• Habitat quality affects sound production and likely distance of detection on coral reefs

      Piercy, Julius J. B.; Codling, Edward A.; Hill, Adam J.; Smith, David J.; Simpson, Stephen D.; University of Essex; University of Derby; University of Exeter (2014-12-03)
      The interwoven nature of habitats and their acoustic fingerprints (soundscapes) is being increasingly recognized as a key component of animal ecology. Natural soundscapes are crucial for orientation in many different taxa when seeking suitable breeding grounds or settlement habitats. In the marine environment, coral reef noise is an important navigation cue for settling reef fish larvae and is thus a possible driver of reef population dynamics. We explored reef noise across a gradient of reef qualities, tested sound propagation models against field recordings and combined them with fish audio grams to demonstrate the importance of reef quality in determining which reefs larvae are likely to detect. We found that higher-quality reefs were significantly louder and richer in acoustic events (transient content) than degraded reefs, and observed that sound propagated farther with less attenuation than predicted by classic models. We discuss how zones of detection of poor-quality reefs could be reduced by over an order of magnitude com-pared to healthy reefs. The present study provides new perspectives on the far reaching effects habitat degradation may have on organisms that utilize soundscapes for orientation towards or away from coral reefs, and highlights the value of sound recordings as a cost-effective reef survey and monitoring tool.
    • Health, Energy and Thermal Comfort.

      Shahzad, Sally; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; Hughes, Ben; Calautit, John Kaiser; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh; University of Sheffield (The University of Sheffield Engineering Symposium, 2015)
      This study examined the impact of providing thermal control systems on occupants’ wellbeing in two particular European contexts, including a Norwegian cellular plan office with high levels of thermal control and a British open plan office with limited thermal control. The former provided each occupant with a personal office, within which openable windows, blinds, door and the ability to control the temperature was provided. In the Norwegian approach, personal differences in perceiving the thermal environment were respected and the architectural design of the building allowed each individual to set the thermal environment. In contrast, limited openable windows were provided for occupants seated around the perimeter of the building in the open plan office. The main strategy in the British approach was to provide a uniform thermal environment for all occupants according to the standard comfort zone. Natural ventilation was the main system, while in the Norwegian practice a combination of natural ventilation and air conditioning was in operation. As a result, the energy use of the Norwegian practice was much higher than the British practice. A field study of thermal comfort was applied. Survey questionnaires, environmental measurements and interviews were conducted. The Norwegian occupants reported much higher health rate up to 40% compared to those in the British practice. The follow up interviews revealed the importance of lack of thermal control on occupants’ wellbeing. A balanced appraisal was made of energy performance and users’ health between the two buildings.
    • High fidelity numerical simulations of gas turbine flows.

      Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (Chinese International Turbomachinery Conference, 2018-04-12)
      Traditionally the so called Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Unsteady RANS (URANS) have been the main numerical tools for computing gas turbine flows due to their computational efficiency and reasonable accuracy. However, the limitations of RANS and URANS to resolve appropriate details and capture some essential flow features associated with turbulence are also well known, in some cases such as transition they could fail to predict the flow behaviors completely. Therefore, the desire for greater accuracy has led to the development and application of high fidelity numerical simulation tools for gas turbine flows. Two conventional such tools are Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) which captures directly all details of turbulent flow in space and time, and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) which computes large scale motions of turbulent flow directly in space and time while the small scale motions are modelled. DNS is computationally very expensive and even with the available most powerful supercomputers today or in the foreseeable future it is still prohibitive to apply DNS for gas turbine flows. LES is the most promising simulation tool which has already reasonably widely used for gas turbine flows. This paper will very briefly review first the applications of LES in turbomachinery flows and then focus on two gas turbine combustor related flow cases, demonstrating the superiority of LES in those cases where the RANS performs poorly
    • Highway infrastructure and building information modelling in UK

