• Tailoring the interfacial adhesion of anodised TiO2 nanotubes on Ti-6Al-4V alloy for medical implants

      Danookdharree, Urvashi; Le, Huirong; Handy, Richard; Tredwin, Christopher; University of Plymouth (2014-09)
      Self-assembled nano-structure on the surface of bone/dental implants has attracted significant interest in the last few decades. In this context, anodic TiO2 nanotubes have been shown to have a beneficial effect on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation around implant [1-2]. However, there is uncertainty about the interfacial adhesion to substrate as a surface coating for medical implants [3]. In this study, the effects of anodising conditions on the morphology, composition and interfacial adhesion of the nanotubes grown on titanium alloy were investigated with various electrolytes, pH values and voltage seep rate.
    • Theoretical perspectives in purchasing and supply chain management: an analysis of the literature

      Chicksand, Daniel; Watson, Glyn; Walker, Helen; Radnor, Zoe; Johnsen, Bob; Liyanage, Kapila; Warwick Business School (International Purchasing and Supply Education and Research Association, 2010-05-16)
      The research presented in this paper is work-in-progress and aims to investigate to what extent purchasing and supply chain management (SCM), as a relatively new area of academic enquiry, is ready or able to join the select group of modern scientific disciplines. The analysis indicates that the discipline lacks coherence and exhibits significant and increasingly interdisciplinary breath and is some way off becoming a natural science. Furthermore, it is argued that SCM research has diverse agendas and therefore it is unlikely that one dominant paradigm will emerge.
    • Thermal Comfort and Energy Efficiency in a Naturally Ventilated Office: CFD, BES and a Field Study

      Calautit, John Kaiser; Shahzad, Sally; Hughes, Ben; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; University of Sheffield; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh (Nova Publishers, 2015)
      The energy crisis drives the design of the workplace towards passive systems, such as natural ventilation. The design of the ventilation system influences the energy demand of the building and comfort of the user. In order to improve the design, optimise the energy performance, predict and improve users’ comfort, the application of accurate computational modelling and analysis techniques are essential. This study reviews the advances in thermal comfort modelling and energy analysis of the workplace using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Building Energy Simulation (BES). This is followed by a case study of CFD-BES analysis of energy and thermal comfort of a practice example of a naturally ventilated office. This is a three storey building with an open plan layout in the UK and the office area of 3000 m2, including 375 workstations. It was awarded by the British Council for Offices, received an ‘excellent’ BREEAM rating and 10 out of 10 Environmental Performance Indicator (EPI) rating. The office is naturally ventilated with manually and mechanically operated windows and a stack effect through the vents above the atrium. Furthermore, environmental measurements and comfort surveys are applied in the case study buildings.
    • Thermal Comfort and Energy: CFD, BES and Field Study in a British Open Plan Office with Displacement Ventilation

      Shahzad, Sally; Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; University of Derby; University of Sheffield; University of Edinburgh (2016)
      Energy efficiency and thermal comfort are necessary in designing the workplace. Accurate computational modelling and analysis methods are useful to improve the design, energy consumption and user’s comfort. This study compared the results of combined Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Building Energy Simulation (BES) with the contextual data collected through a Filed Study of Thermal Comfort (FSTC) regarding user comfort and energy in a workplace. The building was a six storey open plan office in Aberdeen, built in 2011, with displacement ventilation, “very good” BREEAM and “B” energy ratings. Each floor had 175 workstations, 1680m2 office area and approximately 3.5m2 per workstation. Thermal comfort surveys and environmental measurements were applied. The results were compared with the CFD modelling of the ventilation and thermal performance, PMV and BES energy predictions. The simulation results were in good agreement to that of the field data, indicating over 70% slightly cool and 25% neutral. The combination of CFD and BES improved the accuracy of the simulation and provided important information on optimising energy and the thermal environment. This combined simulation is useful and recommended in the design phase to achieve the balance of energy and comfort in the workplace.
    • Thermal comfort and indoor air quality analysis of a low-energy cooling windcatcher.

