• IDEF based methodology for rapid data collection

      Perera, Terrence; Liyanage, Kapila; Sheffield Hallam University (Emerald, 2001)
      In recent years, computer simulation has become a mainstream decision support tool in manufacturing industry. In order to maximise the benefits of using simulation within businesses simulation models should be designed, developed and deployed in a shorter time span. A number of factors, such as excessive model details, inefficient data collection, lengthy model documentation and poorly planned experiments, increase the overall lead time of simulation projects. Among these factors, input data modelling is seen as a major obstacle. Input data identification, collection, validation, and analysis, typically take more than one‐third of project time. This paper presents a IDEF (Integrated computer‐aided manufacturing DEFinition) based approach to accelerate identification and collection of input data. The use of the methodology is presented through its application in batch manufacturing environments. A functional module library and a reference data model, both developed using the IDEF family of constructs, are the core elements of the methodology. The paper also identifies the major causes behind the inefficient collection of data.
    • Identification and alignment of the social aspects of sustainable manufacturing with the theory of motivation.

      Gbededo, Mijoh; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2018-03-17)
      The relevance of adopting environmentally friendly manufacturing process to economic development has been studied and established in many research. Empirical studies have also confirmed that organisations adopting green technology or clean production are benefiting from increasing economic growth and job creation. However, the studies of the benefits of social development to economic growth and manufacturing sustainability have not been adequately captured or itemised in the literature. With the aim of contributing to this research streams, this paper applied the principles of social economy and reciprocity, and the theories of motivation and social exchange to guide the integration of social aspects into sustainability analytical equations. The Herzberg two-factor theory of motivation was adopted to classify the negative and positive social impacts of the workers’ stakeholder category. Further, the approach aligns the Herzberg extrinsic factors with the negative and regulated social aspects and intrinsic factors with the positive and unregulated social aspects. This contribution provides an initial theoretical framework that will enable practitioners to capture and calculate the social impact coefficient of an organisation. The result can be used to assess the social impacts on productivity, and corporate social responsibility towards the employees. It will also provide an input for analytical or simulation models to assess the consequential effects of social aspects on other sustainability dimensions.
    • Identification of the mechanical properties of tires for wheelchair simulation.

      Doria, Alberto; Taraborrelli,Luca; Jomaa, Tarek; Peijs, Tom; Potter, Mario; Advani, Sunjoo; Crichlow,Larry; University of Padova; International Development of Technology B.V.; Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (Bentham Open, 2016-12-30)
      The development of high performance wheelchairs and wheelchair simulators requires dynamic models taking into account the properties of tires. In this paper the properties of two wheelchair tires are measured by means of a rotating disc testing machine and are compared with the properties of bicycle tires, which have similar dimensions and structure. Tests are carried out considering variations in speed, inflation pressure and load. The possibility of fitting experimental results with the Magic Formula, the Dugoff formula and a linear model is discussed. A dynamic model of a wheelchair is developed, which includes a linear tire model derived from experimental results. Steady turning and slalom manoeuvres are simulated. Numerical results show the effect of tire properties on the handling characteristics of the wheelchair.
    • ‘The impact of culture on tourists' Online information search behaviour: Evidence from the UK and China

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Moisa, Delia Gabriela; University of Derby; University of Derby, UK; University of Derby, UK (IGI Global, 2016-06)
      This chapter looks into the concept of culture and its impacts on travellers' online information search behaviour. The study is focused on two culturally diametric countries: United Kingdom and China (Hofstede, 2001) and they have been selected as case studies, representing values from the Western and the Asian cultures. In order to examine the effects of culture on online search behaviours, the research adopted a qualitative approach, and data was collected through interviews in order to enhance and elaborate the understanding on the subject studied. The results of this study show that culture influences the travellers' behaviour in the online environment, up to a certain extent, and as a result of this influences, different behavioural patterns between the British and the Chinese travellers emerged. Moreover, these findings bring implications for the marketers aiming at the British and the Chinese tourists, and they highlight the need to adopt different strategies in designing and marketing their tourism products for these two particular markets.
    • The impact of Industry 4.0 on supply chains and sustainability.

