• Editorial: methodologies of sustainable projects

      BK, Satish; Shahzad, Sally; University of Edinburgh (University of Edinburgh, 2013)
      The Edinburgh Architecture Research has been gathering together the postgraduate community in Architecture at the University of Edinburgh for many years. Since 1973 it has been challenging the research students to raise questions and work together to develop calls for papers, and organise the publication of the journal issues. It began as a reviewed collection of papers produced by students and academics of the University of Edinburgh, and it soon developed into a blind, doublereviewed journal of wide recognition, inviting papers from the broader international academic community. In this issue, we have departed from the general process of conference driven proceedings. This time we have paved the way for a theme-based edition with a wider participation from among the academics, students and practitioners. This 33rd edition of EAR is aimed at research papers and design projects that explore sustainable methodologies. Sustainable design requires skilful integration of multiple and often competing social, financial and environmental concerns. It can be argued that designers satisfy the increasingly sophisticated demands and multiple readings of sustainability without sacrificing design legibility. The intention is to explore these topics in the hope that this edition will act as a catalogue for the innovative methodologies deployed through research and design.
    • Educational advantage and employability of UK university graduates

      Pigden, Louise; Moore, Garford; University of Derby (Emerald, 2019-02-20)
      In the UK, the majority of university students specialise and study just one subject at bachelor degree level, commonly known in the UK as a single honours degree. However, nearly all British universities will permit students if they wish to study two or even three subjects, so-called joint or combined honours degrees, internationally known as a double major. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether educational advantage, measured by the “Participation of Local Areas” (POLAR) classification, correlated with rates of graduate destinations for joint and single honours graduates. This study focused particularly on Russell Group and Post-92 Universities. The authors analysed the complete data set provided from the Higher Education Statistics Agency Destination of Leavers from the Higher Education survey, and combined this with data from the POLAR4 quintiles, which aggregate geographical regions across the UK based on the proportion of its young people that participate in higher education. The data were analysed to establish whether there was a difference in the highly skilled graduate employability of the joint honours students, focusing particularly on Russell Group and Post-92 Universities, in order to build on previous published work. Single honours and joint honours graduates from higher participation POLAR4 quintiles were more likely to be in a highly skilled destination. However at both the Russell Group and the Post-92 universities, respectively, there was no trend towards a smaller highly skilled destinations gap between the honours types for the higher quintiles. For the highest POLAR4 quintile, the proportion of joint honours graduates was substantially higher at the Russell Group than at Post-92 universities. Furthermore, in any quintile, there were proportionately more joint honours graduates from the Russell Group, compared with single honours graduates, and increasingly so the higher the quintile. This study focused on joint honours degrees in the UK where the two or three principal subjects fall into different Joint Academic Coding System (JACS) subject areas, i.e. the two or three subjects are necessarily diverse rather than academically cognate. This excluded the class of joint honours degrees where the principal subjects lie within the same JACS subject area, i.e. they may be closer academically, although still taught by different academic teams. However, the overall proportion of joint honours graduates identified using the classification was in line with the UCAS (2017) data on national rates of combined studies acceptances. All Russell Group graduates, irrespective of their POLAR4 quintile, were far more likely to be in a highly skilled destination than single or joint honours graduates of Post-92 universities. Even the lowest quintile graduates of the Russell Group had greater rates of highly skilled destination than the highest quintile from Post-92 universities, for both single and joint honours graduates. This demonstrated the positive impact that graduating from the Russell Group confers on both single and joint honours graduates. This study could not explain the much smaller gap in the highly skilled destinations between single honours and joint honours graduates found in the Russell Group, compared with the Post-92. Why do a higher proportion of joint honours graduates hail form the upper POLAR4 quintiles, the Russell Group joint honours graduates were more disproportionately from the upper POLAR4 quintiles and the joint honours upper POLAR4 quintiles represented such a larger proportion of the Russell Group overall undergraduate population? Other student characteristics such as tariff on entry, subjects studied, gender, age and ethnicity might all contribute to this finding. This study demonstrated that, averaged across all universities in the UK, there was a trend for both single honours and joint honours graduates from higher participation POLAR4 quintiles to be more likely to be in a highly skilled destination, i.e. the more educationally advantaged, were more likely to be in a highly skilled destination, as a proportion of the total from each honours type. This accorded with HESA (2018b) data, but expanded those findings to include direct consideration of joint honours graduates.
    • The effect of initial etching sites on the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes on Ti-6Al-4V alloy

      Danookdharree, Urvashi; Le, Huirong; Tredwin, Christopher; University of Plymouth (2015-07-14)
    • Effect of intermetallic compound layer thickness on the shear strength of 1206 chip resistor solder joint.

