• Educational advantage and employability of UK university graduates

      Pigden, Louise; Moore, Garford; University of Derby (Emerald, 2019-02-20)
      In the UK, the majority of university students specialise and study just one subject at bachelor degree level, commonly known in the UK as a single honours degree. However, nearly all British universities will permit students if they wish to study two or even three subjects, so-called joint or combined honours degrees, internationally known as a double major. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether educational advantage, measured by the “Participation of Local Areas” (POLAR) classification, correlated with rates of graduate destinations for joint and single honours graduates. This study focused particularly on Russell Group and Post-92 Universities. The authors analysed the complete data set provided from the Higher Education Statistics Agency Destination of Leavers from the Higher Education survey, and combined this with data from the POLAR4 quintiles, which aggregate geographical regions across the UK based on the proportion of its young people that participate in higher education. The data were analysed to establish whether there was a difference in the highly skilled graduate employability of the joint honours students, focusing particularly on Russell Group and Post-92 Universities, in order to build on previous published work. Single honours and joint honours graduates from higher participation POLAR4 quintiles were more likely to be in a highly skilled destination. However at both the Russell Group and the Post-92 universities, respectively, there was no trend towards a smaller highly skilled destinations gap between the honours types for the higher quintiles. For the highest POLAR4 quintile, the proportion of joint honours graduates was substantially higher at the Russell Group than at Post-92 universities. Furthermore, in any quintile, there were proportionately more joint honours graduates from the Russell Group, compared with single honours graduates, and increasingly so the higher the quintile. This study focused on joint honours degrees in the UK where the two or three principal subjects fall into different Joint Academic Coding System (JACS) subject areas, i.e. the two or three subjects are necessarily diverse rather than academically cognate. This excluded the class of joint honours degrees where the principal subjects lie within the same JACS subject area, i.e. they may be closer academically, although still taught by different academic teams. However, the overall proportion of joint honours graduates identified using the classification was in line with the UCAS (2017) data on national rates of combined studies acceptances. All Russell Group graduates, irrespective of their POLAR4 quintile, were far more likely to be in a highly skilled destination than single or joint honours graduates of Post-92 universities. Even the lowest quintile graduates of the Russell Group had greater rates of highly skilled destination than the highest quintile from Post-92 universities, for both single and joint honours graduates. This demonstrated the positive impact that graduating from the Russell Group confers on both single and joint honours graduates. This study could not explain the much smaller gap in the highly skilled destinations between single honours and joint honours graduates found in the Russell Group, compared with the Post-92. Why do a higher proportion of joint honours graduates hail form the upper POLAR4 quintiles, the Russell Group joint honours graduates were more disproportionately from the upper POLAR4 quintiles and the joint honours upper POLAR4 quintiles represented such a larger proportion of the Russell Group overall undergraduate population? Other student characteristics such as tariff on entry, subjects studied, gender, age and ethnicity might all contribute to this finding. This study demonstrated that, averaged across all universities in the UK, there was a trend for both single honours and joint honours graduates from higher participation POLAR4 quintiles to be more likely to be in a highly skilled destination, i.e. the more educationally advantaged, were more likely to be in a highly skilled destination, as a proportion of the total from each honours type. This accorded with HESA (2018b) data, but expanded those findings to include direct consideration of joint honours graduates.
    • Innovative approach to sustainable material sourcing and its impact on building performance