      Omoregie, Alohan; Turnbull, Daniel Ernest; Newcastle College (Institution of Civil Engineers, 2016-12)
      Traditional methods of design are becoming less relevant and prevalent, due to institutionalising of building information modelling (BIM) within statutory regulations and the huge amount of data that BIM presents to practice; especially in 3D models. This can be seen in the A1 Dishforth-to-Barton road infrastructure improvement scheme which comprises the A1 Dishforth-to-Leeming and A1 Leeming-to-Barton schemes. The traditional method of design was central to the A1 Dishforth-to-Leeming scheme and BIM central to the A1 Leeming-to-Barton scheme. So this report presents a comparative study of the traditional and BIM methods in relation to the A1 Dishforth-to-Barton improvement scheme through the perception of key professionals involved in this project. A qualitative research study was conducted through the use of an open-ended questionnaire intended to bridge gaps in perceptions and understanding of both methods. Judgemental sampling technique was used to select experienced respondents who understand and participated in the A1 Dishforth-to-Barton road infrastructure improvement scheme. The study reveals an incontrovertible complementary nature of both methods and that the realisation of the 2016 mandate appears doubtful due to lack of standardization, training and level of awareness. It is highly recommended that a statutory incentivization framework for BIM be conceptualised and considered for implementation to attract and encourage small scale participants. Of high priority is the subsidization of in-house training by local authorities and localized joint ventures by smaller companies for specialist training.
    • Housing infrastructure: contemporary issues in timber adoption

      Omoregie, Alohan; English, Mark; University of Derby; Newcastle College; Leeds Beckett University (ICE Publishing, 2016-12)
      Scotland currently has 76·7% of all implemented timber-framed buildings in the UK housing market. England’s figure is 16%. The English contribution is considered relatively low given its demand for more sustainable, low-cost social housing. The aim of this study is to investigate potential contemporary barriers to the adoption of timber as a primary structural material in residential housing developments in England. The research methodology is quantitative and findings revealed that a combination of economic, cultural and psychological issues rather than technical and durability performance are responsible. These are fundamentally due to lack of education regarding the use of timber, erroneously perceived increased maintenance costs of timber housing, developers’ influence and monopoly over timber technology, uncertainty in property resale value and the recent overall lack of confidence in timber technology. It is recommended that improved training comprising compulsory basic timber technology and sustainable construction is adopted as a formal prerequisite for the attainment of relevant qualifications within the built environment, civil engineering and architecture. To this end, the benefits of sustainable construction, specifically, timber, in housing should be introduced even at the pre-university level, within schools and colleges. Also recommended are public awareness campaigns through relevant institutions, in the public and private sectors and among construction professionals, of the merits and misconceptions surrounding timber technology.
    • Hydroxyapatite/Carbon nanotubes composite bone implants - Biocompatibility Vs Toxicity Analysis

      Natesan, Kiruthika; Le, Huirong; Tredwin, Christopher; Handy, Richard; University of Derby; University of Plymouth (International Association for Dental Research, 2015-09-15)
      Poor wear resistance and low fracture toughness are the main disadvantages of using hydroxyapatite (HA) for orthopaedic implants. This can be overcome by the use of Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcements due to their versatile properties e.g. high stiffness and mechanical strength.The main aim of this study is to develop HA composite reinforced with CNTs and to investigate their biocompatibility.Methods: HA in the presence of CNTs was synthesised following a sol-gel technique. Six different types of powders were produced by altering two variables – functionalization and presence of surfactants. The composites were produced by mixing Hydroxyapatite /carbon nanotube powder with Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in equal proportions. Primary Human Osteoblast cells were used for the biocompatibility study. LDH, ALP, pH and Ion content analyses were performed on external media every 24 h for 3 days and at the end of the study LDH, ALP and protein assays were performed using cell homogenate to measure various cell activities. SEM analysis was also performed.Results: A drop in pH was observed after 24 h which recovered to neutral pH by the end of day 3. Total protein content was confirmed on all materials. Cell survival was analysed by performing LDH assay on cell homogenate at the end of day 3. ALP assay was performed to determine the mineralization activity of the cells. Finally, the material was qualitatively analysed under SEM and the presence of cell material was observed.Conclusions: CNTs possess properties that are highly desirable in the development of biomaterials. However, there has been controversy regarding their biocompatibility and cytotoxicity. This study explores the biocompatibility of HA /CNTs composite as bone implants. The results show that CNTs are biocompatible and can be employed in the development of bone implants.
    • IDEF based methodology for rapid data collection

