• CFD and Wind Tunnel Study of the Performance of a Multi-Directional Wind Tower with Heat Transfer Devices

      Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben; O'Connor, Dominic; Shahzad, Sally; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (2015)
      The aim of this work was to investigate the performance of a multi-directional wind tower integrated with heat transfer devices (HTD) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel analysis. An experimental scale model was created using 3D printing. The scale model was tested in a closed-loop wind tunnel to validate the CFD data. Numerical results of the supply airflow were compared with experimental data. Good agreement was observed between both methods of analysis. Smoke visualisation test was conducted to analyse the air flow pattern in the test room attached underneath it. Results have indicated that the achieved indoor air speed was reduced by up to 17% following the integration of the cylindrical HTD. The effect of varying the number of HTD on the system's thermal performance were investigated. The work highlighted the potential of integrating HTD into wind towers in reducing the air temperature. The technology presented here is subject to a UK patent application (PCT/GB2014/052263).
    • CFD and wind tunnel study of the performance of a uni-directional wind catcher with heat transfer devices

      Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben; Shahzad, Sally; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (2015)
      Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel analysis were conducted to investigate the performance of a uni-directional wind catcher. A detailed experimental benchmark model was created using rapid prototyping and tested in a closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel. An accurate geometrical representation of the wind tunnel test set-up was recreated in the numerical modelling. Experimental results for the indoor and external airflow, supply rate, and pressure coefficients were compared with the numerical results. Smoke visualisation experiment was also conducted to further analyse the detailed airflow structure within the wind catcher and also inside the test room. Following the successful validation of the benchmark CFD model, cylindrical Heat Transfer Devices (HTD) were integrated into the uni-directional wind catcher model to reduce the temperature of air induced into the ventilated space. The findings of the CFD study displayed that the proposed wind catcher was capable of reducing the supply temperature by up to 12 K within the micro-climate depending on the outdoor air speed. However, the addition of the cylindrical HTD also reduced the air supply rates by up to 20–35%.
    • A CFD investigation of effects of flow-field geometry on transient performance of an automotive polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

      Choopanya, Pattarapong; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby; University of Sussex (Begell House, 2015)
      A three-dimensional, multispecies, multiphase polymer electrolyte (PEM) fuel cell model was developed in order to investigate the effect of the flow-field geometry on the steady-state and transient performances of the cell under an automotive operation. The two most commonly used designs, parallel and single-serpentine flow fields, were selected as they offer distinctive species transport modes of diffusion-dominant and convection-dominant flows in the porous layers, respectively. It was found that this difference in flow mode significantly effects membrane hydration, the key parameter in determining a successful operation. In a steady run, a serpentine flow field increased the averaged current density under the wet condition due to superior water removal, but this had a negative effect on the cell in the way that it caused membrane dry-out if dry reactant gases were used. The transient operation, on the other hand, seemed to favor the combination of a serpentine flow field and dry reactant gases, as it helped in the removal of product water and speeded up the transport of reacting species to the reactive site to find equilibrium at the new state with minimum time delay and current overshoot or undershoot, which is the most important aspect of a dynamic system.
    • CFD simulation for predicting the wind effect on the high rise building NET Tower Surabaya.

      Mudjanarko, Sri Wiwoho; Harmanto, Dani; Setiawan, M. Ikhsan; University of Derby; Universitas Narotama (Narotama University Press, 2015-11)
      The use of CFD is becoming a norm in the predicting the fluid flow in engineering especially in the mechanical engineering. However, concern has raised over the urban design area on the predicting the quality air and wind on the rise building / skyscraper. There are number of development of rise building is being built on the developing country where concern on the wind effect over pedestrian sometime is neglected. The aim and objective of this paper is demonstrating the us e of CFD over a high rise building in Indonesia and taking a case study on the new propose building at NET Tower Narotama University Surabaya, Indonesia. The CFD will be based on one direction of wind and one velocity. The CFD will be based on the finite method. The predicted result will be showed that the distribution of velocity and pressure field will be shown. The case study is intended to provide a support and guidance for the future studies on developing a propose rise building in Surabaya in particular and Indonesia in general CFD simulation for predicting the wind effect on the high rise building: NET Tower Surabaya.
    • CFD simulation of solder paste flow and deformation behaviours during stencil printing process.

