• Validation of electrokinetic stabilisation of M5 Junction 7

      Alder, David; Lamont-Black, J; Hamza, Omar; Jackson, C; Jones, C; University of Derby; Electrokinetic; Jacobs; Newcastle University (ICE, 2019-01-07)
      Electrokinetic method has been increasingly applied to repair infrastructure earthwork involving landslip. The work presented in this paper attempts to improve the current understanding of this innovative technique by verifying the effectiveness of Electrokinetic treatment using in-situ and laboratory testing in addition to monitoring data obtained from the first full scale project implementing this technique, which has been carried out recently for a defected embankment slope on M5- Junction 7 in the UK. The paper outlines the design and implementation aspects of the project and discusses the findings of the post construction verification.
    • Validation of the actuator line method for simulating flow through a horizontal axis tidal stream turbine by comparison with measurements

      Baba-Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Dong, Ping; University of Dundee; University of Liverpool (Elsevier, 2017-05-20)
      The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the capability of the Actuator Line Method (ALM) to simulate flow through a horizontal axis tidal stream turbine. A numerical model combining the ALM with large eddy simulation technique is developed and applied to compute the flow past a laboratory-scale tidal stream turbine. The flow field is analysed in terms of streamwise mean velocity, turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy and the decay rate of the maximum turbulent kinetic energy behind the turbine. It is found that the ALM performs well in predicting the mean flow and turbulence characteristics behind the turbine. The flow field predicted show a clear transition from an organised vorticity region near the turbine to a highly turbulent flow downstream. The location of this transition and the controlling parameters are discussed but further investigation, both numerical and experimental is required in order to clarify its effects on the flow structure and the performance of downstream turbines in tidal turbine arrays.
    • Variation of molecular mean free path in confined geometries

      Xie, Jianfei; University of Edinburgh (AIP Publishing, 2019-08-05)
      This paper aims to settle disputes in the literature about the spatial variation of the molecular mean free path (MFP) in confined geometries. The MFP of a gas is determined by using both molecular dynamics (MD) and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. In spatially-homogeneous cases, the numerical results exactly recover the kinetic theory predictions of a constant MFP. However, in microchannels, the MFP is found to vary near to the bounding walls and reduce at the surfaces to half of its bulk value as long as collisions between gas molecules and wall atoms are taken into account in the calculation of the MFP.
    • Vibro-acoustic performance of different steel studs in double-leaf walls by Finite Element analysis

      Nguyen, Van Bac; Morgan, Tertia; English, Martin; Castellucci, Michael; Hadley Industries plc; University of Sussex (Sage, 2015-06)
      Cold-formed steel studs are often used in lightweight partition walls to provide structural stability but in the same time they change the acoustic performance of the whole system. The overall design of such lightweight structures for acoustic sound insulation becomes very complicated as the sound passing through stud needs to be quantified. One of the greatest challenges is to characterize the stud's geometric effects on the sound transmission of the partition walls. This paper presents a 2-D Finite Element modelling approach and results into the vibro-acoustic performance of different studs in double-leaf walls which are placed in between a reverberant source room and a receiving room. The acoustic medium inside rooms was modelled using fluid elements and the structure was modelled with plane strain elements. The interaction between the acoustic medium and the structure was modelled in a coupled structural-acoustic analysis. An FE modelling setup which includes appropriate model parameters to be used in the structural-acoustic analysis was presented. The FE sound reduction of double-leaf walls using two different stud profiles was then calculated. Experimental tests complying with standards ISO 717-1:1997 and 140-3:1995 were also carried out to evaluate the FE results. It has shown that the stud's shape have significant effects on the sound reduction of the double-leaf walls, and the FE results have similar trends are in fair agreement with the experimental results. A parametric study was conducted and the effects of the stud's shapes on the sound reduction were presented and discussed.
    • Virtual assembly for complex aerospace products- a case study on the assembly of an aircraft wing.

      Shao, Fei; Hon, Bernard K. K.; Ding, Ziyun; University of Derby (2015-06-26)
      The assembly of an aeroplane wing is a complex labour-intensive operation. The operation is characterised by the size of the components, the need for mechanical, hydraulic, electrical components, space constraints within the wing box and the stringent standards required for certification. Improvements of the wing assembly process could be analysed and improved by modern virtual assembly techniques. This paper analysed and optimised the assembly with the approach of virtual assembly techniques. Examples of virtual assembly based on DELMIA was given with special emphasis on the ergonomics aspects of the operation. The results shown that the assembly sequences of the wing panel can be improved by the virtual simulation.
    • Virtual reality in maritime: Opportunities and challenges.

      Ye, Jilin; Southampton Solent University (2017-06)
      The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of virtual reality (VR) technologies and their applications in maritime sector along with potential benefits and critical challenges. Virtual reality (VR) is not a new invention. Scientific research has been working in this field for decades, having recognised it as a very powerful tool for creating more natural and intuitive human computer interactions (HCIs). VR can be described as an interactive, computer-generated three dimensional (3D) environment with which users can interact using specialised peripherals such as 3D displays, data gloves and haptic/force feedback devices. VR is also interpreted as a natural extension to 3D computer graphics with advanced HCIs that simulate a functionally realistic environment. As the technologies of VR evolve, the applications of VR become literally unlimited. It is assumed that VR will reshape the interaction manners between users and computer technology by offering new approaches for the communication of information, the visualisation of processes and the creative expression of ideas. This paper offers a brief primer to the history, current state, and potential future growth of VR. It includes a short history of the technology, a review of the most common VR interfaces, a look at some of the most critical challenges to implementation and a discussion of the future of VR. Finally a description of the potential benefits to the maritime sector that can be gained by implementation of VR technologies is presented.
    • Water efficiency-people and communities

      Tracada, Eleni; Bell, Sarah; Unversity of Derby; University College London (The WATEF Network, University of Brighton, 2015-08)
    • Water valued in green infrastructure designs and human behaviours: Ecocentric values and their acceptance by human beings.

      Tracada, Eleni; Varone, Francesco; University of Derby; University of Naples (National Center for Urban Studies, Campania, 2017-12-22)
      Designers are anthropocentric in their processes and final products; green infrastructure in cities expresses people’s relationship to the environment in terms of resource management primarily. The natural world is transformed into urban green arrangement for the economic and cultural benefit of humans. Most experts believe that by offering people the opportunity to participate in running and preserving certain ecosystems could have a very positive impact to human health and wellbeing. Environmental psychology suggests that we can provoke heightened experiences in people’s minds by designing dynamic flowing water patterns and deep ponds. Designed landscapes have always blended with built manmade environment in a dynamic way. Natural and artificial landscapes interweave with built marvels of human creativity; historic places and urban areas develop and blend in harmony with natural habitat. Most historical cities emerged along water sources as dynamic ecosystems. The authors of this paper discuss the importance of water changing culture and behaviours in both urban and rural areas with reference to some noteworthy case studies and instances across Europe and, in particular, in recent cases of renaturation of rivers.