• Quantitative evaluation of voids in lead free solder joints.

      Mallik, Sabuj; Njoku, Jude; Takyi, Gabriel; Unviersity of Derby; University of Greenwich; Kwame Nkrumah University (Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2015-07)
      Voiding in solder joints poses a serious reliability concern for electronic products. The aim of this research was to quantify the void formation in lead-free solder joints through X-ray inspections. Experiments were designed to investigate how void formation is affected by solder bump size and shape, differences in reflow time and temperature, and differences in solder paste formulation. Four different lead-free solder paste samples were used to produce solder bumps on a number of test boards, using surface mount reflow soldering process. Using an advanced X-ray inspection system void percentages were measured for three different size and shape solder bumps. Results indicate that the voiding in solder joint is strongly influenced by solder bump size and shape, with voids found to have increased when bump size decreased. A longer soaking period during reflow stage has negatively affectedsolder voids. Voiding was also accelerated with smaller solder particles in solder paste.
    • Quantitative vs. qualitative methodologies to investigate environmental control in the workplace: neutral thermal sensation and thermal environmental intention

      Shahzad, Sally; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; University of Edinburgh (2013)
      This study compares the application of qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate user comfort and environmental control in the workplace. This is examined by environmental measurement and user satisfaction in two workplaces with respectively low and high levels of individual environmental control. An open plan office in Scotland is selected with automatic displacement ventilation, where users have access to limited windows. In contrast, a cellular plan office in Norway is chosen that provides every user with control over a window, in addition to the ability to adjust heating and cooling. Complimentary quantitative and qualitative methodologies are applied with particular emphasis on Grounded Theory methods. Questionnaire, environmental measurements and semi-structured interviews are used. A new visual recording method is applied to analyse the subject in its context qualitatively. Information regarding all users and their environment is applied as colour codes to floor plate layouts. The results are compared with the quantitative analysis. The study examines the significance of applying a qualitative method to question the ‘Neutral Thermal Sensation’ and expand on the importance of the ‘Thermal Environmental Intention’. This paper suggests that the quantitative appraisal could be associated with a risk of misjudgement.
    • Radio frequency identification (RFID) adoption strategy for strategic supply chain

      Liyanage, Kapila; Gbededo, Mijoh Ayodele; University of Derby (Consortium of UK University Manufacturing and Engineering Department Heads, 2014)
      The on-going trend of applications and implications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, and the increasing external pressures on industries operating in the global market is no doubt making RFID adoption unavoidable. This is driving many manufacturers and businesses into “immature” RFID adoption with low records of success. Whilst most existing technology adoption readiness models can help an organisation evaluate its technology adoption readiness, there is no existing model to analyse and resolve the identified barriers in RFID adoption. This paper therefore, investigates the specific RFID adoption issues confronting industries operating in the global supply chain, discusses and develops an RFID Adoption Strategy framework for successful RFID-enabled business. The paper also offers a strategic approach to timely delivery of a successful RFID adoption under global supply chain external pressures.
    • Rapid deployment modular building solutions and climatic adaptability: Case based study of a novel approach to “thermal capacity on demand” and building management systems.

      Ceranic, Boris; Beardmore, John; Cox, Adrian; University of Derby; T4 Sustainability; Green 4 Architects (Elsevier, 2018-02-13)
      In this research, a novel “thermal capacity on demand” approach to modular thermal storage design has been discussed, seen as a key to the climatic adaptability of a proposed Smart-POD building system and its energy performance. Smart-POD is a unique and innovative research project which provides an alternative to traditional classroom design. It proposes a rapid deployment building solution, temporary or permanent in its use, modular in design, flexible in set-up and self-sustaining in use, requiring minimal site preparation, and meeting all its energy demands from renewable energy sources. Its feasibility was tested by a design case study which investigated climatic adaptability based on the proposed approach. This approach uniquely combines balancing of energy demand and supply using renewable technologies and a bespoke low temperature thermal store. It further proposes to use an open source Building energy Management System (oBeMS) conceived in this research, to intelligently manage thermal, ventilation and humidity control strategies which adapt to the climate, season and weather in which the building is placed. The predicted performance of proposed system demonstrates potential for an effective diurnal climatic adaptability, enhanced by integrated passive design strategies, and intelligent modes of building control. The method of BIM integrated sustainable design analysis (SDA) and building management system (BMS) has also been deliberated, as a framework for exploring the integration of proposed building management system into smart building environments (SBEs).
    • Real estate student satisfaction in Australia : what matters most?

