• Performance Investigation of a Commercial Wind Catcher with Horizontally-Arranged Heat Transfer Devices (HHTD).

      Calautit, John Kaiser; O'Connor, Dominic; Hughes, Ben; Shahzad, Sally; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (2015)
      The aim of this study was to conduct numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and experimental analysis of the performance of a wind catcher with Horizontally-arranged Heat Transfer Devices (HHTD) for hot climate conditions. A detailed experimental prototype was created using 3D printing and tested in a closed-loop low speed wind tunnel. An accurate geometrical representation of the wind tunnel test setup was recreated in the numerical modeling. The airflow supply velocity was measured and compared with the numerical data and good correlation was observed. Flow visualisation testing was conducted to analyse the airflow within the device and also inside the ventilated space. The results of the numerical analysis showed that the wind catcher with HHTD was capable of reducing the air temperature by up to 12 K within the micro-climate depending on the outdoor conditions. The technology presented here is subject to a UK patent application (1321709.6).
    • Performance Investigation of a Commercial Wind Catcher with Horizontally-arranged Heat Transfer Devices (HHTD). 

      Calautit, John Kaiser; O'Connor, Dominic; Hughes, Ben; Shahzad, Sally; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (2015)
      The aim of this study was to conduct numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and experimental analysis of the performance of a wind catcher with Horizontally-arranged Heat Transfer Devices (HHTD) for hot climate conditions. A detailed experimental prototype was created using 3D printing and tested in a closed-loop low speed wind tunnel. An accurate geometrical representation of the wind tunnel test setup was recreated in the numerical modeling. The airflow supply velocity was measured and compared with the numerical data and good correlation was observed. Flow visualisation testing was conducted to analyse the airflow within the device and also inside the ventilated space. The results of the numerical analysis showed that the wind catcher with HHTD was capable of reducing the air temperature by up to 12 K within the micro-climate depending on the outdoor conditions. The technology presented here is subject to a UK patent application (1321709.6).
    • A plate model for compressive strength prediction of delaminated composites

      Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Rhead, Andrew T.; Nielsen, Mark W.D.; Butler, Richard; University of Derby; University of Bath (Elsevier, 2018-11-24)
      Damage tolerance is of critical importance to laminated composite structures. In this paper, we present a new semi-analytical method for predicting the strain at which delamination propagation will initiate following sublaminate buckling. The method uses a numerical strip model to determine the thin-film buckling strain of an anisotropic sub-laminate created by delamination, before evaluating the strain energy release rate for delamination propagation. The formulation assumes that all energy is available for propagation in a peeling mode (Mode I); avoiding an approximate mixed-mode criterion. Results are compared with twelve experimentally obtained propagations strains, covering a variety of laminates each containing a circular PTFE delamination. Comparison shows agreement to within 12% for balanced sublaminate tests in which delamination propagation occurred before intra-ply cracking. The method can be used to significantly improve the damage tolerance of laminates, opening up new opportunities for structural efficiency using elastic tailoring, non-standard ply angles and material optimisation.
    • Polycentric cultural framework for infrastructure procurement in Nigeria

      Omoregie, Alohan; Radford, Dennis; De Montfort Univeristy (Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 2006-09-06)
      The high failure rate of most infrastructures in sub-Saharan Africa is alarming, particularly in Nigeria, where the dearth and deterioration of infrastructure constantly imposes severe constraints on economic growth and development. Consequently, existing institutions or strategies which are designed to reproduce effective infrastructures in areas that lack them have been mostly unsuccessful. A carefully conducted survey covering the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria identified inadequate maintenance and inconsistent procurement strategies as the major factors responsible for unsustainable infrastructure delivery. In view of the fact that a stable infrastructure is an essential prerequisite for sustainable development, this paper presents a polycentric cultural framework for infrastructure maintenance and procurement in Nigeria, a framework which emphasises the integration of infrastructure users throughout the process, from conceptualization to actual delivery of infrastructure, by taking the recipients’ culture, beliefs and values into account. It also emphasises the use of systemic referendum amongst users and stakeholders via the traditional consultative processes before the actual delivery of infrastructure and services.
    • Portable inflated solar power cold storage house technology as a supporting facility to increase the production and marketing of fishery fishermen.