      Thakur, Vishal; Mallik, Sabuj; Vuppala, Vamsi; University of Greenwich (Wireilla Scientific Publications, 2015-02)
      In 20th century, Electronics elements have become most significant part of the regular life. The main heart of electronic element is PCB which supports and manages mostly machines and equipments these days. Therefore manufacturing of board and assembly of electronic elements is one of the crucial and significant objectives for most of the companies. Better life of PCB’s depends on electronic elements and its assembly with board. Solder paste is used as adhesive material for assembly purpose. It is deposited on board using stencil and electronic elements are mounted on it and heated for strong bond. This study investigates on factors affecting stencil printing process due to variation in squeegee speed and density of solder paste. This study is based on computational fluid dynamics virtual simulation. Prototype is developed for modelling purpose and simulation software is used to simulate the flow behaviour of solder paste during stencil printing process.
    • CFD study of effusion cooling

      Yang, Zhiyin; Walton, Matthew; University of Derby (2012-09)
      The desire to increase the efficiency, i.e., reduce the specific fuel consumption and raise the thrust-to-weight ratio, of gas turbines has led to an increase in pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber and turbine. The operational life of the combustion chamber walls decreases with increased temperature thus an effective method of cooling must be used to protect the wall. Effusion cooling provides a practical solution to this engineering problem. A fundamental understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in effusion flow fields is required to make significant advances in cooling technology. At the same time, designers need a predictive design tool that allows quick turnaround times without the current build and break approach. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) presents the designer with the potential for an effective, fast and relatively accurate method of achieving this. This paper presents a computational study of effusion cooling applications using the Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes (RANS) approach. The need to evaluate the predictive capability of the Reynolds Stress Transport (RST) model when applied to Full Coverage Film-Cooling (FCFC) effusion scenarios is highlighted since two-equation Eddy-Viscosity (EV) models fail to predict turbulent anisotropy and therefore the complex flow mechanisms involved in effusion cooling flow fields. An isothermal and non-isothermal numerical study of effusion cooling flow is conducted. In the isothermal case the RST model is shown to be capable of predicting the injection, penetration, downstream decay and lateral mixing of the effusion jets reasonably well. In the non-isothermal case the laterally averaged cooling effectiveness across the plate is slightly under-predicted but still conforms to the general increasing trend.
    • A CFD study of twin Impinging jets in a cross-flow

      Ostheimer, Daniel; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (Bentham Open, 2012-01-17)
      A very complicated three-dimensional (3D) flow field is generated beneath a Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing (VSTOL) aircraft when it is operated near the ground. This flow field can be represented by the configuration of twin impinging jets along the spanwise direction in a cross-flow. This paper describes a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study of this flow using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The use of an RSM potentially offers a compromise between the computational efficiency of a two equation turbulence model and accuracy closer to that of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) although it will not be as accurate as LES. The current numerical results are validated against experimental data and the mean velocity profiles are reasonably well predicted by both the standard k-ε model and the RSM with slightly better prediction by the RSM. However, the Reynolds stress prediction by the RSM is poor compared with the experimental data, indicating that to capture the detailed unsteady flow features an LES is needed.
    • Challenges in compression testing of 3D angle-interlocked woven-glass fabric-reinforced polymeric composites.