      Poon, Joanna; Brownlow, Michael; University of Salford (Emerald Group Publishing, 2015)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the relative importance of the factors that influence the overall satisfaction of real estate students and also examine the extent to which demographic backgrounds affect this. Furthermore, this paper benchmarks the satisfaction of real estate students against that of built environment students. Design/methodology/approach: The data used in this paper have been collected from the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) within the Australian Graduate Survey (AGS). Dimensionality reduction was used to prepare the data about the courses identified in the AGS for analysis. This was done in order to simplify classification of real estate and built environment courses examined in this paper. Descriptive and statistical analysis methods were used to analyse student satisfaction variables and identify the extent to which demographic factors influenced overall student satisfaction. Findings: Real estate students in Australia have a relatively higher level of student satisfaction compared to built environment students overall, but built environment students have a higher level of satisfaction with regard to compulsory variables such as “Good Teaching Scale” and “Generic Skills Scale”. However, real estate students show a higher level of agreement in the Likert scale regarding the optional variables “Appropriate Assessment” and “Learning Community”, respectively. The most important factor for overall student satisfaction was the question: “the staff made it clear right from the start what they expected from the students”. The answers to this question had a Pearson correlation value of 1.000 for both real estate and built environment students. Age and mode of study also have some impact on the overall satisfaction level of both sets of students, while gender, degree class and the year the university were established are additional factors affecting the overall satisfaction of built environment students. Practical implications: This research identifies the factors that affect the satisfaction of property course students in ascending order of importance. Course directors of real estate courses can use the findings of this research to make recommendations on the redesign and redevelopment of their courses in order to make them more attractive and appealing to students to enhance student recruitment and retention. Originality/value: This is pioneering research that provides a comprehensive overview of the factors affecting student satisfaction with regard to real estate and built environment students in Australia.
    • Real-time optical character recognition on field programmable gate array for automatic number plate recognition system

      Sotudeh, Reza; Zhai, Xiaojun; Bensaali, Faycal; University of Hertfordshire (The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2013-11-01)
      The last main stage in an automatic number plate recognition system (ANPRs) is optical character recognition (OCR), where the number plate characters on the number plate image are converted into encoded texts. In this study, an artificial neural network-based OCR algorithm for ANPR application and its efficient architecture are presented. The proposed architecture has been successfully implemented and tested using the Mentor Graphics RC240 field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) development board equipped with a 4M Gates Xilinx Virtex-4 LX40. A database of 3570 UK binary character images have been used for testing the performance of the proposed architecture. Results achieved have shown that the proposed architecture can meet the real-time requirement of an ANPR system and can process a character image in 0.7 ms with 97.3% successful character recognition rate and consumes only 23% of the available area in the used FPGA.
    • Recent experiences of urban ritual performances, inspired by Dimitris Pikionis's walkways in Athens.