      Setiawan, M. Ikhsan; Ade, Reswada T.; Harmanto, Dani; University of Derby; Universitas Narotama (IEOM Society, 2018-03)
      Indonesia is a maritime country and fourth largest fish exporter in the world. Currently Indonesia exported fish worth around 35,4 billion US dollars in 2012 and continue to rise. The post -catching is the most important aspect of the process to ensure the fish quality will be meeting the standard export. Most of the post-catching process is a home industry based and fridge/freezer had been used to store the fish before sending them to the exporter for further process. Therefore, paper presents the design and development of the Solar Power Cold Storage House for the fishermen. The general purpose is to support production facilities for cheaper alternative which increasing the fishermen profitable for the mass production. The research purpose is to developed a prototype Portable Inflated Solar Power Cold Storage House as a production support facility and fishery marketing that meets aspects of strength, speed, effectiveness, convenience, so that Portable Inflated Solar Power Cold Storage House products also increase the absorption of National Fish. The paper will describe the design process, testing process such as material strength, rapid deployment of the cold storage, environment test and mechanical test.
    • Portable urban agriculture technology and soil nutrient drive app that support farmers profit.

      Nasihien, Ronny D.; Dhaniarti, Iswachyu; Muhibuddin, Anton; Hasyim, Cholil; Setiawan, M. Ikhsan; Wulandari, Diah Ayu Restuti; Zacoeb, Archfas; Harimurti; Sudapet, Nyoman; Napitupulu, Darmawan; Ahmar, Ansari Saleh; Ali, Mahrus; Harmanto, Dani; Narotama University; Brawijaya University; Darul Ulum University; Indonesian Institute of Science; Universitas Negeri Makassar; Merdeka University; University of Derby (Science Publishing Corporation, 2018)
      A narrow land farmed urban Agriculture. It used for daily fresh vegetables and fruit for the housing community in urban areas. Portable Urban Agriculture Technology as a support facility to increase production of Urban Agriculture, the Greenhouse portable system could be built and transferred to a specific location is convenient, safe, fast, lightweight structural material (PVC 0.55mm Tarpaulin) so that the Urban Agricultural Products closer to residential consumers in urban. The impact was the price was cheaper but quality. The objective was to plan, build and test prototype Water inflated tent activity as a facility to strengthen Greenhouse's strength, speed, effectiveness and comfort. Application method stages of the Cup or SDN on a former tin mining land, with Portable Urban Agriculture Technology support soil nutrient drive are as follows: first Reconstruction of the land in the form of land arrangement in accordance contours and irrigation channels that exist in the field is very important to support the success of the method SDN; second Management of top soil in the form of top soil enriched with organic material will support environmental compliance in the soil, especially for the growth and development of VAM hyphae and root system; third Soil Amendment to improve the physical and chemical properties of former mining land; fourth Activities vegetation of mined land with SDN method optimizes the achievement of the goals replanting of sustainable of native vegetation for erosion and runoff, repair and restoration of biodiversity, landscape aesthetics that will impact habitat improvement fauna, biodiversity, soil productivity and water quality. Tree plant species such as Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena diversifolia microbes that have been infected with mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) will be very effective and support this effort. Vegetation activities with SDN method includes the following steps: first Seedling plants with VAM; second Preparation of arable land that supports the development of VAM in the soil; third Planting of the first cup with VAM; fourth Incubate 1 month; fifth Planting of the second cup with VAM; sixth 1 month incubation; and seventh The planting of the main crop.
    • Predicting the effect of voids on mechanical properties of woven composites.