      Perera, Terrence; Liyanage, Kapila; Sheffield Hallam University (Emerald, 2001)
      In recent years, computer simulation has become a mainstream decision support tool in manufacturing industry. In order to maximise the benefits of using simulation within businesses simulation models should be designed, developed and deployed in a shorter time span. A number of factors, such as excessive model details, inefficient data collection, lengthy model documentation and poorly planned experiments, increase the overall lead time of simulation projects. Among these factors, input data modelling is seen as a major obstacle. Input data identification, collection, validation, and analysis, typically take more than one‐third of project time. This paper presents a IDEF (Integrated computer‐aided manufacturing DEFinition) based approach to accelerate identification and collection of input data. The use of the methodology is presented through its application in batch manufacturing environments. A functional module library and a reference data model, both developed using the IDEF family of constructs, are the core elements of the methodology. The paper also identifies the major causes behind the inefficient collection of data.
    • Identification and alignment of the social aspects of sustainable manufacturing with the theory of motivation.

      Gbededo, Mijoh; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2018-03-17)
      The relevance of adopting environmentally friendly manufacturing process to economic development has been studied and established in many research. Empirical studies have also confirmed that organisations adopting green technology or clean production are benefiting from increasing economic growth and job creation. However, the studies of the benefits of social development to economic growth and manufacturing sustainability have not been adequately captured or itemised in the literature. With the aim of contributing to this research streams, this paper applied the principles of social economy and reciprocity, and the theories of motivation and social exchange to guide the integration of social aspects into sustainability analytical equations. The Herzberg two-factor theory of motivation was adopted to classify the negative and positive social impacts of the workers’ stakeholder category. Further, the approach aligns the Herzberg extrinsic factors with the negative and regulated social aspects and intrinsic factors with the positive and unregulated social aspects. This contribution provides an initial theoretical framework that will enable practitioners to capture and calculate the social impact coefficient of an organisation. The result can be used to assess the social impacts on productivity, and corporate social responsibility towards the employees. It will also provide an input for analytical or simulation models to assess the consequential effects of social aspects on other sustainability dimensions.
    • Identification of the mechanical properties of tires for wheelchair simulation.

      Doria, Alberto; Taraborrelli,Luca; Jomaa, Tarek; Peijs, Tom; Potter, Mario; Advani, Sunjoo; Crichlow,Larry; University of Padova; International Development of Technology B.V.; Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (Bentham Open, 2016-12-30)
      The development of high performance wheelchairs and wheelchair simulators requires dynamic models taking into account the properties of tires. In this paper the properties of two wheelchair tires are measured by means of a rotating disc testing machine and are compared with the properties of bicycle tires, which have similar dimensions and structure. Tests are carried out considering variations in speed, inflation pressure and load. The possibility of fitting experimental results with the Magic Formula, the Dugoff formula and a linear model is discussed. A dynamic model of a wheelchair is developed, which includes a linear tire model derived from experimental results. Steady turning and slalom manoeuvres are simulated. Numerical results show the effect of tire properties on the handling characteristics of the wheelchair.
    • ‘The impact of culture on tourists' Online information search behaviour: Evidence from the UK and China