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (2018-09-10)
      Industry 4.0 ushers in a new dawn of digitization, utilizing smart devices, communicating across manufacturing process and supply chains, gathering data on mass in a virtual model of a business to investigate areas for improvement, developing new product and service offerings. Industry 4.0 brings a potential shift from mass over production, to production system based on real end consumer demand requirements. Sustainability relates to reducing the amount of scarce resources being used in products, enabling repair, reuse and recycling of materials from products. Industry 4.0 has the potential to influence sustainability and supply chains. This paper establishes key concepts and issues, as well as a current state adoption review. Conclusions were drawn enabling the implementation of (1) industry 4.0; (2) sustainability and; (3) enhanced buyer-supplier supply relationships.
    • Impact of loads on power flow in power systems using PowerApps and ETAP

      Souli, Aissa; Bashour, Rami; Hellal, Abdelhafid; Kharaz, Ahmad H.; University Of Derby (Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP), 2015-07-05)
      This paper presents a study of the impact of loads on power flow in power system. It deals with the impact of both the voltage nodes and the transmission of active and reactive power in lines, and therefore the loss of active and reactive power in the system. Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices are found to be encouraging in improving voltage stability limit in power systems. This paper investigates the application of FACTS devices (Static Var Compensator, SVC) on a 9-bus multimachine power system, it deal with the line losses and improving voltage stability limit. Amount of increased reactive power generation and line losses are taken as indicators of stressed conditions of a power system. The use of SVC is identified by PowerApps and ETAP software packages. Both software are used for IEEE 9 bus test system and the results obtained are presented and interpreted. Streszczenie. Analizowano wpływ napięć w węzłach i przepływ mocy biernej i czynnej na pracę systemu energetycznego. Artykuł przedstawia badania zastosowania urządzeń FACTS w dziewi1)ęcioszynowym, wielomaszynowym systemie. Wykorzystano oprogramowanie ETAP. Wpływ obciążeń na przepływy mocy w systemie wykorzystującym PowerApps i oprogramowanie ETAP Keywords: Power Flow, FACTS, SVC, PowerApps, ETAP. Słowa kluczowe: przepływy mocy, FACTS, Etap Introduction Load flow study in power system parlance is the steady state solution of the power system network [1]. The main information obtained from this study comprises the magnitudes and phase angles of load bus voltages, reactive powers at generators buses, real and reactive power flow on transmission lines [2], other variables being known. Usually a generating station is not situated near the load centre, but it may be away from load centre due to various circumstances.
    • Impact of the truck wave region to the aerodynamics of saloon car.

      Harmanto, Dani; University of Derby (Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Society (IEOM), 2018-03)
      A wake region will be produced by truck when it is travelling at their maximum allowance speed which is 56 miles per hour. The wake region can be seen clearly when a truck travelling at a wet road. The wake region has its own force which will affecting any vehicle travelling behind or next to the truck. This paper presents a numerical study of the flow field in the aerodynamics of the saloon effecting by the wake region. Simulation will be carried out for different position of the saloon next to the truck. The numerical study will be validated using Ahmed body to determine the mesh and domain size. The velocity will be set at 56 miles per hour and assuming the truck will be travelling alongside the motorway. The rotating region will be used for truck and saloon and the angular velocity will be calculated based on the circumference of its tires. Detailed analysis and result such as CD and CL together with the x-y chart will be presented to provide a better understanding of the effect of truck wake region to the saloon when it is behind or next to the truck.
    • Impact of vibration time on compressive strength of hardened sandcrete building blocks

      Omoregie, Alohan; University of Bolton (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2012-05-09)
      The majority of the sandcrete blocks used in the Nigerian building industry fall short of the minimum specification standards. There is evidence to suggest a wide variation in compressive strength from one block manufacturer to another and also within block samples from a single source. This problem has been attributed to poor quality control and substandard constituent materials. Also very alarming is the ignorance surrounding the usage and engineering properties of some of the widely used fine aggregate deposits. As a way forward, this paper aims to re-establish the impact of vibration time in sandcrete block production using six fine aggregate deposits found within Benin City (Midwestern Nigeria) and their various pair combinations. Some of the basic properties like silt content, grading parameters—co-efficient of uniformity (Cu), curvature co-efficient (Cc) and the fineness modulus (Fm)—of these fine aggregates were established by laboratory means. In addition, the wet and dry compressive strength of these sandcrete blocks made from these sands were established. A total of 1,080 block samples produced under very controlled conditions were used in this investigation. It was revealed that the utility value of sand can be improved when the weaker and commonly used sands were combined with those that are better, more expensive and less frequently used at different vibration periods and ratios. Findings further revealed that sand types and the sand combination approach adopted were very significant to grading parameters and strength; at a much higher vibration time the compressive strength and durability properties were also considerably improved
    • The impacts of sustainability, extended producer responsibility and the circular economy on product pricing models