      Choudhry, R. S.; Sharif, Tahir; Khan, Kamran A.; Khan, Sohaib Z.; Hassan, Abid; Khan, Muhammad A.; University of Derby; Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research (KUSTAR), UAE; Islamic University of Madinah; Pakistan Petroleum Limited; Cranfield University (IOP Publishing, 2018-09-21)
      An accurate yet easy to use methodology for determining the effective mechanical properties of woven fabric reinforced composites is presented. The approach involves generating a representative unit cell geometry based on randomly selected 2D orthogonal slices from a 3D X-ray micro-tomographic scan. Thereafter, the finite element mesh is generated from this geometry. Analytical and statistical micromechanics equations are then used to calculate effective input material properties for the yarn and resin regions within the FE mesh. These analytical expressions account for the effect of resin volume fraction within the yarn (due to infiltration during curing) as well as the presence of voids within the composite. The unit cell model is then used to evaluate the effective properties of the composite.
    • Printing morphology and rheological characteristics of lead-free Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) solder pastes.

      Sharma, Ashutosh; Mallik, Sabuj; Ekere, Nduka N.; Jung, Jae-Pil; University of Seoul; University of Greenwich; University of Wolverhampton (The Korean Microelectronics and Packaging Society, 2014-12-30)
      Solder paste plays a crucial role as the widely used joining material in surface mount technology (SMT). The understanding of its behaviour and properties is essential to ensure the proper functioning of the electronic assemblies. The composition of the solder paste is known to be directly related to its rheological behaviour. This paper provides a brief overview of the solder paste behaviour of four different solder paste formulations, stencil printing processes, and techniques to characterize solder paste behaviour adequately. The solder pastes are based on the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy, are different in their particle size, metal content and flux system. The solder pastes are characterized in terms of solder particle size and shape as well as the rheological characterizations such as oscillatory sweep tests, viscosity, and creep recovery behaviour of pastes.
    • The private versus public infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa: An empirical validation

      Omoregie, Alohan; Ebohon, Obas John; Radford, Dennis; De Montfort University (International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction, 2005-11-17)
      The macroeconomics of the relationship between the private and public infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa has been very unpredictable due to the region’s ineffective planning and policy formulation for infrastructure and service delivery. This paper examines the relationship between public and private infrastructure in subSaharan Africa. It also demonstrates that sub-Saharan Africa consumes more and invests less when compared to the industrialised world and that the present domestic investments in sub-Saharan Africa are actually more in the hands of the private sector. Lastly, an inference relationship for measuring and comparing economic stability between countries and regions was formulated, with the industrialised countries as a reference value.
    • Process optimisation of non-cyanide Ag–PTFE metal matrix composite electroplating for threaded connections

      Sieh, Raymond; Le, Huirong; Cree, Alistair; University of Plymouth (2015-02-11)
    • Profitability through cleaner production

      Peiris, V. R. Sena; Liyanage, Kapila; Jatunarachchi, Sumudu Sajeewareka; The Open University of Sri Lanka (University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, 2006)
      Cleaner Production (CP) is an integrated, continuous and preventive environment strategy applied to processes, products and services to increase efficiency, minimize waste and reduce risks to humans and the environment. CP should be an essential part of any comprehensive environmental management system at an enterprise or national level. Cleaner production is now seen as a major approach for industry to achieve environmental improvements while remaining competitive and profitable. CP is being increasingly recognized as a definite route towards sustainable development. CP concepts are growing in popularity throughout the world. European countries and some of the Asian countries such as Thailand, India have already applied this concept appropriately and reaped benefits, which have greater impact on their economy and environment. However, Sri Lankan industries are far behind in this respect. Therefore, there is a strong need to introduce CP concept to local industries. Training and education for cleaner production have become essential for most professions. This paper summarizes some of the outcomes and successful lessons learned from the recent CP projects carried out in Sri Lanka since the case studies are an effective means of demonstrating the economic benefits of Cleaner Production. In addition, this paper also emphasizes the necessity for promoting cleaner production concept through education and training in order to achieve sustainable production of goods and services in Sri Lankan industries and promote sustainable consumption among the members of the community.
    • Progress and challenges in large eddy simulation of gas turbine flows.

      Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (Shenyang Blower Research Institute ( 沈阳鼓风机研究所), 2018)
      Gas turbine flows are complex and very difficult to be predicted accurately not only due to that they are inherently unsteady but also because the presence of many complex flow phenomena such as transition, separation, substantial secondary flow, combustion and so on. Those complex flow phenomena cannot be captured accurately by the traditional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Unsteady RANS (URANS) methods although they have been the main numerical tools for computing gas turbine flows in the past decades due to their computational efficiency and reasonable accuracy. Therefore, the desire for greater accuracy has led to the development and application of high fidelity numerical simulation tools for gas turbine flows. Two such tools available are Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) which captures directly all details of turbulent flow in space and time, and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) which computes large scale motions of turbulent flow directly in space and time while the small scale motions are modelled. DNS is computationally very expensive and even with the available most powerful supercomputers today or in the foreseeable future it is still prohibitive to apply DNS for gas turbine flows. LES is the most promising simulation tool which has already reasonably widely used for gas turbine flows. This paper will very briefly review first the applications of LES in turbomachinery flows and then focus on two gas turbine combustor related flow cases, summarizing the current status of LES applications in gas turbines and pointing out the challenges that we are facing.
    • Quantitative evaluation of voids in lead free solder joints.

      Mallik, Sabuj; Njoku, Jude; Takyi, Gabriel; Unviersity of Derby; University of Greenwich; Kwame Nkrumah University (Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2015-07)
      Voiding in solder joints poses a serious reliability concern for electronic products. The aim of this research was to quantify the void formation in lead-free solder joints through X-ray inspections. Experiments were designed to investigate how void formation is affected by solder bump size and shape, differences in reflow time and temperature, and differences in solder paste formulation. Four different lead-free solder paste samples were used to produce solder bumps on a number of test boards, using surface mount reflow soldering process. Using an advanced X-ray inspection system void percentages were measured for three different size and shape solder bumps. Results indicate that the voiding in solder joint is strongly influenced by solder bump size and shape, with voids found to have increased when bump size decreased. A longer soaking period during reflow stage has negatively affectedsolder voids. Voiding was also accelerated with smaller solder particles in solder paste.
    • Quantitative vs. qualitative methodologies to investigate environmental control in the workplace: neutral thermal sensation and thermal environmental intention

      Shahzad, Sally; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; University of Edinburgh (2013)
      This study compares the application of qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate user comfort and environmental control in the workplace. This is examined by environmental measurement and user satisfaction in two workplaces with respectively low and high levels of individual environmental control. An open plan office in Scotland is selected with automatic displacement ventilation, where users have access to limited windows. In contrast, a cellular plan office in Norway is chosen that provides every user with control over a window, in addition to the ability to adjust heating and cooling. Complimentary quantitative and qualitative methodologies are applied with particular emphasis on Grounded Theory methods. Questionnaire, environmental measurements and semi-structured interviews are used. A new visual recording method is applied to analyse the subject in its context qualitatively. Information regarding all users and their environment is applied as colour codes to floor plate layouts. The results are compared with the quantitative analysis. The study examines the significance of applying a qualitative method to question the ‘Neutral Thermal Sensation’ and expand on the importance of the ‘Thermal Environmental Intention’. This paper suggests that the quantitative appraisal could be associated with a risk of misjudgement.
    • Radio frequency identification (RFID) adoption strategy for strategic supply chain

      Liyanage, Kapila; Gbededo, Mijoh Ayodele; University of Derby (Consortium of UK University Manufacturing and Engineering Department Heads, 2014)
      The on-going trend of applications and implications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, and the increasing external pressures on industries operating in the global market is no doubt making RFID adoption unavoidable. This is driving many manufacturers and businesses into “immature” RFID adoption with low records of success. Whilst most existing technology adoption readiness models can help an organisation evaluate its technology adoption readiness, there is no existing model to analyse and resolve the identified barriers in RFID adoption. This paper therefore, investigates the specific RFID adoption issues confronting industries operating in the global supply chain, discusses and develops an RFID Adoption Strategy framework for successful RFID-enabled business. The paper also offers a strategic approach to timely delivery of a successful RFID adoption under global supply chain external pressures.
    • Rapid deployment modular building solutions and climatic adaptability: Case based study of a novel approach to “thermal capacity on demand” and building management systems.