      Michopoulou, Eleni; Moisa, Delia Gabriela; University of Derby; University of Derby, UK; University of Derby, UK (IGI Global, 2016-06)
      This chapter looks into the concept of culture and its impacts on travellers' online information search behaviour. The study is focused on two culturally diametric countries: United Kingdom and China (Hofstede, 2001) and they have been selected as case studies, representing values from the Western and the Asian cultures. In order to examine the effects of culture on online search behaviours, the research adopted a qualitative approach, and data was collected through interviews in order to enhance and elaborate the understanding on the subject studied. The results of this study show that culture influences the travellers' behaviour in the online environment, up to a certain extent, and as a result of this influences, different behavioural patterns between the British and the Chinese travellers emerged. Moreover, these findings bring implications for the marketers aiming at the British and the Chinese tourists, and they highlight the need to adopt different strategies in designing and marketing their tourism products for these two particular markets.
    • The impact of Industry 4.0 on supply chains and sustainability.

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (2018-09-10)
      Industry 4.0 ushers in a new dawn of digitization, utilizing smart devices, communicating across manufacturing process and supply chains, gathering data on mass in a virtual model of a business to investigate areas for improvement, developing new product and service offerings. Industry 4.0 brings a potential shift from mass over production, to production system based on real end consumer demand requirements. Sustainability relates to reducing the amount of scarce resources being used in products, enabling repair, reuse and recycling of materials from products. Industry 4.0 has the potential to influence sustainability and supply chains. This paper establishes key concepts and issues, as well as a current state adoption review. Conclusions were drawn enabling the implementation of (1) industry 4.0; (2) sustainability and; (3) enhanced buyer-supplier supply relationships.
    • Impact of loads on power flow in power systems using PowerApps and ETAP

      Souli, Aissa; Bashour, Rami; Hellal, Abdelhafid; Kharaz, Ahmad H.; University Of Derby (Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP), 2015-07-05)
      This paper presents a study of the impact of loads on power flow in power system. It deals with the impact of both the voltage nodes and the transmission of active and reactive power in lines, and therefore the loss of active and reactive power in the system. Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices are found to be encouraging in improving voltage stability limit in power systems. This paper investigates the application of FACTS devices (Static Var Compensator, SVC) on a 9-bus multimachine power system, it deal with the line losses and improving voltage stability limit. Amount of increased reactive power generation and line losses are taken as indicators of stressed conditions of a power system. The use of SVC is identified by PowerApps and ETAP software packages. Both software are used for IEEE 9 bus test system and the results obtained are presented and interpreted. Streszczenie. Analizowano wpływ napięć w węzłach i przepływ mocy biernej i czynnej na pracę systemu energetycznego. Artykuł przedstawia badania zastosowania urządzeń FACTS w dziewi1)ęcioszynowym, wielomaszynowym systemie. Wykorzystano oprogramowanie ETAP. Wpływ obciążeń na przepływy mocy w systemie wykorzystującym PowerApps i oprogramowanie ETAP Keywords: Power Flow, FACTS, SVC, PowerApps, ETAP. Słowa kluczowe: przepływy mocy, FACTS, Etap Introduction Load flow study in power system parlance is the steady state solution of the power system network [1]. The main information obtained from this study comprises the magnitudes and phase angles of load bus voltages, reactive powers at generators buses, real and reactive power flow on transmission lines [2], other variables being known. Usually a generating station is not situated near the load centre, but it may be away from load centre due to various circumstances.
    • Impact of the truck wave region to the aerodynamics of saloon car.

      Harmanto, Dani; University of Derby (Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Society (IEOM), 2018-03)
      A wake region will be produced by truck when it is travelling at their maximum allowance speed which is 56 miles per hour. The wake region can be seen clearly when a truck travelling at a wet road. The wake region has its own force which will affecting any vehicle travelling behind or next to the truck. This paper presents a numerical study of the flow field in the aerodynamics of the saloon effecting by the wake region. Simulation will be carried out for different position of the saloon next to the truck. The numerical study will be validated using Ahmed body to determine the mesh and domain size. The velocity will be set at 56 miles per hour and assuming the truck will be travelling alongside the motorway. The rotating region will be used for truck and saloon and the angular velocity will be calculated based on the circumference of its tires. Detailed analysis and result such as CD and CL together with the x-y chart will be presented to provide a better understanding of the effect of truck wake region to the saloon when it is behind or next to the truck.
    • Impact of vibration time on compressive strength of hardened sandcrete building blocks