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby (2018-08)
      Dimitris Pikionis (1887-1968), architect and teacher, started his career by proposing new architecture based on ‘trans Hellenic forms’ or transcendent continuing forms from antiquity to modern times. Pikionis’s acquaintance with Giorgio de Chirico led to his new approach of ‘Hellenism’ (or Greekness) through vernacular art in conjunction with Modernism. For several decades after Greece liberation from Turks, several architects proposed bizarre plans for the area around and on the top of the Acropolis, such as the proposal of a palace of the first king, in which the Parthenon was reduced to a mere decorative feature of the palace gardens. Several other proposals until early 1950s proposed archaeological park areas. However the search of Greekness had remained elusive and ambiguous in all these proposals. Only Dimitris Pikionis captured what many authors, suggested as the close relationship between nature and culture; the temples adored the gods of the earth and the plants, such as the olive tree. Dimitris Pikionis names as ‘homorhythmia’ the rhythm that governs collective forms of life, of the topography of the earth and of art and architecture. His masterplan of re-landscaping the area surrounding the Sacred Rock of Acropolis lets nature envelope the ancient ruins by obeying nature principles. Pikionis was inspired by the painters of his time such as Cezanne, Paul Klee and Giorgio de Chirico, but attends forms rather than colours. Athens has now re-discovered the work of Dimitris Pikionis and his teaching to his students in strong rooted Classicism and culture in relation to nature. He directed and supervised his students and workers building new urban pathways by using marble and stone fragments spread around the hill of the Acropolis from ruined temples and houses from Classic to Byzantine eras. His paths are still followed by locals and visitors. Recently these paths were tested by the author, her colleagues and students of arts and architecture, participating in Dance Architecture Spatiality, an Erasmus research project. Students were inspired by the paths and surrounding areas and created an urban ritual performance with the guidance of a well-known choreographer; people present in that area during rehearsals and the main performance became spontaneous participants and enjoyed a different urban and cultural walk to the top of a hill opposite to the Acropolis, a celebration of Classicism through modern human behaviours. In his Inhabiting Time, Juhani Pallasmaa also refers to the “device of time in architecture” by affirming that Pikionis’s pathways of natural and found man-made ancient stones “evoke a dense architectural narrative with a feeling of deep time; … the layering of styles and the juxtaposition of different uses and activities – commonplace and ceremonial, utilitarian and symbolic – place us comfortably in the continuum of lives through centuries”.
    • The regeneration of minor historical centres: Neighbourhood Agreement II in San Lorenzo Maggiore (Benevento)

      Tracada, Eleni; Varone, Francesco; University of Derby; University of Naples Federico II (Master Pro Ingegneri Associati, 2016-12-22)
      The contribution shows the methodology and investigation carried out for an intervention of regeneration/valorisation in one minor historical centre within inner Campania Region in Benevento province. These processes occurred during complex programmes and, in particular, during the development of the so-called “Contratto di Quartiere II” (= Neighbourhood Agreement II) (MIT announcement 27/01/2004) in synergy with a PRUSST named as “Calidone” and Benevento Municipality as the lead. The aim of Neighbourhood Agreement II was the revitalisation of a relevant part of the neglected historical centre of San Lorenzo Maggiore Municipality; this was financed by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport in 2004 by means of 5.5 million Euros committed for interventions of experimental regeneration of the historical urban fabric and in conjunction with the acquisition of several buildings by the Council, intending to provide 28 ERP houses and relevant services.
    • Reinforcement of sol-gel processed calcium phosphate cement using functionalised CNTs

      Natesan, Kiruthika; Le, Huirong; Tredwin, Christopher; Handy, Richard; University of Plymouth (2014-09-03)
      Calcium phosphate is bioactive, biodegradable graft material with excellent biological properties. However, its low strength limits its use to only non-stress application1 . We hypothesized that a composite of calcium phosphate cement reinforced with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) could enhance the strength of the material and widen its applications. In this paper we have discussed a simplified process of fabricating calcium phosphate cement by sol-gel technique2 along with the uniform dispersion and incorporation of MWCNTs. As the material can potentially be replaced with new bone after a period of time, it will satisfy the key requirements of an ideal bone graft.
    • Relationships between demographic factors and employment prospects of architecture, construction and urban planning graduates

      Poon, Joanna; University of Salford (Taylor & Francis, 2016-03-16)
      This paper investigates the relationships between demographic factors and the employment prospects of architecture, construction and urban planning students. Dimensionality reduction was used to produce the dataset for the further analysis in this paper from the raw data of Australia Graduate Survey (AGS). Descriptive analysis, chi-squared contingency 2-way analysis and phi-coefficient test were used for the analysis of data. The research findings indicated that architecture graduates have the lowest level of graduate employment at 84.66% whilst construction graduates have the highest level at 92.27%. Gender, age and education level are not statistically significant correlated with whether the graduates are able to secure employment after graduation. On the other hand, whether speaking English at home or not is statistically significant correlated with whether graduates secured employment or not after graduation. Demographic factors are statistically significant correlated with whether graduates secure full-time or part-time employment. Architecture graduates who are male, age 24 years or above, studied a postgraduate degree and spoke English at home are more likely to be employed on a full-time basis after graduation. Age and whether speaking English at home or not; and gender are not correlated with whether construction and urban planning graduates respectively were employed full-time.
    • The relevance of taxation in middle income economies