      Ceranic, Boris; Beardmore, John; Cox, Adrian; University of Derby; T4 Sustainability; Green 4 Architects (Elsevier, 2018-02-13)
      In this research, a novel “thermal capacity on demand” approach to modular thermal storage design has been discussed, seen as a key to the climatic adaptability of a proposed Smart-POD building system and its energy performance. Smart-POD is a unique and innovative research project which provides an alternative to traditional classroom design. It proposes a rapid deployment building solution, temporary or permanent in its use, modular in design, flexible in set-up and self-sustaining in use, requiring minimal site preparation, and meeting all its energy demands from renewable energy sources. Its feasibility was tested by a design case study which investigated climatic adaptability based on the proposed approach. This approach uniquely combines balancing of energy demand and supply using renewable technologies and a bespoke low temperature thermal store. It further proposes to use an open source Building energy Management System (oBeMS) conceived in this research, to intelligently manage thermal, ventilation and humidity control strategies which adapt to the climate, season and weather in which the building is placed. The predicted performance of proposed system demonstrates potential for an effective diurnal climatic adaptability, enhanced by integrated passive design strategies, and intelligent modes of building control. The method of BIM integrated sustainable design analysis (SDA) and building management system (BMS) has also been deliberated, as a framework for exploring the integration of proposed building management system into smart building environments (SBEs).
    • Real estate student satisfaction in Australia : what matters most?

      Poon, Joanna; Brownlow, Michael; University of Salford (Emerald Group Publishing, 2015)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the relative importance of the factors that influence the overall satisfaction of real estate students and also examine the extent to which demographic backgrounds affect this. Furthermore, this paper benchmarks the satisfaction of real estate students against that of built environment students. Design/methodology/approach: The data used in this paper have been collected from the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) within the Australian Graduate Survey (AGS). Dimensionality reduction was used to prepare the data about the courses identified in the AGS for analysis. This was done in order to simplify classification of real estate and built environment courses examined in this paper. Descriptive and statistical analysis methods were used to analyse student satisfaction variables and identify the extent to which demographic factors influenced overall student satisfaction. Findings: Real estate students in Australia have a relatively higher level of student satisfaction compared to built environment students overall, but built environment students have a higher level of satisfaction with regard to compulsory variables such as “Good Teaching Scale” and “Generic Skills Scale”. However, real estate students show a higher level of agreement in the Likert scale regarding the optional variables “Appropriate Assessment” and “Learning Community”, respectively. The most important factor for overall student satisfaction was the question: “the staff made it clear right from the start what they expected from the students”. The answers to this question had a Pearson correlation value of 1.000 for both real estate and built environment students. Age and mode of study also have some impact on the overall satisfaction level of both sets of students, while gender, degree class and the year the university were established are additional factors affecting the overall satisfaction of built environment students. Practical implications: This research identifies the factors that affect the satisfaction of property course students in ascending order of importance. Course directors of real estate courses can use the findings of this research to make recommendations on the redesign and redevelopment of their courses in order to make them more attractive and appealing to students to enhance student recruitment and retention. Originality/value: This is pioneering research that provides a comprehensive overview of the factors affecting student satisfaction with regard to real estate and built environment students in Australia.
    • Real-time optical character recognition on field programmable gate array for automatic number plate recognition system

      Sotudeh, Reza; Zhai, Xiaojun; Bensaali, Faycal; University of Hertfordshire (The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2013-11-01)
      The last main stage in an automatic number plate recognition system (ANPRs) is optical character recognition (OCR), where the number plate characters on the number plate image are converted into encoded texts. In this study, an artificial neural network-based OCR algorithm for ANPR application and its efficient architecture are presented. The proposed architecture has been successfully implemented and tested using the Mentor Graphics RC240 field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) development board equipped with a 4M Gates Xilinx Virtex-4 LX40. A database of 3570 UK binary character images have been used for testing the performance of the proposed architecture. Results achieved have shown that the proposed architecture can meet the real-time requirement of an ANPR system and can process a character image in 0.7 ms with 97.3% successful character recognition rate and consumes only 23% of the available area in the used FPGA.
    • Recent experiences of urban ritual performances, inspired by Dimitris Pikionis's walkways in Athens.