      Rajpurohit J.S., Ceranic B., Latham D.; University of Derby (WIT Press, 2019-01-29)
      In this paper, a novel use of building materials and their impact on the building performance and its climatic adaptability is explored, based on a complex case study of a unique low energy sustainable building project. In particular, an innovative use of sycamore and its suitability as a structural and constructional timber has been investigated and reported, given that the current codes of practice deem that is not appropriate for structural applications due to its durability. A research method of in-situ longitudinal study has been adopted, concentrating on the monitoring and assessment of its structural performance and conditions in which it might deteriorate. On the component level, the research reports on the methods and standards of sycamore grading and classification, service classes, resistance to decay, impact of the moisture movement and results of its laboratory and in situ testing. On the system level, the climatic adaptability of the building as a whole has been analysed via dynamic performance simulation and compared to the in-situ measurements. This was important in order to develop a holistic building performance monitoring strategy, but in particular, to understand the impact of building microclimate on the sycamore frame and hempcrete components of the external load-bearing wall. So far research has concluded that sycamore can be used as structural and constructional material in building design, but due attention has to be paid to construction detailing and provision of a breathable, low humidity environment with an effective resistance to decay and insect attack. This includes measures that ensure a low equilibrium moisture content conditions, effective ventilation provision and appropriate service class uses. It is important to state however, given the single site locality of sycamore sourcing, that results can only be interpreted in the context of the given case study, i.e. they cannot be extrapolated to broader geographical extents.
    • Validation of electrokinetic stabilisation of M5 Junction 7

      Alder, David; Lamont-Black, J; Hamza, Omar; Jackson, C; Jones, C; University of Derby; Electrokinetic; Jacobs; Newcastle University (ICE, 2019-01-07)
      Electrokinetic method has been increasingly applied to repair infrastructure earthwork involving landslip. The work presented in this paper attempts to improve the current understanding of this innovative technique by verifying the effectiveness of Electrokinetic treatment using in-situ and laboratory testing in addition to monitoring data obtained from the first full scale project implementing this technique, which has been carried out recently for a defected embankment slope on M5- Junction 7 in the UK. The paper outlines the design and implementation aspects of the project and discusses the findings of the post construction verification.
    • A shape grammar approach to climatically adaptable facade systems with real time performance evaluation.

      TUNG NGUYEN, BORIS CERANIC, CHRISTOPHER CALLAGHAN; University of Derby (WIT Press, 2019-01-01)
      New computational techniques have been introduced to assist the design of adaptable building facades and to help quantify relationships between the building envelope and the environment. Designers increasingly use generative design approach for form-generation of building envelopes, and the organisation of components over a predefined form. In this research an original shape grammar approach for façade systems generation is proposed, with a rule-based method for the creation and exploration of complex shape composites based upon a set of simple initial shapes and predefined rules of composition. This is in order to explore a form finding of set of different building façade configurations before merging generated data into a simulated process of real-time daylighting and heat gains performance evaluation. The developed models adapt via responding to the data-regulation protocols responsible for sensing and processing building performance data in real time. The research reports on the prototype system development and testing, allowing continuous evaluation of multiple solutions and presenting opportunity for further improvement via multi-objective optimisation, which would be very difficult to do, if not impossible, with conventional design methods
    • ISO 9001 and supply chain integration principles based sustainable development: a Delphi study.

      Bastas, Ali; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (MDPI, 2018-12-03)
      Driven by the increasing stakeholder and societal pressures, organizations and supply chains face the multi-dimensional challenges of not only integrating economic, environmental and social agendas into their management systems but also driving continual sustainability performance improvement. Aiming to support organizations in this sustainable development challenge, this paper explores the strategic management principles of ISO 9001 and supply chain integration from the lens of triple bottom line sustainability. Derived from theoretical synergies, a conceptual framework for integration, measurement, and improvement of triple bottom line sustainability is constructed and a business diagnostic tool introduced to facilitate the implementation of the framework. The developed conceptual framework and diagnostic tool are verified through an expert panel-based Delphi study and positive relationships formulated between the management principles of ISO 9001, supply chain integration and sustainability management. The facilitating and catalyzing role of quality management and supply chain management principles for integration and improvement of organizational sustainability is outlined.
    • On secondary instability of a transitional separation bubble.