      Bernasko, Peter K.; Mallik, Sabuj; Takyi, Gabriel; University of Greenwich; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (Emerald, 2015-02-02)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of intermetallic compound (IMC) layer thickness on the shear strength of surface-mount component 1206 chip resistor solder joints. Design/methodology/approach – To evaluate the shear strength and IMC thickness of the 1206 chip resistor solder joints, the test vehicles were conventionally reflowed for 480 seconds at a peak temperature of 240°C at different isothermal ageing times of 100, 200 and 300 hours. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the reflowed and aged 1206 chip resistor solder joints. The shear strength of the solder joints aged at 100, 200 and 300 hours was measured using a shear tester (Dage-4000PXY bond tester). Findings – It was found that the growth of IMC layer thickness increases as the ageing time increases at a constant temperature of 175°C, which resulted in a reduction of solder joint strength due to its brittle nature. It was also found that the shear strength of the reflowed 1206 chip resistor solder joint was higher than the aged joints. Moreover, it was revealed that the shear strength of the 1206 resistor solder joints aged at 100, 200 and 300 hours was influenced by the ageing reaction times. The results also indicate that an increase in ageing time and temperature does not have much influence on the formation and growth of Kirkendall voids. Research limitations/implications – A proper correlation between shear strength and fracture mode is required. Practical implications – The IMC thickness can be used to predict the shear strength of the component/printed circuit board pad solder joint. Originality/value – The shear strength of the 1206 chip resistor solder joint is a function of ageing time and temperature (°C). Therefore, it is vital to consider the shear strength of the surface-mount chip component in high-temperature electronics.
    • Effect of reflow profile parameters on surface mount chip resistor solder joint shear strength.

      Bernasko, Peter K.; Mallik, Sabuj; Takyi, Gabriel; University of Greenwich; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (Science Publishing Group, 2014-09-30)
      The focus of this study is on the effect of reflow parameters on the joint shear strength. Eight reflow profiles were developed using four factors at two levels of Taguchi design of experiment for 1206, 0805 and 0603 chip resistors. Normal probability and main effect plots were used to provide a complete profile of the effect of reflow parameters on the chip resistor solder joint shear strength. The Normal Probability plots show effect of some reflow parameters on shear strength. Some data points did not fall on the best fit line.These outliers indicate parameter effects. The 1206 chip resistor shear strength value of 74.85N lies outside the best fit line indicating that some of the parameters are critical and significantly affect the response value. The results of the Main Effect plots help identify the unknown critical parameters in the probability plots. It indicates that the shear strength of 1206 chip resistor depends on the peak temperature, time above liquidus and preheat slope but not on cooling rate. In the case of the 0805 chip resistor, there were no exceptional departures from the line fitted to the data. It can be assumed that the factors and the levels considered here have no significant effect on the response. The normal probability plot of the 0603 chip resistor shows that the 46.68N shear strength lies outside the fitted line. This means that the factors and settings (run 3) can be further modified to improve the response. The factors which affected the 0603 resistor from the main effect plot are preheat slop and cooling rate.The results of the 1206 chip resistor show the highest shear force of 74.8 N using a peak temperature setting of 230°C (low level). The 0805 and 0603 chip resistors recorded the highest shear forces of 68.32N and 46.48 respectively using a temperature of 245°C (high level). The higher temperature may have contributed to the lower shear force due to the growth of brittle intermetallic compound in the case of the 0805 and 0603 chip resistors.
    • Effect of the building maintenance and resource management through user satisfaction of maintenance.