      Omoregie, Alohan; University of Bolton (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2012-05-09)
      The majority of the sandcrete blocks used in the Nigerian building industry fall short of the minimum specification standards. There is evidence to suggest a wide variation in compressive strength from one block manufacturer to another and also within block samples from a single source. This problem has been attributed to poor quality control and substandard constituent materials. Also very alarming is the ignorance surrounding the usage and engineering properties of some of the widely used fine aggregate deposits. As a way forward, this paper aims to re-establish the impact of vibration time in sandcrete block production using six fine aggregate deposits found within Benin City (Midwestern Nigeria) and their various pair combinations. Some of the basic properties like silt content, grading parameters—co-efficient of uniformity (Cu), curvature co-efficient (Cc) and the fineness modulus (Fm)—of these fine aggregates were established by laboratory means. In addition, the wet and dry compressive strength of these sandcrete blocks made from these sands were established. A total of 1,080 block samples produced under very controlled conditions were used in this investigation. It was revealed that the utility value of sand can be improved when the weaker and commonly used sands were combined with those that are better, more expensive and less frequently used at different vibration periods and ratios. Findings further revealed that sand types and the sand combination approach adopted were very significant to grading parameters and strength; at a much higher vibration time the compressive strength and durability properties were also considerably improved
    • The impacts of sustainability, extended producer responsibility and the circular economy on product pricing models

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; Department of Mechanical Engineering & the Built Environment (Gupta Publications, 2019-07)
      This paper examines product pricing in relation to Sustainability, Extended Producer Responsibility and the Circular Economy. Traditional linear economic systems focus on the use of mass production techniques to achieve the most competitively priced products on the marketplace. This in turn requires a large volume of resources to be consumed. The linear economic system is based on a closed loop system, where resources are used in product manufacture, and then used consumed by end user(s), to finally becoming waste products. Increasing consumption of natural resources, led to the evolution of (1) sustainability measures aimed at ensuring producers utilized more sustainable resources; (2) extended producer responsibility (EPR) schemes which placed burdens on producers to bear an economic cost for recovery and recycling activities for products they manufactured, and; (3) the circular economy, which sees producers encouraged to design products which use resources which are capable of being used by the r-imperatives. The results show implementing sustainability, EPR and the circular economy measures do impact costs and product prices.
    • Impacts of the gap size between two bluff bodies on the flow field within the gap

      Charles, Terrance; Lu, Yiling; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (EDAS, 2017-07-18)
      When two bluff bodies is in close tandem, i.e, the distance between blocks D is less than half of the height of the body H, the flow field is very similar to that in the gap between tractor and trailer in a truck, and hence understanding such a flow field would help to reduce the gap drag of a truck. This paper presents a numerical study of the flow field in the gap between two identical cubes in tandem arrangement, in particular, focusing on the impact of gap size on the flow field within the gap and around the two cubes. Simulations have been carried out for four different gap sizes. The numerical model has been validated first against a test case before further studies are carried out to study the impact of gap width on the flow field. The predicted mean velocity profiles compare well against the experimental data for the validation test case. Detailed analysis has been carried out to reveal the change of the flow fields when the gap size changes, leading to a better understanding of the drag coefficient variations for the four cases studied.
    • Improved number plate character segmentation algorithm and its efficient FPGA implementation