      Yang, Zhiyin; Abdalla, Ibrahim E.; University of Derby; Jubail University College (Elsevier, 2018-12-01)
      It is well established in the natural transition of an attached boundary layer that the transition process starts with a two–dimensional primary instability (Tollmien–Schlichting wave, denoted as TS wave), followed by usually a three-dimensional secondary instability (fundamental mode or subharmonic mode) leading to the breakdown to turbulence. However, the transition process of a separation bubble (laminar flow or laminar boundary layer at separation and transition occurs downstream of the separation, leading to turbulence at reattachment) is less well understood, especially on the nature of secondary instability. The focus of this paper is on trying to advance our understanding of secondary instability of a transitional separation bubble on a flat plate with a blunt leading edge (separation is induced geometrically at the leading edge) under a very low free-stream turbulence level (< 0.1%). Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is employed in the current study with a dynamic sub-grid-scale model. The numerical flow visualisation together with the spectral analysis has indicated that a three dimensional secondary instability, the elliptical instability, which occurs for fundamental frequency is the main mechanism at work whereas the subharmonic mode in the form of vortex-pairing is hardly active. There is no evidence for the existence of hyperbolic instability in the braid region either.
    • A plate model for compressive strength prediction of delaminated composites

      Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Rhead, Andrew T.; Nielsen, Mark W.D.; Butler, Richard; University of Derby; University of Bath (Elsevier, 2018-11-24)
      Damage tolerance is of critical importance to laminated composite structures. In this paper, we present a new semi-analytical method for predicting the strain at which delamination propagation will initiate following sublaminate buckling. The method uses a numerical strip model to determine the thin-film buckling strain of an anisotropic sub-laminate created by delamination, before evaluating the strain energy release rate for delamination propagation. The formulation assumes that all energy is available for propagation in a peeling mode (Mode I); avoiding an approximate mixed-mode criterion. Results are compared with twelve experimentally obtained propagations strains, covering a variety of laminates each containing a circular PTFE delamination. Comparison shows agreement to within 12% for balanced sublaminate tests in which delamination propagation occurred before intra-ply cracking. The method can be used to significantly improve the damage tolerance of laminates, opening up new opportunities for structural efficiency using elastic tailoring, non-standard ply angles and material optimisation.
    • Secondary instability of separated shear layers.

      Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-11-13)
      The process through which a laminar flow undergoes transition to turbulence is of great fundamental and practical interest. Such a process is hugely complex as there are many diverse routes for a laminar flow to become turbulent flow. The transition process is usually initiated by flow instabilities - a primary instability stage followed by a secondary instability stage. This forms a rational framework for the early stage of a transition process and it is crucially important to understand the physics of instabilities leading to turbulence. This article reviews the results of studies on secondary instability of separated shear layers in separation bubbles and summaries the current status of our understanding in this area.
    • Sustainable infrastructure delivery in Nigeria: implementation of the analytic network process for contractor selection.

      Arowosafe, Oluwunmi; Oduyemi, Olufolahan; Ceranic, Boris; Dean, Angela; University of Derby; Southeast Missouri State University (EDP Open Website, 2018-10-31)
      Purpose: This paper presents research findings that involve the use of analytic network process (ANP) to select contractors for build–operate–transfer (BOT) infrastructure in Nigeria. To deliver sustainable infrastructure (SI), a responsive methodology is required for contractors' selection process, which combines judgement and data for an effective outcomes prediction. Design/methodology/approach: Theoretically grounded on a system theory, sustainable infrastructure delivery (SID) model has been developed in this study. At the deductive phase of the model is the integration of the ANP (a multicriteria decision-making technique) for data synthesis. To obtain decision criteria, 55 sustainability indicators for contractor selection were identified from the literature review. The criteria were first developed to a web-based questionnaire where respondents were requested to rank the importance of the criteria towards selecting contractors that deliver SI, using Likert scale of 1–5 (where “5” is very important and “1” is not important). The results were analysed using factor analysis. Data were further reduced to 16 variables after multicollinearity issues in the data set had been resolved. To weigh the relative importance of the 16 criteria among contractors, ANP methodology was adopted for the second-round questionnaire. The seven-man decision panel that completed the pairwise comparison survey was selected through a purposeful sampling technique. The final survey results were synthesised by Super Decisions (computer package that implements ANP) trial version to rank contractors' options and predict outcomes. Findings/results: Sensitivity analysis of the research findings reveals that the 16 criteria have differential comparative advantages, which requires critical judgement during contractor's pre-evaluation process. Although the overall priorities rank multinational construction corporations (MCC) higher than local construction companies (LCC), MCC are not absolute to deliver SI. LCC are sensitive to some key criteria that are critical to the actualisation SI agenda. Originality/value: This study fills the gap in the knowledge of SID in Nigeria. The study theoretically suggests a framework to harmonise sustainability indicators in contractor selection. The findings further provide feedbacks that can be incorporated to Government's Ministries, Department and Agencies (MDAs) procurement policy to promote SID.
    • Sustainable infrastructure delivery in Nigeria: implementation of the analytic network process for contractor selection.