      Orchieng, M; Poon, Joanna; University of Salford (Emerald Group Publishing, 2014)
    • Renaturalising the water courses: dynamic interactions between communities and nature

      Tracada, Eleni; Varone, Francesco; University of Derby; University of Naples (WATEF Network/University of Bath, 2018-09)
      In ecology, an ecosystem is defined as a system of interconnected elements formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment. In all ecosystems, communities of organisms include people as main actors, either as designers of its infrastructure or as participants in its upgrading. Combined with urban design, landscape architecture has the power to stimulate human experiences by alluding to dynamic patterns of still or rushing water. We love landscapes as physical spaces and we also respond to landscape beauty with immense appreciation; our urban cultural ecosystems blend harmoniously with water. By being transformed into polluted artificial waterways or fiercely running rainwater discharges, sometimes our meandering water courses can endanger people as well as the environment. How can we re-establish a balance between our ecosystems and the anthropocentric remodelling of our cities? The authors discuss the trends of renaturalisation/renaturation of water courses in some European countries, where previously water management has implied working against nature to ensure progress for mankind. Instead of only containing rivers, the new paradigm shift makes nature an ally to stabilise water levels, prevent floods in densely urbanised areas, and safeguard water uses. Water managers and city planners pursue water systems with water rules and policies backing their claim: ‘living with water’ and ‘building with nature’. Recent projects could be easily compared with Leonardo’s hydrology ideas in Renaissance. In his Treatise on Water, Leonardo focuses on moving waters and trained rivers in relation to their water cycles and the tectonics of the earth’s surface with the aim of benefitting cities and people.
    • Renaturalising the water courses: dynamic interactions between communities and nature

      Tracada, Eleni; Varone, Francesco; University of Derby; University of Naples (2018-09)
    • Repairing a shield tunnel damaged by secondary grouting.

      Jin-long, Liu; Hamza, Omar; Davies-Vollum, K. Siân; Jie-qun, Liu; University of Derby; Hefei University (Elsevier, 2018-07-12)
      This paper reports on a repair work which has recently been conducted for a metro tunnel in Hefei city, China. The tunnel has been originally constructed using shield method where synchronous grouting was used to fill the gaps between the tunnel segments and soil. Following a regular maintenance inspection of the tunnel, several leakage issues were identified between three stations. Secondary grouting was adopted as a solution to block the tunnel leakage, however, shortly after the start of grouting work, the track and track bed were found to be unevenly uplifted with significant cracks in the tunnel’s segments. The paper describes and discusses key aspects of this case study including ground conditions, leakages patterns of the tunnel, recorded volumes and injection pressure of the secondary grouting, as well as survey data of track displacement and segment cracks. The investigation confirmed that the situation was caused by an inappropriate implementation of the secondary grouting, particularly by high grouting pressure (significantly higher than the geostatic pressure), large volumes of injected grout, and poor selection of grouting locations. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was conducted to inspect the tunnel conditions before commencing the structural repair work, which revealed that there were no voids under the track bed of the affected zone. The study presents simplified strategies used to repair the damage while maintaining minimum disturbance to the affected segments.
    • A review of critical framework assessment matrices for data analysis on overheating in buildings impact.