      Shah, S. Z. H.; Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Khan, Laraib Alam; University of Manchester; National University of Sciences and Technology; Centre of Excellence in Applied Sciences and Technology; National Univ. of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of EME Campus NUST 46000, PK, e-mail: Zulfihs84@gmail.com; HITEC Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Taxila 47080, PK; and National Composites Certification and Evaluation Facility, Univ. of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom GB(Corresponding author), e-mail: rizwan.choudhry@gmail.com; Centre of Excellence in Applied Sciences and Technology (CESAT), 44000 Islamabad, PK, e-mail: laraibkh@gmail.com (ASTM International, 2017-09)
      This paper describes the challenges in using testing standards such as D6641/D6641M-14, for determination of compressive strength of 3D angle interlocked glass fabric reinforced polymeric composites (3D-FRPC). It makes use of both experimental investigation and finite element analysis. The experimental investigation involved testing both 2D and 3D-FRPC using ASTM D6641/D6641M-14 and subsequent scanning electron microscopic imaging of failed specimens to reveal the stress state at failure. This was further evaluated using laminate level finite element (FE) analysis. The FE analysis required input of effective orthotropic elastic material properties of 3D-FRPC, which were determined by customizing a recently developed micro-mechanical model. The paper sheds new light on compressive failure of 3D angle interlocked glass fabric composites, as only scarce data is available in literature about this class of materials. It showed that although the tests produce acceptable strength values the internal failure mechanisms change significantly and the standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variance (COV) of 3D-FRPC comes out to be much higher than that of 2D-FRPC. Moreover, while reporting and using the test data some additional information about the 3D-fabric architecture, such as the direction of angle interlocking fabric needs to be specified. This was because, for 3D angle interlocking of fabric along warp direction, the strength values obtained in the warp and weft direction were significantly different from each other. The study also highlights that due to complex weave architecture it is not possible to achieve comparable volume fractions with 2D and 3D fabric reinforced composites using similar manufacturing parameters for the vacuum assisted resin infusion process. Thus, the normalized compressive strength values (normalized with respect to volume fraction) are the highest for 3D-FRPC when measured along the warp direction, they are at an intermediate level for 2D-FRPC and the lowest for 3D-FRPC, when measured in the weft direction.
    • A chemical substance reporting system for manufacturing companies

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (2017-09)
      While striving to mitigate the risk to human health and the environment, chemical substance regulations continue to impose greater legislative burdens on industry, which ultimately creates business continuity risk. Compliance to these regulations requires greater investment which ultimately undermines profits. Furthermore, as regulations vary between countries or politico-economic unions, impact on manufacturers is dependent on which areas of the world that its supply chain is most prevalent. A chemical substance reporting system for manufacturing companies requires information on parts and manufacturing processes that are both defined in-house and within the external supply chain. Without information on chemical substance uses within the downstream supply chain, manufacturers cannot fulfil their legislative obligations or effectively manage business continuity risk. Often the biggest hurdle to collecting this information is supply chain engagement, which is made more difficult with multiple, different industry standards and data exchange formats. As more and more chemical substances become heavily regulated, manufacturers require increased volumes of downstream supply chain information on a routine basis. The aim of this paper is to identify existing good practices which could be utilized to implement chemical substance reporting systems for manufacturing companies.
    • Chip number vehicle applications as part of Internet of Things (IoT)

      Mudjanarko, Sri Wiwoho; Winardi, Slamet; Prasetijo, Joewono; Harmanto, Dani; Universitas Narotama; University of Derby (Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 2017-12)
      The city of Jakarta as the capital of the Republic of Indonesia in 2015 the number of motor vehicles as many as 17,523,967 units dominated by two-wheeled vehicles with the amount of 13,084,372 units. It was followed by private cars with 3,226,009 units, 673,661 units of freight cars, 362,066 units of buses and 137,859 units of special vehicles, while the road growth was only 0.01 percent so it was not comparable with the number of vehicles. One way to break down congestion in Jakarta is the reduction in the number of motor vehicles such as three in one for four-wheeled vehicles, the implementation of electronic road pricing (ERP), and the reduction in the number of motorcycles. The reduction in the number of motorcycles aims to reduce traffic density while reducing the number of traffic accidents
    • The city of future: biourbanism and constructural law