      Pontan, Darmawan; Surjokusumo, Surjono; Johan, Johny; Hasyim, Cholil; Setiawan, M. Ikhsan; Ahmar, Ansari Saleh; Harmanto, Dani; Tarumanagara University; Trisakti University; Darul Ulum University; Narotama University; Universitas Negeri Makassar; University of Derby (Science Publishing Corporation, 2018)
      PD Pasar Jaya manages 153 markets spread across Jakarta. Market building is a place of public services, in order to provide excellent service to the community, it is important to maintain it properly. Maintenance management of PD Pasar Jaya is still far from the expected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of directly and indirectly from the condition of the building and maintenance re-sources to user satisfaction through maintenance management. The research method is by taking a sample of 14 buildings market, then use the check list building condition assessment visually and dissemination of survey questionnaires to 216 respondents, namely the market manager, the kiosk, and visitors. The questionnaire consisted of four variables: the condition of the building (X1), maintenance resources (X2), as an variable, independent maintenance management (Y) as variable, an intervening while user satisfaction (Z) as the dependent variable. Furthermore, assessment data is processed by the descriptive analysis of the building, while the questionnaire survey data processed by path analysis using linear regression with SPSS ver. 22. The results of assessment of 14 buildings is a market average of 78 of the highest value of 100, this means that the condition of the building is being with only minor damage. The total yield of the influence of the condition of the building (42.38%) and maintenance resources (25.01%) towards satisfaction of a user through mainte-nance management (1.26%) is 68.65%
    • The effect of the inflation pressure of tyres on motorcycle weave stability: experiments and simulation.

      Cossalter, Vittore; Favaron, Valerio; Giolo, Enrico; Jomaa, Tarek; University of Padova (Taylor & Francis, 2016-08-03)
      Increasing the stability of a motorcycle requires an understanding of the optimal conditions of the tyre. The inflation pressure is one of the main parameters that directly affects the tyre properties, which in turn influences motorcycle stability and safety. This paper focuses on the effect of the inflation pressure of the tested tyres on motorcycle weave stability. Experimental data are collected from tests carried out in straight running at constant speed. The data analysis is based on stochastic subspace identification methods. Simulations are performed using an advanced motorcycle multi-body code with parameters measured from the tested vehicle. Finally, the comparison between simulations and experimental tests is discussed. The research results show an agreement between experimental tests and simulations where weave stability increases with inflation pressure for the specified range of tyre pressure.
    • The effect of thermal constriction on heat management in a microelectronic application.

      Ekpu, Mathias; Bhatti, Raj; Okereke, Michael I.; Mallik, Sabuj; Otiaba, Kenny; University of Greenwich (Elsevier, 2013-11-14)
      Thermal contact constriction between a chip and a heat sink assembly of a microelectronic application is investigated in order to access the thermal performance. The finite element model (FEM) of the electronic device developed using ANSYS software was analysed while the micro-contact and micro-gap thermal resistances were numerically analysed by the use of MATLAB. In addition, the effects of four major factors (contact pressure, micro-hardness, root-mean-squared (RMS) surface roughness, and mean absolute surface slope) on thermal contact resistance were investigated. Two lead-free solders (SAC305 and SAC405) were used as thermal interface materials in this study to bridge the interface created between a chip and a heat sink. The results from this research showed that an increase in three of the factors reduces thermal contact resistance while the reverse is the case for RMS surface roughness. In addition, the use of SAC305 and SAC405 resulted in a temperature drop across the microelectronic device. These results might aid engineers to produce products with less RMS surface roughness thereby improving thermal efficiency of the microelectronic application.
    • Effect of urban street canyon aspect ratio on thermal performance of road pavement solar collectors (RPSC)

      Nasir, Diana S. N. M.; Hughes, Ben Richard; Calautit, John Kaiser; Aquino, Angelo I.; Shahzad, Sally; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-06-01)
      Studies on RPSC (road pavement solar collectors) have shown the potential of reducing the urban heat island effect by dissipating the heat from the pavement for energy harness. In our previous work, performance analysis of RPSC system was carried out to compare the RPSC embedment in two scenarios; within an urban street canyon and within suburban or rural area. The current study expands the analysis of the RPSC system in urban areas by assessing the impact of varying canyon aspect ratios on the performance of RPSC. De-coupled Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) approach was proposed to investigate the integration of RPSC system in an urban canyon. The CFD tool ANSYS Fluent 15.0 was used to simulate the fluid flow and heat transfer on the pavement/road surface by enabling three models: (i) energy model, (ii) standard k-epsilon model, and (iii) coupled DO-solar load radiation model. The results showed that a significant pavement surface temperature increase was found when the aspect ratio (AR) was increased from 1 to 2 while minimal increase was observed for the canyon with AR above 2. At the particular simulated time (13:00) and location, it was found that the overall performance of the RPSC system significantly increased by up to 13.0% when AR was increased from 1 to 2, but the performance of RSPC in shadow area (due to the shading effect of building) had significantly dropped (up to 30.0%) from AR 3 to 4. Findings of this study showed that the canyon aspect ratio had a significant impact on the temperature distribution of the ground surface and should be taken into consideration when assessing the performance of RPSC in urban areas.
    • Effect on the hardness paving block by adding gomuti and pumice stone.

