater investment which ultimately undermines profits. Furthermore, as regulations vary between countries or politico-economic unions, impact on manufacturers is dependent on which areas of the world that its supply chain is most prevalent. A chemical substance reporting system for manufacturing companies requires information on parts and manufacturing processes that are both defined in-house and within the external supply chain. Without information on chemical substance uses within the downstream supply chain, manufacturers cannot fulfil their legislative obligations or effectively manage business continuity risk. Often the biggest hurdle to collecting this information is supply chain engagement, which is made more difficult with multiple, different industry standards and data exchange formats. As more and more chemical substances become heavily regulated, manufacturers require increased volumes of downstream supply chain information on a routine basis. The aim of this paper is to identify existing good practices which could be utilized to implement chemical substance reporting systems for manufacturing companies.
    • Chip number vehicle applications as part of Internet of Things (IoT)

      Mudjanarko, Sri Wiwoho; Winardi, Slamet; Prasetijo, Joewono; Harmanto, Dani; Universitas Narotama; University of Derby (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 2017-12)
      The city of Jakarta as the capital of the Republic of Indonesia in 2015 the number of motor vehicles as many as 17,523,967 units dominated by two-wheeled vehicles with the amount of 13,084,372 units. It was followed by private cars with 3,226,009 units, 673,661 units of freight cars, 362,066 units of buses and 137,859 units of special vehicles, while the road growth was only 0.01 percent so it was not comparable with the number of vehicles. One way to break down congestion in Jakarta is the reduction in the number of motor vehicles such as three in one for four-wheeled vehicles, the implementation of electronic road pricing (ERP), and the reduction in the number of motorcycles. The reduction in the number of motorcycles aims to reduce traffic density while reducing the number of traffic accidents
    • The city of future: biourbanism and constructural law

      Tracada, Eleni; Caperna, Antonio; University of Derby; International Society of Biourbanism (2016-06)
      Nowadays dynamic elements in urban fabric are often concealed by the insertion of stylish new architecture; real patterns of social life (‘bios’), have been replaced by rigid geometric grids and compact building blocks. New Urbanism and Biourbanism affirm that cities are now risking to be unstable and deprived of healthy social interactions. As an expansion of older historical urban fabric patterns, harmonious architecture can have a positive impact on the fitness of both human body and mind. Not only Biourbanism attempts to reinstate balance and lost values in the urban fabric, but also reinforces human-oriented design emergences in micro and macro scales. As a multifaceted discipline, it embraces laws of physics, such as Constructal Law and acknowledges its noticeable and unremitting influence to urban human behaviours. Urban life and behaviours are based upon systems of human communication formed by dynamic patterns; we are now talking about negotiating boundaries between human activities, changes in geographic mapping and mainly about sustainable systems to support uninterrupted growth of communities worldwide. Therefore, as a vital shift in architectural education, not only Biourbanism offers the opportunity to explore patterns and linguistics deeply imbedded into the built environment, but also enables scholars and communities to come together and participate actively into fast and innovative urban interventions. Projects developed during educational and professional training aim at reinstating memorable and preferential paths of communication, favouring everyday life rituals of the body and mind. Hence, by following everlasting laws of physics and formulas inherited from nature, architectural forms can be considered as the real innovation in urban design and planning of the City of the Future.
    • The city of the future and the laws of physics: Biourbanism and constructal law

      Tracada, Eleni; Caperna, Antonio; University of Derby; International Society of Biourbanism (University of Bath, 2016-06-29)
      Nowadays dynamic elements in urban fabric are often concealed by the insertion of stylish new architecture; real patterns of social life (‘bios’), have been replaced by rigid geometric grids and compact building blocks. New Urbanism and Biourbanism affirm that cities are now risking being unstable and deprived of healthy social interactions. As an expansion of older historical urban fabric patterns, harmonious architecture can have a positive impact on the fitness of both human body and mind. Not only Biourbanism attempts to reinstate balance and lost values in the urban fabric, but also reinforces human-oriented design emergences in micro and macro scales. As a multifaceted discipline, it embraces laws of physics, such as Constructal Law and acknowledges its noticeable and unremitting influence to urban human behaviours. Urban life and behaviours are based upon systems of human communication formed by dynamic patterns; we are now talking about negotiating boundaries between human activities, changes in geographic mapping and mainly about sustainable systems to support uninterrupted growth of communities worldwide. Therefore, as a vital shift in architectural education, not only Biourbanism offers the opportunity to explore patterns and linguistics deeply imbedded into the built environment, but also enables scholars and communities to come together and participate actively into fast and innovative urban interventions. Projects developed during educational and professional training aim at reinstating memorable and preferential paths of communication, favouring everyday life rituals of the body and mind. Hence, by following everlasting laws of physics and formulas inherited from nature, architectural forms can be considered as the real innovation in urban design and planning of the City of the Future.
    • Combined degrees & employability: a comparative analysis of single and joint honours graduates of UK universities.

      Pigden, Louise; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (West East Institute, 2016-08)
      Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the popularity and number of combined or joint degrees in English and Welsh Universities. Combined or joint honours represent 10% of all undergraduates. 50,000 out of 500,000 currently enrolled on all honours degrees. This significant and special way of learning therefore warrants scrutiny. Combined degrees enable students to enroll on two or more subjects, with varying levels of integration of the courses, which leads to either a BA or BSc honours joint award. The growing number of students on such degrees across universities in England and Wales has led to a debate as to the intrinsic value of such degrees especially in relation to graduate employability and career opportunities. This paper examines the nature and relative attractiveness of combined degrees and explores the employability of combined honours degree graduates in comparison with single honours degree graduates.