      Tracada, Eleni; Caperna, Antonio; University of Derby; International Society of Biourbanism (2016-06)
      Nowadays dynamic elements in urban fabric are often concealed by the insertion of stylish new architecture; real patterns of social life (‘bios’), have been replaced by rigid geometric grids and compact building blocks. New Urbanism and Biourbanism affirm that cities are now risking to be unstable and deprived of healthy social interactions. As an expansion of older historical urban fabric patterns, harmonious architecture can have a positive impact on the fitness of both human body and mind. Not only Biourbanism attempts to reinstate balance and lost values in the urban fabric, but also reinforces human-oriented design emergences in micro and macro scales. As a multifaceted discipline, it embraces laws of physics, such as Constructal Law and acknowledges its noticeable and unremitting influence to urban human behaviours. Urban life and behaviours are based upon systems of human communication formed by dynamic patterns; we are now talking about negotiating boundaries between human activities, changes in geographic mapping and mainly about sustainable systems to support uninterrupted growth of communities worldwide. Therefore, as a vital shift in architectural education, not only Biourbanism offers the opportunity to explore patterns and linguistics deeply imbedded into the built environment, but also enables scholars and communities to come together and participate actively into fast and innovative urban interventions. Projects developed during educational and professional training aim at reinstating memorable and preferential paths of communication, favouring everyday life rituals of the body and mind. Hence, by following everlasting laws of physics and formulas inherited from nature, architectural forms can be considered as the real innovation in urban design and planning of the City of the Future.
    • The city of the future and the laws of physics: Biourbanism and constructal law

      Tracada, Eleni; Caperna, Antonio; University of Derby; International Society of Biourbanism (University of Bath, 2016-06-29)
      Nowadays dynamic elements in urban fabric are often concealed by the insertion of stylish new architecture; real patterns of social life (‘bios’), have been replaced by rigid geometric grids and compact building blocks. New Urbanism and Biourbanism affirm that cities are now risking being unstable and deprived of healthy social interactions. As an expansion of older historical urban fabric patterns, harmonious architecture can have a positive impact on the fitness of both human body and mind. Not only Biourbanism attempts to reinstate balance and lost values in the urban fabric, but also reinforces human-oriented design emergences in micro and macro scales. As a multifaceted discipline, it embraces laws of physics, such as Constructal Law and acknowledges its noticeable and unremitting influence to urban human behaviours. Urban life and behaviours are based upon systems of human communication formed by dynamic patterns; we are now talking about negotiating boundaries between human activities, changes in geographic mapping and mainly about sustainable systems to support uninterrupted growth of communities worldwide. Therefore, as a vital shift in architectural education, not only Biourbanism offers the opportunity to explore patterns and linguistics deeply imbedded into the built environment, but also enables scholars and communities to come together and participate actively into fast and innovative urban interventions. Projects developed during educational and professional training aim at reinstating memorable and preferential paths of communication, favouring everyday life rituals of the body and mind. Hence, by following everlasting laws of physics and formulas inherited from nature, architectural forms can be considered as the real innovation in urban design and planning of the City of the Future.
    • Combined degrees & employability: a comparative analysis of single and joint honours graduates of UK universities.

      Pigden, Louise; Jegede, Francis; University of Derby (West East Institute, 2016-08)
      Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the popularity and number of combined or joint degrees in English and Welsh Universities. Combined or joint honours represent 10% of all undergraduates. 50,000 out of 500,000 currently enrolled on all honours degrees. This significant and special way of learning therefore warrants scrutiny. Combined degrees enable students to enroll on two or more subjects, with varying levels of integration of the courses, which leads to either a BA or BSc honours joint award. The growing number of students on such degrees across universities in England and Wales has led to a debate as to the intrinsic value of such degrees especially in relation to graduate employability and career opportunities. This paper examines the nature and relative attractiveness of combined degrees and explores the employability of combined honours degree graduates in comparison with single honours degree graduates.
    • Commercial awareness in real estate courses

