• Understanding the educational needs of joint honour United Kingdom higher education sector.

      Pigden, Louise; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Global Research and Development Services, 2018-03-24)
      The motivation for this research was to explore the lived experience of joint honours students, for whom there is little in the literature at present. The objective was to critique primary data collected from the students via a self-administered questionnaire. This phenomenological methodology permitted and unfiltered view of the students’ learning experiences to be explored. The research is based on a cross-university student survey, conducted over a period of six months. The online survey, which ran between June 2016 and January 2017, involved self-administered questionnaires designed to collect information on the learning experience of students on joint honours degrees, from four different Universities in England. A key finding of this paper is the need for university administrators to pay particular attention to joint honours degrees in their portfolios in the light of the growing and significant number of students opting to study these degrees and the general tendency amongst universities to focus attention on single honours degrees. Particular areas of concern are highlighted where students on joint honours degrees feel improvements in their educational experience could be made. The future scope of the survey results are discussed in the context of Britain exiting the European Union and in relation to the growing debate on the intrinsic value of university education and the increasing necessity for university management to recognise the unique nature of joint honours degrees and design policy to meet the needs of students enrolled on joint honours degrees.
    • Understanding the implications of chemical regulations, circular economy and corporate social responsibility for product stewardship

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (IOS Press, 2019-09-10)
      Chemical regulations exist to limit and control the amount of hazardous chemical substances being used by industry to mitigate potential risks. Increasing awareness of diminishing natural resources, increasing pollution, and reducing the amounts of harmful waste, has led towards pressure on industry to change from the traditional linear economic model (closed-loop manufacturing), towards the adoption of the Circular Economy (CE) activities. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) extends the relationship between industry and society, defining strategy and communications. The speed at which chemical regulations, CE and CSR adoption takes place will depend on: (1) the speed at which natural resources become more depleted; (2) increasing awareness of the effects of chemical substances by regulators and consumers; (3) increasing numbers of chemical substances being regulated as hazardous, and; (4) increasing consumer and societal pressures for change. Product Stewardship (PS) can be viewed as: (1) involving a wide range of functional areas (design, manufacture, purchasing, sales, support); (2) identifying health and safety, and environmental impacts of product(s); (3) ensuring adequate measures are in place to understand, control or limit impact(s) against a product throughout its lifecycle. The aim of this paper is to focus on using a literature review. The conclusions from this paper will attempt to outline a framework for PS to align with CE and CSR.
    • Understanding the lived experiences of Joint Honours graduates: how can educators best enable student success?

      Pigden, Louise; University of Derby (2017-01-03)
      Combined or joint honours degrees represent 10% of all UK undergraduates. 50,000 out of 500,000 currently enrolled on all honours degrees. This significant and special way of learning therefore warrants scrutiny. This type of degree facilitates students combining the study of two subjects to honours level, with modules delivered from two academic disciplines. The large proportion of students on such degrees across universities in England and Wales means that debate is needed as to the intrinsic value of such degrees especially in relation to graduate employability and career opportunities. This paper examines the lived experiences of joint honours graduates, evaluating the impact that studying joint honours had on their careers, and whether they were well prepared for graduate roles. We draw out themes and characteristics that will assist educators in supporting their students and enabling their future success.
    • Urban environment thermal improvement by the bioclimatic simulation of a populated open urban space in Greece.

      Zoras, Stamatis; Democritus University of Thrace (Taylor and Francis, 2013-11-18)
      Urban neighbourhoods and open spaces are strongly related to bioclimatic techniques and practices. The procedure of a bioclimatic study is presented by the use of simulation tools. Routes linking archaeological monuments in the Greek city of Arta are characterised of decreased human thermal comfort conditions during summer time. The employment of computational fluid dynamics has contributed to the understanding of what interventions should be made at the urban populated routes in order to succeed the defined environmental thermal-related targets. The proposed rehabilitation explains what the interventions would contribute to the improvement of the local environment.
    • Use of cool materials and other bioclimatic interventions in outdoor places in order to mitigate the urban heat island in a medium size city in Greece

      Dimoudi, Argyro; Zoras, Stamatis; Kantzioura, A.; Stogiannou, X.; Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis; Pallas, C.; Democritus University of Thrace (Elsevier, 2014-04-23)
      The materials that are used in outdoor spaces are of prime importance as they modulate the air temperature of the lowest layers of the urban canopy layer, they are central to the energy balance of the surface and they form the energy exchanges that affect the comfort conditions of city people. Paved surfaces contribute to sunlight's heating of the air near the surface. Their ability to absorb, store and emit radiant energy has a substantial affect on urban microclimate. The thermal behaviour of typical construction materials in an urban center of North Greece, at Serres, was investigated. The thermal fluctuation during the day and the surface temperature differences between different materials in a selected area inside the urban centre of the city was monitored. The replacement of conventional materials with cool materials was evaluated to have significant benefits. CFD simulations showed that materials replacement, accompanied by other mitigation techniques in the area, result at reduction of the mean surface temperature in the streets of the area of 6.5 °C. The results of the measurements and the CFD simulations are presented in the paper.
    • A user-controlled thermal chair for an open plan workplace: CFD and field studies of thermal comfort performance