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; Department of Mechanical Engineering & the Built Environment (Gupta Publications, 2019-07)
      This paper examines product pricing in relation to Sustainability, Extended Producer Responsibility and the Circular Economy. Traditional linear economic systems focus on the use of mass production techniques to achieve the most competitively priced products on the marketplace. This in turn requires a large volume of resources to be consumed. The linear economic system is based on a closed loop system, where resources are used in product manufacture, and then used consumed by end user(s), to finally becoming waste products. Increasing consumption of natural resources, led to the evolution of (1) sustainability measures aimed at ensuring producers utilized more sustainable resources; (2) extended producer responsibility (EPR) schemes which placed burdens on producers to bear an economic cost for recovery and recycling activities for products they manufactured, and; (3) the circular economy, which sees producers encouraged to design products which use resources which are capable of being used by the r-imperatives. The results show implementing sustainability, EPR and the circular economy measures do impact costs and product prices.
    • Impacts of the gap size between two bluff bodies on the flow field within the gap

      Charles, Terrance; Lu, Yiling; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (EDAS, 2017-07-18)
      When two bluff bodies is in close tandem, i.e, the distance between blocks D is less than half of the height of the body H, the flow field is very similar to that in the gap between tractor and trailer in a truck, and hence understanding such a flow field would help to reduce the gap drag of a truck. This paper presents a numerical study of the flow field in the gap between two identical cubes in tandem arrangement, in particular, focusing on the impact of gap size on the flow field within the gap and around the two cubes. Simulations have been carried out for four different gap sizes. The numerical model has been validated first against a test case before further studies are carried out to study the impact of gap width on the flow field. The predicted mean velocity profiles compare well against the experimental data for the validation test case. Detailed analysis has been carried out to reveal the change of the flow fields when the gap size changes, leading to a better understanding of the drag coefficient variations for the four cases studied.
    • Improved number plate character segmentation algorithm and its efficient FPGA implementation

      Zhai, Xiaojun; Bensaali, Faycal; University of Hertfordshire (Springer, 2012-06-10)
      Character segmentation is an important stage in Automatic Number Plate Recognition systems as good character separation leads to a high recognition rate. This paper presents an improved character segmentation algorithm based on pixel projection and morphological operations. An efficient architecture based on the proposed algorithm is also presented. The architecture has been successfully implemented and verified using the Mentor Graphics RC240 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) development board equipped with a 4M-Gate Xilinx Virtex-4 LX40. A database of 1,000 UK binary NPs with varying resolution has been used for testing the performance of the proposed architecture. Results achieved have shown that the proposed architecture can process a number plate image in 0.2–1.4 ms with 97.7 % successful segmentation rate and consumes only 11 % of the available area in the used FPGA.
    • Improved number plate localisation algorithm and its efficient field programmable gate arrays implementation

      Zhai, Xiaojun; Ramalingam, Soodamani; Bensaali, Faycal; University of Hertfordshire (The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2013-03-01)
      Number plate localisation is a very important stage in an automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) system and is computationally intensive. This study presents a low complexity with high-detection rate number plate localisation algorithm based on morphological operations together with an efficient multiplier-less architecture based on that algorithm. The proposed architecture has been successfully implemented and tested using a Mentor Graphics RC240 FPGA (field programmable gate arrays) development board equipped with a 4M-gate Xilinx Virtex-4 LX40. Two database sets sourced from the UK and Greece and including 1000 and 307 images, respectively, both with a resolution of 640 x 480, have been used for testing. Results achieved have shown that the proposed system can process an image in 4.7 ms, while achieving a 97.8% detection rate and consuming only 33% of the available area of the FPGA.
    • Individual thermal control in the workplace and changes in thermal preferences in a day: Norwegian cellular vs. British open plan layouts

      Shahzad, Sally; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; University of Edinburgh (2014)
      This research suggests that the thermal preference of occupants is subject to change; hence, a particular thermal setting may not be able to constantly satisfy everyone. On the contrary, individual thermal control in the workplace is more likely to increase user comfort and satisfaction. This is examined through environmental measurements, comfort surveys and semi-structured interviews in two office layouts with high and low thermal control. Two Norwegian cellular plan offices that provide each user with control over a window, heating and cooling are compared with two British open plan offices with limited openable windows for users seated around the perimeter of the building. Complementary quantitative and qualitative methodologies and analysis techniques are applied with a particular emphasis on grounded theory and innovative visual analysing technique. Overall rather than a setting an 'optimum temperature' in an endeavour to satisfy all, it is suggested that buildings provide a degree of flexibility to allow occupants to adjust their thermal environment according to their requirements.
    • Inert gas clearance from tissue by co-currently and counter-currently arranged microvessels