      Calautit, John Kaiser; Aquino, Angelo I.; Shahzad, Sally; Nasir, Diana S. N. M; Hughes, Ben Richard; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Applied Energy, 2016)
      The aim of this work was to investigate the performance of a roof-mounted cooling windcatcher integrated with heat pipes using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and field test analysis. The windcatcher model was incorporated to a 5m x 5m x3 m test room model. The study employed the CFD code FLUENT 15 with the standard k-ɛ model to conduct the steady-state RANS simulation. The numerical model provided detailed analysis of the airflow and temperature distribution inside the test room. The CO2 concentration analysis showed that the system was capable of delivering fresh air inside the space and lowering the CO2 levels. The thermal comfort was calculated using the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) method. The PMV values ranged between +0.48 to +0.99 and the average was +0.85 (slightly warm). Field test measurements were carried out in the Ras-Al-Khaimah (RAK), UAE during the month of September. Numerical model was validated using experimental data and good agreement was observed between both methods of analysis.
    • The threshold between micro and macro environments

      Shahzad, Sally; Azad University (2006)
      This project has been designed for orphan children. Before entering the society, children should be in contact with people. The main point is to create an interesting open space near residential buildings where the communication between children and people takes place. What are the criteria in designing an open space as a link between micro and macro environment? Location and rural quality, an interrelated view between inside and outside, encouraging people to come to the link and the internal forces that shape the site are the four crucial factors. In summary, the purpose of this article is to describe how to create an interrelated space between orphan's residential zone and the city.
    • To design or to draw. Two different verbs, two different abilities, one result

      Carnevale, Valeria; University of Derby (Common Ground Publishing, 2015-01)
      The essay aims to put forward an etymological and neurological difference between ‘designing’ and ‘drawing’. Taking into account the theory of the left and right side of the brain, it explains how ‘to design’ and ‘to draw’ belong to different abilities. This difference is crucial to the understanding of space and form; geometry. The essay considers the use of hand drawing and physical model making as crucial to comprehend the essence of design. Technical drawing however is a mathematical procedure thus can be done without the understanding of how to design. It will follow to explain the importance of the design process as a hand drawn/modelled tool in the first years of a design related degree. It will also challenge quick and easy CAD programmes like Sketch-up. Finally, the essay will try to compare the ideas of other scholars in the fields of design, art and architecture with our own experience. Whereas keeping to the premises of a pedagogical approach of learning by doing, in which cognitive and personal learning is expected and enhanced (Lyon, 2011), theoretical and critical understanding will balance the relation of both: the creative and the rational; ‘to design’ and ‘to draw’.
    • To use or not to use enough water in Travellers’ sites? What does the new planning framework do about water uses and misconceptions?

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby (2016-07)
      During the last few years the author had the opportunity to work in partnership with international researchers in order to investigate on case law issues often affecting negatively the outcome of planning applications for Gypsy and Traveller sites in the UK and other European countries. These research activities took place during a two-year European funded project with the title Wor(l)ds which Exclude (WE). The author and her team in the UK had carried out visits to various sites; reports and recommendations have been written in relation to the latest developments in the planning framework which also regulates the construction of pitches for Gypsy and Traveller users in its special supplement. Some changes emerged after Law Court hearings and relevant decisions referring to accommodation arrangements for Gypsy and Traveller Communities. Although these arrangements were often established after consultation between local authorities and communities involved, rejections of planning applications were often based upon strong disagreements amongst members of local communities and neighborhoods in proximity of proposed new pitches. According to Gypsy and Traveller culture toilets, showers and kitchens should not be integral parts of their mobile homes and caravans; all these facilities should be grouped mainly in blocks of facilities (or blocks of facility rooms) according to the size of the site. Because of certain local petitions though opposing the size and view of caravans and facilities inside the pitches, the facilities’ blocks do not provide enough space and equipment for water uses and drainage. The researchers had the opportunity to visit some sites providing facilities and accommodation and interviewed the inhabitants of the sites. It was also found that often rejections of extensions to planning applications of previously approved temporary sites for Gypsy and Traveller people, when challenged to the law courts, were hardly successful mainly because of planning inspectors and local residents’ preconceptions on these groups’ unsanitariness (not enough use of water) or, strange enough, because of overflows and waste of water during so-called extremely dirty works, such as recycling processes in pitches. In reality, the European Law Courts often found that rejections occurred because of local communities’ misconception on water uses in services attached to the accommodation pitches. The main question should be what the title of this paper is asking, so that the groups interested could get swift and competent answers. The research findings in the UK were compared with solutions and findings in other partner European countries participating in the WE project and an interactive website was created for ongoing discussions and dissemination of best practice activities and projects.
    • ’Too many empty homes, too many homeless’ – A novel design and procurement framework for transforming empty homes through sustainable solutions