      Poon, Joanna; University of Salford (Chartered Institute of Taxation Ghana, 2014-08-20)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how and to what extent commercial awareness is embedded within the curriculum of the UK Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS)-accredited real estate courses. It also discusses the development of commercial awareness taxonomy. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the research findings of questionnaire survey and interviews with RICS-accredited real estate course providers in the UK. The questionnaire aimed to gather course directors’ views on the definitions and components of commercial awareness and identify what skills and attributes are required for its development. It also evaluated how commercial awareness has been embedded in the real estate courses. The aim of the interview was to gain deeper insight on how components of commercial awareness are embedded in real estate courses and nine interviews were conducted. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded to identify similar themes. The frequency of the answer in the questionnaire and comments from interviewees is presented. Findings: The UK real estate academics agreed the most important definition of commercial awareness as that of a “person's ability on understanding of the economics of business”. They agreed that “strategic” is the most important component for commercial awareness, followed with “financial” and “process”. However, the “financial” component is embedded the most in the curriculum. The most important skill and attribute for commercial awareness development are “ability to define and solve problems” and “ability and willingness to update professional knowledge”, respectively. Commercial awareness was embedded in the overall curriculum and the key element for developing it is through having “practical experience”. Originality/value: This project is the first to conduct an in-depth analysis of commercial awareness in real estate education. It also develops the pioneer commercial awareness taxonomy.
    • A comparative study of separated boundary layer transition on a flat plate with a blunt/semi-circular leading edge

      Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS), 2011-07)
      Boundary layer may separate due to an adverse pressure gradient or due to flow geometry and when a laminar boundary layer separates the free shear layer formed is very unstable even at low Reynolds number, undergoing a transition process to turbulence. This paper presents a comparative numerical study of the transition process in a separated boundary layer induced by changes of curvature of the surface. The geometry is a flat plate with two different leading edges: a blunt and a semi-circular. One of the main purpose of the study is to identify how similar or how different the transition process is with two different leading edges. It is evident that for both cases (blunt and semi-circular leading edges) the primary two-dimensional instability originates from the free shear layer of the separation bubble via the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism. Three-dimensional motions develop under any small spanwise disturbances and similar coherent structures have been observed in both cases, strongly indicating that the whole transition process is very similar.
    • Competency expectations for property professionals in Australia

      Poon, Joanna; Brownlow, Michael; University of Salford (Emerald Group Publishing, 2014)
      Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the competency expectations for property professionals in Australia. It further discusses differences in competency expectations between property professionals who have different professional backgrounds, such as valuers or non-valuers, and property professionals who work in different sectors or different-sized companies and who have differing amounts of experience. The competencies identified in this paper include knowledge areas, skills and attributes. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the research findings of a questionnaire survey sent to Australian Property Institute members, which aimed to gather Australian property professionals' views on the knowledge, skills and attributes required to perform their roles effectively. The percentage of the respondents who provided different choices of given answers for each of the 31 knowledge areas, 20 skills and 21 attributes was identified and discussed. The professional backgrounds of the respondents were also identified to see whether these impact on competency expectations for property professionals. Content analysis was used to analyse written comments collected in the questionnaire. Findings: The most important categories of knowledge, skill and attribute for Australian property professionals are valuation, effective written communication and practical experience, respectively. The least important are international real estate, second language and creativity. Knowledge of rural valuation is very important in Australia, although this has not been mentioned in previous studies. Professional backgrounds have a large influence on Australian property professionals' views on knowledge requirements, but less so on skills and attributes. Practical implications: The findings of this paper can be used as guidance for property professionals in their professional development plan. In addition, property course providers can use the research findings of this paper to inform their curriculum development and redesign. Originality/value: This project is the first to identify the comprehensive competency expectations of property professionals as a whole in Australia. At the same time, it identifies differences in the competency expectations of property professionals who have different professional backgrounds. Similar types of study have been conducted in the UK, the USA, Hong Kong and New Zealand but not yet in Australia. An understanding of the knowledge, skills and attributes required for property professionals is important for continuing professional development, curriculum development and the redesign of relevant property courses in order to maintain performance and competitiveness in the property sector.
    • Competitive product pricing extended producer responsibility and the circular economy.