      Rochman, Zainur; Mudjanarko, Sri Wiwoho; Harmanto, Dani; University of Derby; Universitas Narotama (Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Society (IEOM), 2018-03)
      Paving block is a cement product and been used as the alternative of asphalt. It has been used intensively for parking area, village road and so on in Indonesia. Paving block is also known as concrete block or conblock. Absorption of water to paving block installation system can maintain ground water balance and strongly support go green. It is also echoed nationally as well as internationally. This research will test the compressive strength of paving block considering the paving block function must also be able to support the heavy load on it beside the good absorption. The development and test will be using two types. First, it will be added the fibers of gomuti 3% and pumice stone 10% with additional aggregate 1.5% sikament additive. The second one will be the same but increasing the pumice stone to 20%. This research is expected to get paving block wearing high and light.
    • An effective mesh strategy for CFD modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

      Choopanya, Pattarapong; Yang, Zhiyin; Unviersity of Derby, Department of Engineering (Elsevier, 2016-04)
      Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a major tool in PEM fuel cell research. Typical three-dimensional PEM fuel cell models involve more than 106 mesh elements. This makes the computation very intense and necessitates a methodology to mesh the computational domain that can keep the number of elements to a minimum while maintaining good accuracy. In this study, the effect of computational mesh in each direction on the accuracy of the solution is investigated in a systematic way. It is found that the mesh in different directions has a different degree of influence on the solution suggesting that the mesh in one direction can be coarser than the other. The proposed mesh strategy is capable of greatly reducing the number of mesh elements, hence computation time, while preserving the characteristics of important flow-field variables. Moreover, it is applicable to a wide range of cell sizes and flow-field configurations and should be used as a guideline for mesh generation.
    • Effects of cold roll dimpling process on mechanical properties of dimpled steel.

      Nguyen, Van Bac; English, Martin; University of Derby; Hadley Industries plc (Elsevier, 2017-11-15)
      In this paper, the effect of a dimpling process on the mechanical properties of the steel material was studied experimentally and numerically. Nano-hardness and tensile tests of steel samples prior to and after the dimpling process were conducted to evaluate the effects of the process on the mechanical properties. Numerical simulations of the dimpling process and tensile tests were done by Finite Element Analysis; they were used to quantify the amount of non-uniform plastic strains and residual stresses introduced and the manner, in which this was distributed through the sheet. The cold roll dimpling process resulted in developing the plastic strain and residual stress which could correlate to the modifications in the strength and stiffness of the dimpled steel when compared to plain steel originating from the same coil material. The simulation of the dimpling process and tensile tests of the plain and dimpled specimens predicted similar behaviour to the experimental measurements and tests.
    • The effects of distortion on the perception of loudness in live sound

      Durbridge, Simon E.; Hill, Adam J.; Taylor, John; University of Derby; d&b audiotechnik (Institute of Acoustics, 2015-11-12)
      Distortion is a central concern in audio production, and occurs in many parts of a live sound reinforcement system. Perceived loudness is a key principal in psychoacoustics, and may be strongly affected by factors such as spatial variance and the distinct effects of nonlinearity in the signal chain. The aim of this study is to highlight the relationship between perceived loudness, and different analytical forms of distortion which relate to how loudspeaker systems might behave. Some key factors of loudness perception and basic principles of distortion are discussed. A series of listening tests confirm that there is a relationship between loudness perception and distortion, and that this effect may vary between listeners. The results are analysed using perceptually motivated metrics such as Rnonlin and Loudness Units Full Scale. Overall, the importance of controlled compression techniques and limiting to avoid clipping are reinforced, as clipping may decrease aggregate perceived loudness and increase inter-listener variance in the live events domain.
    • Effects of hygrothermal stress on the failure of CFRP composites