      Adlington, M.; Ceranic, Boris; University of Derby (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2017-11)
      In an effort to reduce carbon emissions, changes in UK regulations, such as Part L Conservation of heat and power, dictates improved thermal insulation and enhanced air tightness. These changes were a direct response to the UK Government being fully committed to achieving its carbon targets under the Climate Change Act 2008. The goal is to reduce emissions by at least 80% by 2050. Factors such as climate change are likely to exacerbate the problem of overheating, as this phenomenon expects to increase the frequency of extreme heat events exemplified by stagnant air masses and successive high minimum overnight temperatures. However, climate change is not the only concern relevant to overheating, as research signifies, location, design, and occupation; construction type and layout can also play a part. Because of this growing problem, research shows the possibility of health effects on occupants of buildings could be an issue. Increases in temperature can perhaps have a direct impact on the human body’s ability to retain thermoregulation and therefore the effects of heat-related illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat syncope and even death can be imminent. This review paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the current literature on the causes and health effects of overheating in buildings and has examined the differing applied assessment approaches used to measure the concept. Firstly, an overview of the topic was presented followed by an examination of overheating research work from the last decade. These papers form the body of the article and are grouped into a framework matrix summarizing the source material identifying the differing methods of analysis of overheating. Cross case evaluation has identified systematic relationships between different variables within the matrix. Key areas focused on include, building types and country, occupants behavior, health effects, simulation tools, computational methods.
    • A review of evaporative cooling system concepts for engine thermal management in motor vehicles

      Jafari, Soheil; Dunne, Julian F.; Langari, Mostafa; Yang, Zhiyin; Pirault, Jean-Pierre; Long, Chris A.; Thalackottore Jose, Jisjoe; University of Derby (Sage, 2016-11-09)
      The evaporative cooling system concepts proposed over the past century for engine thermal management in automotive applications are examined and critically reviewed. The purposes of this review are to establish the evident system shortcomings and to identify the remaining research questions that need to be addressed to enable this important technology to be adopted by vehicle manufacturers. Initially, the benefits of the evaporative cooling systems are restated in terms of the improved engine efficiency, the reduced carbon dioxide emissions and the improved fuel economy. This is followed by a historical coverage of the proposed concepts dating back to 1918. Possible evaporative cooling concepts are then classified into four distinct classes and critically reviewed. This culminates in an assessment of the available evidence to establish the reasons why no system has yet been approved for serial production commercially. Then, by systematic examination of the critical areas in evaporative cooling systems for application to automotive engine cooling, the remaining research challenges are identified.
    • Revitilising urban tissue and communities through biophilic participatory design: Normanton Peartree area, Derby, UK.

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby (Architecture Media Politics Society (AMPS), 2017-06)
    • The role of tacit and codified knowledge within technology transfer program on technology adaptation.

      Handoko, Ferry; Nursanti, Ellysa; Harmanto, Dani; Sutriono; National Institute of Technology; University of Derby (Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN), 2016-04)
      Knowledge and technology transfer is the way to improve technology capability. The process of knowledge and technology transfer can be analysed based on knowledge classification. It involves tacit and codified knowledge. Each type of knowledge has a unique characteristic. The diversity of characteristics will potentially affect the result, and indeed the success, of knowledge and technology transfer. It is important, therefore, to understand any differences in phenomena associated with the process of transferring knowledge and technology base on knowledge classification for SMEs. Using data from hundreds of SMEs and in-depth discussion with the peak bodies of government agencies, universities and industries, the policy directions for government regarding to knowledge and technology transfer to support local industry in developing economies were developed.
    • Root cause failure analysis of a tracked vehicle balance arm.

      Khan, Ayaz M.; Mahmood, Khalid; Waheed ul Haq, Syed; Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Khan, Shahbaz Mahmood; HITEC University; National University of Sciences and Technology; Heavy Industries Taxila; University of Derby; Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology (Elsevier, 2017-10-13)
      This paper relates to an upgraded Industrial tracked vehicle which was found with a failed Balance arm during disassembly. The failure analysis of an actual Balance Arms surface was carried out using Fractography and Non Destructive testing techniques to dig out the root cause. The analysis revealed microscopic signatures categorically pointing towards post failure surface mechanical damage. The factor causing to promote failure was improper manufacturing i.e. casting which was further attributed to MnS inclusions.
    • Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert: ‘Le Bout du monde’, ‘Inferno’ and ‘Purgatorio’ in landscape

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby, College of Engineering and Technology (�ditions de l�Esp�rou., 2015-06)