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (Institute of Research, Learning and Development, 2018-01-23)
      In an increasingly competitive marketplace selling products at the most competitive price is the norm, however emerging trends towards extended producer responsibility (EPR), sustainability and the circular economy have augmented the traditional pricing model. This paper contributes to literature by identifying a research gap relating to product pricing models, EPR and the needs of sustainability and the circular economy. The research reported was designed to address how theoretical and real-world models could potentially work to address the research gap.
    • Computational and field test analysis of thermal comfort performance of user-controlled thermal chair in an open plan office

      Shahzad, Sally; Calautit, John Kaiser; Hughes, Ben; Nasir, Diana S. N. M.; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Applied Energy, 2016)
      In this study, a thermal chair prototype was developed that allowed individual control over the temperature settings of the backrest and the seat. Limited research is focused on different methods to provide individual user control over the thermal environment. This is particularly difficult to achieve in an open plan office setting, where changing the temperature in one area directly influences the comfort and satisfaction of other occupants seated nearby. In this study, the application of the thermal chair was analysed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and field-test analysis in an open plan office in Leeds, UK during winter. The results of the CFD model indicated an improvement in local thermal comfort of the user,. The CFD analysis provided detailed analysis of the thermal distribution around a siting manikin and was used to design and construct the thermal chair. the results of the field data survey indicated a great improvement in users’ comfort (19%) and satisfaction (35%). This study concludes that local thermal control of the occupant improves their overall thermal comfort. It recommends further work to optimise the design of the thermal chair and also to improve the modelling for better predictions.
    • Computational and Wind Tunnel Study of the Performance of a Multi-Directional Wind Tower with Heat Transfer Devices. International Conference on Applied Energy

      Calautit, John Kaiser; O'Connor, Dominic; Hughes, Ben; Shahzad, Sally; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (2015)
      The aim of this work was to investigate the performance of a multi-directional wind tower integrated with heat transfer devices (HTD) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel analysis. An experimental scale model was created using 3D printing. The scale model was tested in a closed-loop wind tunnel to validate the CFD data. Numerical results of the supply airflow were compared with experimental data. Good agreement was observed between both methods of analysis. Smoke visualisation test was conducted to analyse the air flow pattern in the test room attached underneath it. Results have indicated that the achieved indoor air speed was reduced by up to 17% following the integration of the cylindrical HTD. The effect of varying the number of HTD on the system's thermal performance were investigated. The work highlighted the potential of integrating HTD into wind towers in reducing the air temperature. The technology presented here is subject to a UK patent application (PCT/GB2014/052263).
    • A conceptual framework for combining artificial neural networks with computational aeroacoustics for design development.

      McKee, Claire; Harmanto, Dani; Whitbrook, Amanda; University of Derby (Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Society (IEOM), 2018-03)
      This paper presents a preliminary method for improving the design and development process in a way that combines engineering design approaches based on learning algorithms and computational aeroacoustics. It is proposed that machine learning can effectively predict the noise generated by a coaxial jet exhaust by utilizing a database of computational experiments that cover a variety of flow and geometric configurations. A conceptual framework has been outlined for the development of a practical design tool to predict the changes in jet acoustics imparted by varying the fan nozzle geometry and engine cycle of a coaxial jet. It is proposed that computational aeroacoustic analysis is used to generate a training and validation database for an artificial neural network. The trained network can then predict noise data for any operational configuration. This method allows for the exploration of noise emissions from a variety of fan nozzle areas, engine cycles and flight conditions. It is intended that this be used as a design tool in order to reduce the design cycle time of new engine configurations and provide engineers with insight into the relationship between jet noise and the input variables.