• Assessment of drag reduction devices mounted on a simplified tractor-trailer truck model

      Charles, Terrance; Yang, Zhiyin; Lu, Yiling; Coventry University; University of Derby (Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, 2020-09-14)
      Aerodynamic drag reduction of tractor-trailer combination trucks is critically important to improve their fuel consumption which consequently results in lower emissions. One practical method to reduce aerodynamic drag of a truck is by mounting drag reduction devices on the truck. This paper presents a numerical study of turbulent flow over a simplified tractortrailer truck with different drag reduction devices mounted on the truck using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to assess the effectiveness of those devices in drag reduction around the tractor-trailer gap region. Three cases with different drag reduction devices have been studied and significant drag reduction (above 30%) has been achieved for all three cases. Detailed analysis of the flow field has been carried out to understand drag reduction mechanisms, and it shows that no matter what drag reduction devices are deployed the drag reduction is mainly due to the reduced pressure on the front face of the trailer, and a small proportion of the drag reduction is due to the reduced turbulent kinetic energy in the gap region.
    • Computational analysis of turbulent flow over a bluff body with drag reduction devices

      Abikan, Adam; Yang, Zhiyin; Lu, Yiling; University of Derby (University of Ahvaz, 2020-08-23)
      Reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy trucks is crucially important for the reduction of fuel consumption and hence results in less air pollution. One way to reduce the aerodynamic drag is the deployment of drag reduction devices at the rear of trucks and this paper describes a numerical study of flow over a bluff body with rear drag devices using the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to investigate the drag reduction mechanisms and also to assess accuracy of the RANS approach for this kind of flow. Four cases, a baseline case without any drag reduction devices and three cases with different drag reduction devices, have been studied and the predicted mean and turbulent quantities agree well with the experimental data. Drag reduction varies hugely from a few percent in one case to more than 40% in another case and detailed analysis of flow fields has been carried out to understand such a difference and to elucidate the drag reduction mechanism, which ultimately can lead to better design of future drag reduction devices.
    • Numerical analysis of flow in the gap of a simplified tractor-trailer model with cross vortex trap device

      charles, terrance; Yang, Zhiyin; Lu, Yiling; University of Derby (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2019-12)
      Heavy trucks are aerodynamically inefficient due to their un-streamlined body shapes, leading to more than of 60% engine power being required to overcome the aerodynamics drag at 60 m/hr. There are many aerodynamics drag reduction devices developed and this paper presents a study on a drag reduction device called Cross Vortex Trap Device (CVTD) deployed in the gap between the tractor and the trailer of a simplified tractor-trailer model. Numerical simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number 0.51×106 based on inlet flow velocity and height of the trailer using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. Three different configurations of CVTD have been studied, ranging from single to three slabs, equally spaced on the front face of the trailer. Flow field around three different configurations of trap device have been analysed and presented. The results show that a maximum of 12.25% drag reduction can be achieved when a triple vortex trap device is used. Detailed flow field analysis along with pressure contours are presented to elucidate the drag reduction mechanisms of CVTD and why the triple vortex trap configuration produces the maximum drag reduction among the three configurations tested.