      Lu, Yiling; Michel, C. C.; Wang, Wen; University of Derby (2012-05)
      To elucidate the clearance of dissolved inert gas from tissues, we have developed numerical models of gas transport in a cylindrical block of tissue supplied by one or two capillaries. With two capillaries, attention is given to the effects of co-current and counter-current flow on tissue gas clearance. Clearance by counter-current flow is compared with clearance by a single capillary or by two co-currently arranged capillaries. Effects of the blood velocity, solubility, and diffusivity of the gas in the tissue are investigated using parameters with physiological values. It is found that under the conditions investigated, almost identical clearances are achieved by a single capillary as by a co-current pair when the total flow per tissue volume in each unit is the same (i.e., flow velocity in the single capillary is twice that in each co-current vessel). For both co-current and counter-current arrangements, approximate linear relations exist between the tissue gas clearance rate and tissue blood perfusion rate. However, the counter-current arrangement of capillaries results in less-efficient clearance of the inert gas from tissues. Furthermore, this difference in efficiency increases at higher blood flow rates. At a given blood flow, the simple conduction-capacitance model, which has been used to estimate tissue blood perfusion rate from inert gas clearance, underestimates gas clearance rates predicted by the numerical models for single vessel or for two vessels with co-current flow. This difference is accounted for in discussion, which also considers the choice of parameters and possible effects of microvascular architecture on the interpretation of tissue inert gas clearance.
    • Inflated portable cold storage house with solar cells as facilities to support the fisheries production and marketing.

      Setiawan, M. Ikhsan; Dhaniarti, Iswachyu; Hasyim, Cholil; Yuniningsih; Abdullah, Dhalan; Lestari, Veronika Nugraheni Sri; Utomo, Wahyu Mulyo; Mudjanarko, Sri Wiwoho; Alimudin, Arasy; Harmanto, Dani; et al. (Science Publishing Corporation, 2018)
      The global fish production currently reaches 158 million tons to 91.3 million tons. However the largest contribution is provided by the fisheries sector. An estimated 136.2 million tons of fish are used directly for consumption and then for fish and livestock. In the fishery sector, Indonesia was ranked second after China, while in the fish cultivation sector Indonesia was ranked fourth after China, India, and Vietnam. The result of increasing exports reached 35.4 billion dollars in 2012. The Technology Inflated Portable Cold Storage House with Solar Power as facilities to support fisheries production and marketing, can be built and applied in a residential location/ specific housing easily, safely, quickly and lightly (0,55mm PVC Tarpaulin). The development program of this technology in supporting fisheries production and marketing meet the requirements of strength, speed, flexibility and comfort. This technology also increased the absorption of the National Fish stock. Specific targets on this research is to provide Cold Storage House Prototype with solar in supporting fisheries production and marketing with cheap and profitable so that can be mass-produced. This research used experiments and action research. The process of research is starting with the development of the design, manufacture, testing and repair of Inflated Portable Cold Storage House with Solar Power Prototype, included first, a technical test of strength and endurance of Portable inflated Structure materials to the weather; second, testing the speed of the manufacture, transportation, assembly, installation, disassembly of Portable Inflated Structure; third, testing temperature, humidity and air pressure in the Inflated Portable Cold Storage House with Solar Power; fourth a technical test, related to the fishery from frozen and market in Inflated Portable Cold Storage House with Solar Power in order to obtain hygienic, inexpensive and profitable fisheries.
    • The influence of bioclimatic urban redevelopment on outdoor thermal comfort.

      Karakounos, Ioannis; Dimoudi, Argyro; Zoras, Stamatis; Democritus University of Thrace (Elsevier, 2017-11-20)
      One of the greatest environmental challenges for the sustainability of future cities is the mitigation of the urban heat island phenomenon and thus, improvement of outdoor comfort conditions for people. The emphasis of this work is to analyze how mitigation techniques in a dense urban environment affect microclimate parameters and outdoor thermal comfort. The quantitative differentiation of outdoor thermal comfort conditions through bioclimatic urban redevelopment for an area in the city of Serres, Greece is investigated. The main bioclimatic interventions concern the application of cool paving materials, the increase of vegetated areas and the creation of water surfaces. The analysis and comparison are performed for a hot summer day with the ENVI-met model. Software simulations regarding microclimatic and outdoor thermal comfort conditions are performed for the daytime period 06.00–20.00 (14 h) at the height of 1.8 m from the ground. The examined parameters are air temperature, surface temperature and mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). The evaluation of outdoor thermal comfort conditions is conducted using the index PMV (Predicted Mean Vote), adapted for outdoor conditions. The results of simulations are discussed regarding the assessment of bioclimatic interventions.
    • The influence of fine aggregate combinations on particle size distribution, grading parameters, and compressive strength of sandcrete blocks