      Shahzad, Sally; Calautit, John Kaiser; Aquino, Angelo I.; Nasir, Diana S. N. M.; Hughes, Ben Richard; University of Derby; University of Nottingham; University of Sheffield (Elsevier, 2017-06-07)
      This study aims to improve user comfort and satisfaction regarding the thermal environment in the open plan office, which is a current challenge in the workplace addressed by limited research. The main difficulty in an open plan setting is that changing the room temperature in an area affects all occupants seated nearby. This issue in addition to individual differences in perceiving the thermal environment create a great challenge to satisfy all occupants in the workplace. This study investigates the application of an advanced thermal system, a user-controlled thermal chair, which allows individual control over their immediate thermal environment without affecting the thermal environment and comfort of other occupants. The performance of the chair was further analysed through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations providing a detailed analysis of the thermal distribution around a thermal chair with a sitting manikin. The results indicated that user thermal comfort can be enhanced by improving the local thermal comfort of the occupant. A prototype of an office chair equipped with thermal control over the seat and the back was produced and examined in an open plan office in November in Leeds, UK. Forty-five individuals used the chair in their everyday context of work and a survey questionnaire was applied to record their views of the thermal environment before and after using the chair. The results of the field study revealed 20% higher comfort and 35% higher satisfaction level, due to the use of thermal chair. Thermal measurements showed acceptable thermal conditions according to the ASHRAE Standard 55-2013. Over 86% of the occupants set the temperature settings of the seat and the back of the chair between 29 °C and 39°. 82% of the occupants expressed their satisfaction level as “satisfied” or “very satisfied” regarding the performance of the thermal chair. The thermal chair energy consumption was relatively low (0.03 kW) when compared with that of typical personal heaters, which are about 1–1.5 kW. Further research is recommended to improve the design and application of the thermal chair to improve user overall thermal comfort and also further reduce energy consumption.
    • Validation of electrokinetic stabilisation of M5 Junction 7

      Alder, David; Lamont-Black, J; Hamza, Omar; Jackson, C; Jones, C; University of Derby; Electrokinetic; Jacobs; Newcastle University (ICE, 2019-01-07)
      Electrokinetic method has been increasingly applied to repair infrastructure earthwork involving landslip. The work presented in this paper attempts to improve the current understanding of this innovative technique by verifying the effectiveness of Electrokinetic treatment using in-situ and laboratory testing in addition to monitoring data obtained from the first full scale project implementing this technique, which has been carried out recently for a defected embankment slope on M5- Junction 7 in the UK. The paper outlines the design and implementation aspects of the project and discusses the findings of the post construction verification.
    • Validation of the actuator line method for simulating flow through a horizontal axis tidal stream turbine by comparison with measurements

      Baba-Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Dong, Ping; University of Dundee; University of Liverpool (Elsevier, 2017-05-20)
      The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the capability of the Actuator Line Method (ALM) to simulate flow through a horizontal axis tidal stream turbine. A numerical model combining the ALM with large eddy simulation technique is developed and applied to compute the flow past a laboratory-scale tidal stream turbine. The flow field is analysed in terms of streamwise mean velocity, turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy and the decay rate of the maximum turbulent kinetic energy behind the turbine. It is found that the ALM performs well in predicting the mean flow and turbulence characteristics behind the turbine. The flow field predicted show a clear transition from an organised vorticity region near the turbine to a highly turbulent flow downstream. The location of this transition and the controlling parameters are discussed but further investigation, both numerical and experimental is required in order to clarify its effects on the flow structure and the performance of downstream turbines in tidal turbine arrays.
    • Variation of molecular mean free path in confined geometries

      Xie, Jianfei; University of Edinburgh (AIP Publishing, 2019-08-05)
      This paper aims to settle disputes in the literature about the spatial variation of the molecular mean free path (MFP) in confined geometries. The MFP of a gas is determined by using both molecular dynamics (MD) and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. In spatially-homogeneous cases, the numerical results exactly recover the kinetic theory predictions of a constant MFP. However, in microchannels, the MFP is found to vary near to the bounding walls and reduce at the surfaces to half of its bulk value as long as collisions between gas molecules and wall atoms are taken into account in the calculation of the MFP.
    • Vibro-acoustic performance of different steel studs in double-leaf walls by Finite Element analysis