      Meng, Maozhou; Rizvi, Jahir; Grove, Stephen; Le, Huirong; University of Plymouth (2015-01-12)
      This paper investigates the hygrothermal effects on the failure mechanisms in bending of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Accelerated diffusion testing was carried out by immersion at 50 °C constant temperature and 70 bar hydrostatic pressure to study the effects of fresh or sea water diffusion into pre-preg CFRP laminates. Consequently the composite laminates were tested in bending after 1 and 3 months’ immersion. A three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) model was developed to couple the moisture diffusion, hygrothermal expansion and bending. Optical and field emission scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were employed to analyse the failure mechanisms of CFRP composites in bending after immersion. The study showed that the mechanical properties are significantly reduced after short term immersion due to the edge effects, while the damage to the fibre/polymer interface becomes more significant to laminate degradation after longer-term immersion.
    • The effects of unequal compressive/tensile moduli of composites

      Meng, Maozhou; Le, Huirong; Rizvi, Jahir; Grove, Stephen; University of Plymouth (2015-02-28)
    • Electromagnetic forced vibrations of composite nanoplates using nonlocal strain gradient theory.

      Malikan, Mohammad; Nguyen, Van Bac; Tornabene, Francesco; Islamic Azad University; University of Derby; University of Bologna (2018-07-13)
      This article is intended to analyze forced vibrations of a piezoelectric-piezomagnetic ceramic nanoplate by a new refined shear deformation plate theory in conjunction with higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory. As both stress nonlocality and strain gradient size-dependent effects are taken into account using the higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory, the governing equations of the composite nanoplate are formulated. When the nanoplate is subjected to a transverse harmonic loading and all the edges are considered as simple boundaries, the governing equations can be solved with a closed-form solution, from which the maximum dynamic deflections are obtained. To validate the results of the new proposed plate theory, the comparisons between ours and the well-known papers in the literature are presented. The influences of different nonlocal parameters and material properties on the nanoplate's dynamic responses are also studied.
    • Employability outcomes for university joint honours graduates.

      Pigden, Louise; Moore, Andrew Garford; University of Derby; School of Engineering and Technology, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department of Policy and Public Affairs/Corporate Planning and Performance, University of Derby, Derby, UK (Emerald, 2018-04-11)
      Purpose In the UK, the vast majority of university students specialise and study just one subject at bachelor degree level, commonly known in the UK as a single honours degree. However, nearly all British universities will permit students if they wish to study two or even three subjects, so-called joint or combined honours degrees, internationally known as a double major. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the study of a joint rather than a single honours degree had an impact on employment outcomes six months after graduation. Design/methodology/approach The authors analysed the complete data set provided from the Higher Education Statistics Agency Destination of Leavers from the Higher Education survey. The data were analysed to establish whether there was a difference in the highly skilled graduate employability of the joint honours students. The authors established whether there were any differences inherent in completing a joint honours degree in a post-1992 higher education institution, by nation within the UK or within a Russell Group higher education institution. Findings The authors found an approximately consistent 3 per cent point negative gap nationally in the highly skilled employment rates of joint compared with single honours graduates. This gap was at its lowest in the highly selective Russell Group universities (−1.52 per cent points) and highest in post-1992, vocationally oriented universities (−7.13 per cent points) and in Northern Ireland universities (−12.45 per cent points). Joint honours graduates of Scottish universities fared well, with a +3.09 per cent point advantage over the national average for joint honours. The authors found that universities that had a higher proportion of joint honours graduates generally had a lower employability gap between their joint and single honours graduates. Research limitations/implications This study focussed on joint honours degrees in the UK where the two or three principal subjects fall into different JACS subject areas, i.e. the two or three subjects are necessarily diverse rather than academically cognate. Future work will consider the class of joint honours degrees where the principal subjects lie within the same JACS subject area, i.e. they may be closer academically, although still taught by different academic teams. This grouping will include, for example, pairs of foreign languages, some social sciences pairings such as politics and sociology, and pairings such as history and theology from the historical and philosophical subject area. Originality/value The potential disbenefits of studying for a joint honours degree are apparent in this study. Joint honours students may face organisational, academic and cultural challenges that require a positive, conscious and sustained effort to overcome, on both the part of the student and the higher education institution. In particular for graduates of the post-1992 universities, it appears that there is a negative relative impact on highly skilled employment. This impact is lessened if the university is Scottish (four-year degrees with in-built breadth of study) or where the proportion completing joint honours degrees is relatively high.
    • Employment outcomes and patterns of real estate graduates: is gender a matter?