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby (2018-08)
      Dimitris Pikionis (1887-1968), architect and teacher, started his career by proposing new architecture based on ‘trans Hellenic forms’ or transcendent continuing forms from antiquity to modern times. Pikionis’s acquaintance with Giorgio de Chirico led to his new approach of ‘Hellenism’ (or Greekness) through vernacular art in conjunction with Modernism. For several decades after Greece liberation from Turks, several architects proposed bizarre plans for the area around and on the top of the Acropolis, such as the proposal of a palace of the first king, in which the Parthenon was reduced to a mere decorative feature of the palace gardens. Several other proposals until early 1950s proposed archaeological park areas. However the search of Greekness had remained elusive and ambiguous in all these proposals. Only Dimitris Pikionis captured what many authors, suggested as the close relationship between nature and culture; the temples adored the gods of the earth and the plants, such as the olive tree. Dimitris Pikionis names as ‘homorhythmia’ the rhythm that governs collective forms of life, of the topography of the earth and of art and architecture. His masterplan of re-landscaping the area surrounding the Sacred Rock of Acropolis lets nature envelope the ancient ruins by obeying nature principles. Pikionis was inspired by the painters of his time such as Cezanne, Paul Klee and Giorgio de Chirico, but attends forms rather than colours. Athens has now re-discovered the work of Dimitris Pikionis and his teaching to his students in strong rooted Classicism and culture in relation to nature. He directed and supervised his students and workers building new urban pathways by using marble and stone fragments spread around the hill of the Acropolis from ruined temples and houses from Classic to Byzantine eras. His paths are still followed by locals and visitors. Recently these paths were tested by the author, her colleagues and students of arts and architecture, participating in Dance Architecture Spatiality, an Erasmus research project. Students were inspired by the paths and surrounding areas and created an urban ritual performance with the guidance of a well-known choreographer; people present in that area during rehearsals and the main performance became spontaneous participants and enjoyed a different urban and cultural walk to the top of a hill opposite to the Acropolis, a celebration of Classicism through modern human behaviours. In his Inhabiting Time, Juhani Pallasmaa also refers to the “device of time in architecture” by affirming that Pikionis’s pathways of natural and found man-made ancient stones “evoke a dense architectural narrative with a feeling of deep time; … the layering of styles and the juxtaposition of different uses and activities – commonplace and ceremonial, utilitarian and symbolic – place us comfortably in the continuum of lives through centuries”.
    • The regeneration of minor historical centres: Neighbourhood Agreement II in San Lorenzo Maggiore (Benevento)

      Tracada, Eleni; Varone, Francesco; University of Derby; University of Naples Federico II (Master Pro Ingegneri Associati, 2016-12-22)
      The contribution shows the methodology and investigation carried out for an intervention of regeneration/valorisation in one minor historical centre within inner Campania Region in Benevento province. These processes occurred during complex programmes and, in particular, during the development of the so-called “Contratto di Quartiere II” (= Neighbourhood Agreement II) (MIT announcement 27/01/2004) in synergy with a PRUSST named as “Calidone” and Benevento Municipality as the lead. The aim of Neighbourhood Agreement II was the revitalisation of a relevant part of the neglected historical centre of San Lorenzo Maggiore Municipality; this was financed by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport in 2004 by means of 5.5 million Euros committed for interventions of experimental regeneration of the historical urban fabric and in conjunction with the acquisition of several buildings by the Council, intending to provide 28 ERP houses and relevant services.