      Nguyen, Van Bac; Morgan, Tertia; English, Martin; Castellucci, Michael; Hadley Industries plc; University of Sussex (Sage, 2015-06)
      Cold-formed steel studs are often used in lightweight partition walls to provide structural stability but in the same time they change the acoustic performance of the whole system. The overall design of such lightweight structures for acoustic sound insulation becomes very complicated as the sound passing through stud needs to be quantified. One of the greatest challenges is to characterize the stud's geometric effects on the sound transmission of the partition walls. This paper presents a 2-D Finite Element modelling approach and results into the vibro-acoustic performance of different studs in double-leaf walls which are placed in between a reverberant source room and a receiving room. The acoustic medium inside rooms was modelled using fluid elements and the structure was modelled with plane strain elements. The interaction between the acoustic medium and the structure was modelled in a coupled structural-acoustic analysis. An FE modelling setup which includes appropriate model parameters to be used in the structural-acoustic analysis was presented. The FE sound reduction of double-leaf walls using two different stud profiles was then calculated. Experimental tests complying with standards ISO 717-1:1997 and 140-3:1995 were also carried out to evaluate the FE results. It has shown that the stud's shape have significant effects on the sound reduction of the double-leaf walls, and the FE results have similar trends are in fair agreement with the experimental results. A parametric study was conducted and the effects of the stud's shapes on the sound reduction were presented and discussed.
    • Virtual assembly for complex aerospace products- a case study on the assembly of an aircraft wing.

      Shao, Fei; Hon, Bernard K. K.; Ding, Ziyun; University of Derby (2015-06-26)
      The assembly of an aeroplane wing is a complex labour-intensive operation. The operation is characterised by the size of the components, the need for mechanical, hydraulic, electrical components, space constraints within the wing box and the stringent standards required for certification. Improvements of the wing assembly process could be analysed and improved by modern virtual assembly techniques. This paper analysed and optimised the assembly with the approach of virtual assembly techniques. Examples of virtual assembly based on DELMIA was given with special emphasis on the ergonomics aspects of the operation. The results shown that the assembly sequences of the wing panel can be improved by the virtual simulation.
    • Virtual reality in maritime: Opportunities and challenges.

      Ye, Jilin; Southampton Solent University (2017-06)
      The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of virtual reality (VR) technologies and their applications in maritime sector along with potential benefits and critical challenges. Virtual reality (VR) is not a new invention. Scientific research has been working in this field for decades, having recognised it as a very powerful tool for creating more natural and intuitive human computer interactions (HCIs). VR can be described as an interactive, computer-generated three dimensional (3D) environment with which users can interact using specialised peripherals such as 3D displays, data gloves and haptic/force feedback devices. VR is also interpreted as a natural extension to 3D computer graphics with advanced HCIs that simulate a functionally realistic environment. As the technologies of VR evolve, the applications of VR become literally unlimited. It is assumed that VR will reshape the interaction manners between users and computer technology by offering new approaches for the communication of information, the visualisation of processes and the creative expression of ideas. This paper offers a brief primer to the history, current state, and potential future growth of VR. It includes a short history of the technology, a review of the most common VR interfaces, a look at some of the most critical challenges to implementation and a discussion of the future of VR. Finally a description of the potential benefits to the maritime sector that can be gained by implementation of VR technologies is presented.
    • Water efficiency-people and communities

      Tracada, Eleni; Bell, Sarah; Unversity of Derby; University College London (The WATEF Network, University of Brighton, 2015-08)
    • Water valued in green infrastructure designs and human behaviours: Ecocentric values and their acceptance by human beings.

      Tracada, Eleni; Varone, Francesco; University of Derby; University of Naples (National Center for Urban Studies, Campania, 2017-12-22)
      Designers are anthropocentric in their processes and final products; green infrastructure in cities expresses people’s relationship to the environment in terms of resource management primarily. The natural world is transformed into urban green arrangement for the economic and cultural benefit of humans. Most experts believe that by offering people the opportunity to participate in running and preserving certain ecosystems could have a very positive impact to human health and wellbeing. Environmental psychology suggests that we can provoke heightened experiences in people’s minds by designing dynamic flowing water patterns and deep ponds. Designed landscapes have always blended with built manmade environment in a dynamic way. Natural and artificial landscapes interweave with built marvels of human creativity; historic places and urban areas develop and blend in harmony with natural habitat. Most historical cities emerged along water sources as dynamic ecosystems. The authors of this paper discuss the importance of water changing culture and behaviours in both urban and rural areas with reference to some noteworthy case studies and instances across Europe and, in particular, in recent cases of renaturation of rivers.