      Poon, Joanna; Brownlow, Michael; University of Salford (Emerald, 2016)
      Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether gender has an impact on real estate and built environment graduates’ employment outcomes, employment patterns and other important employment related issues, such as pay, role, contract type and employment opportunity in different States of a country. Design/methodology/approach: The data used in this paper has been collected from the Australian Graduate Survey (AGS). Data from the years 2010-2012 was combined into a single dataset. Dimensionality reduction was used to prepare the dataset for the courses listed in AGS data, in order to develop the simplified classifications for real estate and built environment courses which are used to conduct further analysis in this paper. Dimensionality reduction was also used to prepare dataset for the further analysis of the employment outcomes and patterns for real estate graduates. Descriptive and statistical analysis methods were used to identify the impact of gender on the employment outcomes, employment patterns and other important employment related issues, such as pay, role, contract type and location of job, for real estate graduates in Australia. This paper also benchmarks the employment result of real estate graduates to built environment graduates. Findings: Recent male built environment graduates in Australia are more likely to gain full-time employment than females. The dominant role for recent female built environment graduates in Australia is a secretarial or administrative role while for the male it is a professional or technical role. Male real estate and built environment graduates are more likely to have a higher level of salary. Gender also has an impact on the contract type. Male built environment graduates are more likely to be employed on a permanent contract. On the other hand, gender has no impact on gaining employment in different States, such as New South Wales and Queensland, in Australia. The finding of this paper reinforces the view of previous literature, which is that male graduates have a more favourable employment outcomes and on better employment terms. The finding also shows that graduate employment outcomes for real estate and built environment graduates in Australia are similar to that in other countries, such as the UK, where equivalent studies have been published. Originality/value: This is pioneering research that investigates the impact of gender on employment outcomes, employment patterns and other employment related issues for real estate graduates and built environment graduates in Australia.
    • Energy and Comfort in Contemporary Open Plan and Traditional Personal Offices

      Shahzad, Sally; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; Hughes, Ben; Calautit, John Kaiser; Brennan, John; University of Derby; University of Edinburg; University of Sheffield (2016)
      Two office layouts with high and low levels of thermal control were compared, respectively traditional cellular and contemporary open plan offices. The traditional Norwegian practice provided every user with control over a window, blinds, door, and the ability to adjust heating and cooling. Occupants were expected to control their thermal environment to find their own comfort, while air conditioning was operating in the background to ensure the indoor air quality. In contrast, in the British open plan office, limited thermal control was provided through openable windows and blinds only for occupants seated around the perimeter of the building. Centrally operated displacement ventilation was the main thermal control system. Users’ perception of thermal environment was recorded through survey questionnaires, empirical building performance through environmental measurements and thermal control through semi-structured interviews. The Norwegian office had 35% higher user satisfaction and 20% higher user comfort compared to the British open plan office. However, the energy consumption in the British practice was within the benchmark and much lower than the Norwegian office. Overall, a balance between thermal comfort and energy efficiency is required, as either extreme poses difficulties for the other.
    • Energy efficiency and comfort in the workplace: Norwegian cellular and British open plan

      Shahzad, Sally; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; Hughes, Ben; Calautit, John Kaiser; University of Derby; University of Edinburgh; University of Sheffield (2015)
      Two office layouts with high and low levels of thermal control were compared, respectively Norwegian cellular and British open plan offices. The Norwegian practice provided every user with control over a window, blinds, door, and the ability to adjust heating and cooling. Occupants were expected to control their thermal environment to find their own comfort, while air conditioning was operatingin the background to ensure the indoor air quality. In contrast, in the British office, limited thermal control was provided through openable windows and blinds only for occupants seated around the perimeter of the building. Centrally operated displacement ventilation was the main thermal control system. Users’ perception of thermal environment was recorded through survey questionnaires, empirical building performance through environmental measurements and thermal control through semi-structured interviews. The Norwegian office had35% higher user satisfaction and 20% higher user comfort compared to the British open plan office. However, the energy consumption in the British practice was within the benchmark and much lower than the Norwegian office. Overall, a balance between thermal comfort and energy efficiency is required, as either extreme poses difficulties for the other.