      Zhai, Xiaojun; Bensaali, Faycal; University of Hertfordshire (Springer, 2012-06-10)
      Character segmentation is an important stage in Automatic Number Plate Recognition systems as good character separation leads to a high recognition rate. This paper presents an improved character segmentation algorithm based on pixel projection and morphological operations. An efficient architecture based on the proposed algorithm is also presented. The architecture has been successfully implemented and verified using the Mentor Graphics RC240 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) development board equipped with a 4M-Gate Xilinx Virtex-4 LX40. A database of 1,000 UK binary NPs with varying resolution has been used for testing the performance of the proposed architecture. Results achieved have shown that the proposed architecture can process a number plate image in 0.2–1.4 ms with 97.7 % successful segmentation rate and consumes only 11 % of the available area in the used FPGA.
    • Improved number plate localisation algorithm and its efficient field programmable gate arrays implementation

      Zhai, Xiaojun; Ramalingam, Soodamani; Bensaali, Faycal; University of Hertfordshire (The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2013-03-01)
      Number plate localisation is a very important stage in an automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) system and is computationally intensive. This study presents a low complexity with high-detection rate number plate localisation algorithm based on morphological operations together with an efficient multiplier-less architecture based on that algorithm. The proposed architecture has been successfully implemented and tested using a Mentor Graphics RC240 FPGA (field programmable gate arrays) development board equipped with a 4M-gate Xilinx Virtex-4 LX40. Two database sets sourced from the UK and Greece and including 1000 and 307 images, respectively, both with a resolution of 640 x 480, have been used for testing. Results achieved have shown that the proposed system can process an image in 4.7 ms, while achieving a 97.8% detection rate and consuming only 33% of the available area of the FPGA.
    • Individual thermal control in the workplace and changes in thermal preferences in a day: Norwegian cellular vs. British open plan layouts

      Shahzad, Sally; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; University of Edinburgh (2014)
      This research suggests that the thermal preference of occupants is subject to change; hence, a particular thermal setting may not be able to constantly satisfy everyone. On the contrary, individual thermal control in the workplace is more likely to increase user comfort and satisfaction. This is examined through environmental measurements, comfort surveys and semi-structured interviews in two office layouts with high and low thermal control. Two Norwegian cellular plan offices that provide each user with control over a window, heating and cooling are compared with two British open plan offices with limited openable windows for users seated around the perimeter of the building. Complementary quantitative and qualitative methodologies and analysis techniques are applied with a particular emphasis on grounded theory and innovative visual analysing technique. Overall rather than a setting an 'optimum temperature' in an endeavour to satisfy all, it is suggested that buildings provide a degree of flexibility to allow occupants to adjust their thermal environment according to their requirements.
    • Inert gas clearance from tissue by co-currently and counter-currently arranged microvessels

      Lu, Yiling; Michel, C. C.; Wang, Wen; University of Derby (2012-05)
      To elucidate the clearance of dissolved inert gas from tissues, we have developed numerical models of gas transport in a cylindrical block of tissue supplied by one or two capillaries. With two capillaries, attention is given to the effects of co-current and counter-current flow on tissue gas clearance. Clearance by counter-current flow is compared with clearance by a single capillary or by two co-currently arranged capillaries. Effects of the blood velocity, solubility, and diffusivity of the gas in the tissue are investigated using parameters with physiological values. It is found that under the conditions investigated, almost identical clearances are achieved by a single capillary as by a co-current pair when the total flow per tissue volume in each unit is the same (i.e., flow velocity in the single capillary is twice that in each co-current vessel). For both co-current and counter-current arrangements, approximate linear relations exist between the tissue gas clearance rate and tissue blood perfusion rate. However, the counter-current arrangement of capillaries results in less-efficient clearance of the inert gas from tissues. Furthermore, this difference in efficiency increases at higher blood flow rates. At a given blood flow, the simple conduction-capacitance model, which has been used to estimate tissue blood perfusion rate from inert gas clearance, underestimates gas clearance rates predicted by the numerical models for single vessel or for two vessels with co-current flow. This difference is accounted for in discussion, which also considers the choice of parameters and possible effects of microvascular architecture on the interpretation of tissue inert gas clearance.