      Ceranic, Boris; Markwell, Graham; Dean, Angela; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-03)
      The Retro-Tek research project investigates the potential of existing buildings in the UK contributing towards the EU 2050 CO2 target, through a sustainable retrofit programme aimed specifically at empty homes. It proposes a novel design and procurement methodology to bring empty homes back into use, integrate sustainable technologies and materials and offer them back to the market. Along with the obvious environmental sustainability benefits, it also assists communities and areas in need of regeneration, supporting the developments to both help address housing shortages and tackle socio-economic problems with empty, dilapidated dwellings. The project has formed a consortium of stakeholders and established unique design and procurement processes and methodologies relevant to the sustainable retrofit process. Their viability was tested via undertaking two case studies of representative empty homes, establishing results within a measurable data format. The research further developed a commercial output model based on financing, procurement, the supply chain and the project management process and is currently applying for funding to launch a major scheme of bringing 1000 empty homes back in use by 2020.
    • Top down or bottom up? – Supply chain engagement for material compliance reporting

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (IEEE, 2017-07-25)
      Material compliance reporting relates to engaging with a supply chain to ascertain the materials (substances and mixtures) applied as part of a transformation cycle for a given product (termed ‘article’ in chemical regulations). Chemical regulations result in increasing control over chemical substance usage. The material compliance reporting information is required to ensure compliance to the chemical regulations, by identifying the chemical substances and mixtures used within an article, which can then be compared against regulated chemical substance lists to identify potential business risks. This paper contributes to material compliance reporting literature by identifying a research gap, relating to supply chain approaches to material compliance. The results will aid other industries when examining best practice implementation approaches.
    • Transformation of a university building into a zero energy building in Mediterranean climate.

      Mytafides, Christos K.; Dimoudi, Argyro; Zoras, Stamatis; Democritus University of Thrace (Elsevier, 2017-08-15)
      In the context of environmental policy, the EU has launched a series of initiatives aimed at increasing the use of energy efficiency, as it has pledged to reduce energy consumption by 20%, compared with projected levels of growth of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere by 2020. In Greece CO2 emission levels in the atmosphere have risen significantly over the past two decades [1]. For the year 2011, CO2 emissions per person in Greece correspond to 7.56 t. According to the data, this increase in emissions is reflected to a 151.2% above from the levels of 1980 and a 756% increase from 1960 levels. The building sector consumes the largest amount of energy in Greece, therefore constitutes the most important source of CO2 emissions. The energy upgrade of the building sector produces multiple benefits such as reduced energy consumption, which is consistent with the reduction of air pollution. Additionally, there is a significant improvement at the interior comfort conditions of the building, which promotes productivity and occupant health. Moreover, because of the large number of educational buildings in the country, the energy consumption of them present a significant amount of the country's total energy consumption and simultaneously has the effect of increasing the costs paid by the state budget for the operation and maintenance of public buildings. The investigation of alternative methods to reduce energy consumption in educational buildings is an important approach for sustainability and economic development of the country over time. The purpose of this paper is to study and evaluate the energy saving methods of a university building in Mediterranean climate with significant energy consumption. Additionally, through Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, studies considering the contribution of passive heating and cooling techniques were conducted, in order to minimize energy consumption in pursuit of desirable interior thermal comfort conditions.
    • Transient performance investigation of different flow-field designs of automotive polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