      Omoregie, Alohan; Alutu, Okey Edwin; University of Benin (Canadian Science Publishing, 2006-10)
      The current extensive use of low priced fine aggregate (sand) deposits in sandcrete block making in Nigeria is of concern because there appears to be a level of ignorance surrounding their existing properties and implications. To this end, silt contents and some grading parameters of the most commonly used fine aggregate deposits in parts of midwestern Nigeria (Benin City), the coefficient of uniformity (Cu), curvature coefficient (Cc), and the fineness modulus (Fm) were derived by laboratory experiments to ascertain these basic properties. In addition, the strength and durability properties of sandcrete blocks made from these sands were also established. It revealed that the low priced sands exhibited worse properties in comparison to the more expensive sand. As a way of improving the properties of these frequently used low priced sands, a combination approach was adopted that used the weaker and commonly used sands with those that are more expensive and less frequently used. Findings revealed that combining the two created significant improvement in compressive strength, durability, and grading parameters of low priced sands with only marginal impact on cost.Key words: fine aggregates, uniformity coefficient, curvature coefficient, fineness modulus, compressive strength, durability, silt contents, Nigeria.
    • Influence of upstream turbulence on the wake characteristics of a tidal stream turbine.

      Ahmadi, Mohammad H.B.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-08-20)
      The influence of the upstream turbulence intensity on the flow characteristics downstream of a laboratory-scale horizontal axis tidal stream turbine is investigated in this study. Three test cases with the same mean velocity and different turbulence intensities are simulated numerically using the hybrid large eddy simulation/actuator line modelling technique. The mean velocity components, mean turbulent fluctuations, velocity deficit and wake extension are compared along the streamwise direction to examine the upstream turbulence effects. The inflow conditions are generated by the mapping method using the mean velocity and turbulent profiles experimentally obtained for a turbulent open channel flow. Comparing results for the mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations shows that the upstream turbulence level strongly affects the flow characteristics downstream of the turbine by influencing the tip vortices breakdown process and in turn wake recovery. The comparison also reveals that the ambient turbulence level strongly influences the velocity deficit but it does not significantly affect the streamwise velocity and the radial location of tip vortices in the flow.
    • The influence of vibration time and sand type on the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow blocks

      Alutu, Okey Edwin; Omoregie, Alohan; University of Benin (Trans Tech Publications, 2009-02-20)
      The purpose of this study is to see if varying the vibration time and sand type during moulding of blocks would affect the strength of the blocks. To this end, seven types of sands: Okhuahie and Ovia river sands; Okhuahie, Ovia, Ikpoba flood and Okhoro erosion sands were collected for the study. A total of 315 blocks each in 150mm and 225mm sizes with cement to sand ratios of 1:6 were made using the seven brands of sand. The blocks were vibrated for 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 seconds and tested for compressive strength at 7 days, 14 days and 28 days respectively. The result showed that the relationship between compressive strength of the blocks and the vibration time for various sand types was linear up to vibration time of 30 secs. The sand type also influenced the strength of the blocks as Okhuahie river sand gave the highest compressive strength followed by Ovia river sand and the least was Okhoro erosion sand. At least 52% increase in compressive strength of 150mm and 225mm sandcrete blocks were achieved by raising the vibration time from 15 seconds to 25 seconds in the seven types of sand and 100% increase was achieved by raising the vibration time from 15 to 30 seconds.
    • Infrastructure delays and cost escalation: Causes and effects in Nigeria

      Omoregie, Alohan; Radford, Dennis; De Montfort University (International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction, 2006-04-07)
      One of the major outcomes of the present ailing social and economic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa is the enormous waste of resources due to project delay and cost escalation in the region. This paper critically analyses the causes and effects of project delay and cost escalation in sub-Saharan Africa taking Nigeria as a case study. The major causes of project delay and cost escalation in Nigeria from the experimental survey were acknowledged and ranked. The ranking was carried out using the relative net difference between the mean severity index percentage and the standard error of mean percentage in order to achieve unambiguously the ranking for each variable factor. Empirical analysis revealed the consequences of project delays and cost escalation for some completed projects in Nigeria with these subsequent findings: the minimum average percentage escalation cost of projects in Nigeria was 14%; the minimum average percentage escalation period of projects in Nigeria was found to be 188% with an average percentage completion work of just 96%. To enhance the ability to study this disturbing trend in the future, some mathematical relationships to forecast future project delays and cost escalation effects in Nigeria was developed. It was recommended that efficient manpower and material systems, alternative financial strategies and increased contingency allowance pattern in pre-contract estimates be developed.