      Choopanya, Pattarapong; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby, UK (International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer (ICHMT)., 2014-07-14)
      Transient performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell in terms of the time-dependent current density profile that responds to the varying cell potential is of critical importance for an automotive PEM fuel cell. A step change in cell potential is applied to the cell terminals to simulate a sudden change in load demand due to an engine startup or very high acceleration. The transient responses of the three most commonly used flow-fields, namely, parallel, single-serpentine, and interdigitated designs in terms of the magnitude of current overshoot and time taken to adjust to the new equilibrium state are compared. The results suggest the serpentine flow-field outperforms its two counterparts as it balances the satisfactory transient performance with an expense of acceptable pressure drop across the cell and hence it is the most appropriate design to be used in automotive PEM fuel cells.
    • Tribological properties of nanoclay reinforced polyimide nanocomposite coatings for alloy steels

      Meng, Maozhou; Le, Huirong; University of Derby; Department of Mechanical Engineering and Built Environment; College of Engineering and Technology; University of Derby; Derby UK; Department of Mechanical Engineering and Built Environment; College of Engineering and Technology; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2017-06-30)
      A new process was developed to deposit uniform Montmorillonite nanoclay reinforced polyimide nanocomposite coating on alloy steels. The nanoclay particles were successfully dispersed in N, N-Dimethylacetamide using a combination of magnetic stirring, soaking, and ultrasonic agitation. It was found that the uniform and crack-free coating can be achieved. The tribological tests indicated that the nanocomposite coating has good adhesion to alloy steels, good load carrying capacity, relatively low friction, and wear. This nanocomposite is a promising material for some offshore, aerospace, and automotive structures that are subjected to sliding contact in corrosive environment.
    • Understanding the educational needs of joint honour United Kingdom higher education sector.

      Pigden, Louise; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (Global Research and Development Services, 2018-03-24)
      The motivation for this research was to explore the lived experience of joint honours students, for whom there is little in the literature at present. The objective was to critique primary data collected from the students via a self-administered questionnaire. This phenomenological methodology permitted and unfiltered view of the students’ learning experiences to be explored. The research is based on a cross-university student survey, conducted over a period of six months. The online survey, which ran between June 2016 and January 2017, involved self-administered questionnaires designed to collect information on the learning experience of students on joint honours degrees, from four different Universities in England. A key finding of this paper is the need for university administrators to pay particular attention to joint honours degrees in their portfolios in the light of the growing and significant number of students opting to study these degrees and the general tendency amongst universities to focus attention on single honours degrees. Particular areas of concern are highlighted where students on joint honours degrees feel improvements in their educational experience could be made. The future scope of the survey results are discussed in the context of Britain exiting the European Union and in relation to the growing debate on the intrinsic value of university education and the increasing necessity for university management to recognise the unique nature of joint honours degrees and design policy to meet the needs of students enrolled on joint honours degrees.
    • Understanding the lived experiences of Joint Honours graduates: how can educators best enable student success?

      Pigden, Louise; University of Derby (2017-01-03)
      Combined or joint honours degrees represent 10% of all UK undergraduates. 50,000 out of 500,000 currently enrolled on all honours degrees. This significant and special way of learning therefore warrants scrutiny. This type of degree facilitates students combining the study of two subjects to honours level, with modules delivered from two academic disciplines. The large proportion of students on such degrees across universities in England and Wales means that debate is needed as to the intrinsic value of such degrees especially in relation to graduate employability and career opportunities. This paper examines the lived experiences of joint honours graduates, evaluating the impact that studying joint honours had on their careers, and whether they were well prepared for graduate roles. We draw out themes and characteristics that will assist educators in supporting their students and enabling their future success.
    • Urban environment thermal improvement by the bioclimatic simulation of a populated open urban space in Greece.

      Zoras, Stamatis; Democritus University of Thrace (Taylor and Francis, 2013-11-18)
      Urban neighbourhoods and open spaces are strongly related to bioclimatic techniques and practices. The procedure of a bioclimatic study is presented by the use of simulation tools. Routes linking archaeological monuments in the Greek city of Arta are characterised of decreased human thermal comfort conditions during summer time. The employment of computational fluid dynamics has contributed to the understanding of what interventions should be made at the urban populated routes in order to succeed the defined environmental thermal-related targets. The proposed rehabilitation explains what the interventions would contribute to the improvement of the local environment.
    • Use of cool materials and other bioclimatic interventions in outdoor places in order to mitigate the urban heat island in a medium size city in Greece

      Dimoudi, Argyro; Zoras, Stamatis; Kantzioura, A.; Stogiannou, X.; Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis; Pallas, C.; Democritus University of Thrace (Elsevier, 2014-04-23)
      The materials that are used in outdoor spaces are of prime importance as they modulate the air temperature of the lowest layers of the urban canopy layer, they are central to the energy balance of the surface and they form the energy exchanges that affect the comfort conditions of city people. Paved surfaces contribute to sunlight's heating of the air near the surface. Their ability to absorb, store and emit radiant energy has a substantial affect on urban microclimate. The thermal behaviour of typical construction materials in an urban center of North Greece, at Serres, was investigated. The thermal fluctuation during the day and the surface temperature differences between different materials in a selected area inside the urban centre of the city was monitored. The replacement of conventional materials with cool materials was evaluated to have significant benefits. CFD simulations showed that materials replacement, accompanied by other mitigation techniques in the area, result at reduction of the mean surface temperature in the streets of the area of 6.5 °C. The results of the measurements and the CFD simulations are presented in the paper.
    • A user-controlled thermal chair for an open plan workplace: CFD and field studies of thermal comfort performance

      Shahzad, Sally; Calautit, John Kaiser; Aquino, Angelo I.; Nasir, Diana S. N. M.; Hughes, Ben Richard; University of Derby; University of Nottingham; University of Sheffield (Elsevier, 2017-06-07)
      This study aims to improve user comfort and satisfaction regarding the thermal environment in the open plan office, which is a current challenge in the workplace addressed by limited research. The main difficulty in an open plan setting is that changing the room temperature in an area affects all occupants seated nearby. This issue in addition to individual differences in perceiving the thermal environment create a great challenge to satisfy all occupants in the workplace. This study investigates the application of an advanced thermal system, a user-controlled thermal chair, which allows individual control over their immediate thermal environment without affecting the thermal environment and comfort of other occupants. The performance of the chair was further analysed through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations providing a detailed analysis of the thermal distribution around a thermal chair with a sitting manikin. The results indicated that user thermal comfort can be enhanced by improving the local thermal comfort of the occupant. A prototype of an office chair equipped with thermal control over the seat and the back was produced and examined in an open plan office in November in Leeds, UK. Forty-five individuals used the chair in their everyday context of work and a survey questionnaire was applied to record their views of the thermal environment before and after using the chair. The results of the field study revealed 20% higher comfort and 35% higher satisfaction level, due to the use of thermal chair. Thermal measurements showed acceptable thermal conditions according to the ASHRAE Standard 55-2013. Over 86% of the occupants set the temperature settings of the seat and the back of the chair between 29 °C and 39°. 82% of the occupants expressed their satisfaction level as “satisfied” or “very satisfied” regarding the performance of the thermal chair. The thermal chair energy consumption was relatively low (0.03 kW) when compared with that of typical personal heaters, which are about 1–1.5 kW. Further research is recommended to improve the design and application of the thermal chair to improve user overall thermal comfort and also further reduce energy consumption.
    • Validation of electrokinetic stabilisation of M5 Junction 7

      Alder, David; Lamont-Black, J; Hamza, Omar; Jackson, C; Jones, C; University of Derby; Electrokinetic; Jacobs; Newcastle University (ICE, 2019-01-07)
      Electrokinetic method has been increasingly applied to repair infrastructure earthwork involving landslip. The work presented in this paper attempts to improve the current understanding of this innovative technique by verifying the effectiveness of Electrokinetic treatment using in-situ and laboratory testing in addition to monitoring data obtained from the first full scale project implementing this technique, which has been carried out recently for a defected embankment slope on M5- Junction 7 in the UK. The paper outlines the design and implementation aspects of the project and discusses the findings of the post construction verification.