      Arowosafe, Oluwunmi; Oduyemi, Olufolahan; Ceranic, Boris; Dean, Angela; University of Derby; Southeast Missouri State University (EDP Sciences, 2018-10-31)
      This paper presents research findings that involve the use of Analytic Network Process (ANP) to select contractors for Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) infrastructure in Nigeria. To deliver sustainable infrastructure, a responsive methodology is required during selection process to combine judgement and data to effectively predict outcomes.
    • Framework for a chemical substance reporting system.

      Takhar, Sukhraj Singh; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (2018-10-25)
      In this paper a chemical substance reporting system is presented to enable industry to assess the impacts of increasing chemical regulations. Chemical regulations impose the need to monitor, control and restrict the use of hazardous substances. As chemical substances become more regulated, industry requires mechanisms to identify potential business continuity risks, posed by increased regulation. A chemical reporting system is one such mechanism that identifies chemical substances used on their (i) own, (ii) in mixtures, (iii) in materials, (iv) in internally defined articles (products) and (v) from articles (products) procured from the supply chain. The chemical reporting system will contrast product related information against chemical regulation substance lists, identifying the applicable reporting obligations and potential supply chain risks.
    • A novel one variable first-order shear deformation theory for biaxial buckling of a size-dependent plate based on the Eringen's nonlocal differential law.

      Malikan, Mohammad; Nguyen, Van Bac; Islamic Azad University; University of Derby; Islamic Azad University Mashhad Branch Mashhad Iran (the Islamic Republic of); University of Derby Derbyshire United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018-10-04)
      Purpose – This paper aims to present a new one-variable first-order shear deformation theory (OVFSDT) using nonlocal elasticity concepts for buckling of graphene sheets. Design/methodology/approach – The FSDT had errors in its assumptions owing to the assumption of constant shear stress distribution along the thickness of the plate, even though by using the shear correction factor (SCF), it has been slightly corrected, the errors have been remained owing to the fact that the exact value of SCF has not already been accurately identified. By using two-variable first-order shear deformation theories, these errors decreased further by removing the SCF. To consider nanoscale effects on the plate, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory was adopted. The critical buckling loads were computed by Navier’s approach. The obtained numerical resultswere then compared with previous studies’ results using molecular dynamics simulations and other plate theories for validation which also showed the accuracy and simplicity of the proposed theory. Findings – In comparing the biaxial buckling results of the proposed theory with the two-variable shear deformation theories and exact results, it revealed that the two-variable plate theories were not appropriate for the investigation of a symmetrical analyses. Originality/value – A formulation for FSDT was innovated by reconsidering its errors to improve the FSDT for investigation of mechanical behavior of nanoplates.
    • Anodised TiO 2 nanotubes as a scaffold for antibacterial silver nanoparticles on titanium implants.

      Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; Le, Huirong; Handy, Richard; Tredwin, Christopher; Plymouth University; University of Derby; Peninsula Dental School (Elsevier, 2018-10-01)
      Medical grade titanium alloy is widely used for bone/dental implants, but the material alone has no innate antimicrobial properties that would reduce infection risk following surgery. However, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are known to be antibacterial. This study investigated the growth of Ag NPs on titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) on Ti-6Al-4V discs. The TiO2 NTs were grown on the Ti alloy using an electrochemical method, and then decorated with Ag NPs. The Ag NPs were synthesised by chemical reduction using δ-gluconolactone. A silver ammonia solution (silver nitrate + liquid ammonia) was used as the source of silver. Two separate approaches were used: (1) The δ-gluconolactone was mixed with the silver ammonia and then exposed to the TiO2 NTs (the ‘mixing method’), which produced micron-sized clusters of the Ag NPs. (2) The TiO2 NTs were exposed to the silver ammonia first and then to δ-gluconolactone (the ‘sequential addition method’), which resulted in the formation of nano-sized clusters of the nanoparticles. The Ag-TiO2 composites were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and the elements analysed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The composite coatings were exposed to a simulated body fluid for 24 h in order to determine the total Ag released. The release from the micron-sized clusters from the mixing method (14.6 ± 0.67 ppm) was higher than that from the nano-sized clusters (4.05 ± 0.36 ppm) when 0.015 M of silver ammonia was used. Additionally, Staphylococcus aureus, was cultured on the composite coatings for 24 h. Both the micron- and nano-sized clusters of the Ag NPs were found to be antibacterial using the Live/Dead assay. Overall, δ-gluconolactone was successfully used to reduce silver to Ag NPs on the surface of TiO2 NTs. The sequential addition method was the preferred method of synthesis because of its slower silver release, better coverage of the Ag-NPs on the TiO2 NTs and strong antibacterial properties.
    • Blockchain application in supply chain chemical substance reporting.

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (University of Cambridge, 2018-09-28)
      Cryptocurrencies have gained prominence in recent years due to: (1) potential large increase in values; (2) transferability between different users, and (3) security and; (4) traceability of data enabled by blockchain methods. Blockchains utilize an underlying digital ledger system which enables data to be encrypted, recorded and traced in a more efficient manner than traditional paper and electronic based systems. Chemical regulations impose the need on industry to record the use of hazardous chemicals, which can vary from: (1) simple reporting, through to; (2) permits to continue the use substances, until alternative substances are identified; or even (3) substances become restricted for use, within specific use cases, or restricted from use outright. The importance of obtaining supply chain chemical substance reporting cannot be understated, without accurate supply chain data, and concise internal product definitions, the process of identifying chemical substances: (1) where used; (2) if they appear on the finished part, or; (3) only used in the process of manufacture, or (4) used in maintenance and repair of parts. The process of collating supply chain chemical substance reporting is lengthy process as data needs to be requested, collated, checked, verified and rolled up to assess potential business continuity risks, as well as varying levels of reporting activity back to employees, consumers and chemical regulators.
    • Predicting the effect of voids on mechanical properties of woven composites.

      Choudhry, R. S.; Sharif, Tahir; Khan, Kamran A.; Khan, Sohaib Z.; Hassan, Abid; Khan, Muhammad A.; University of Derby; Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research (KUSTAR), UAE; Islamic University of Madinah; Pakistan Petroleum Limited; Cranfield University (IOP Publishing, 2018-09-21)
      An accurate yet easy to use methodology for determining the effective mechanical properties of woven fabric reinforced composites is presented. The approach involves generating a representative unit cell geometry based on randomly selected 2D orthogonal slices from a 3D X-ray micro-tomographic scan. Thereafter, the finite element mesh is generated from this geometry. Analytical and statistical micromechanics equations are then used to calculate effective input material properties for the yarn and resin regions within the FE mesh. These analytical expressions account for the effect of resin volume fraction within the yarn (due to infiltration during curing) as well as the presence of voids within the composite. The unit cell model is then used to evaluate the effective properties of the composite.
    • Forming low-cost, high quality carbon tows for automotive application.

      Sharif, Tahir; Potluri, P; Choudhry, R S; Dodworth, A; University of Derby; The University of Manchester; Bright Lite Structures (BLS), UK (IOP Publishing, 2018-09-21)
      Carbon fiber reinforced composites are widely used in many industries due to their high performance. Its application in the aerospace industry has increased significantly, however, in mass produced automobile sector it is still limited. The current production of carbon fiber tow is slow and capital intensive. Thus, carbon manufactures produce higher tow counts to increase production rate to reduce its cost. In order to offset the higher cost of carbon fiber composite, an innovative and unique approach has been developed. The higher tow count carbon spools are split into smaller tow counts. Due to the delicate nature of carbon fiber, it is important to control the filamentation during that process. Different splitting process line strategies have been developed in this research work for understanding the process limitations and challenges involved. The process was made feasible for production by developing a fully automated process line with a laser feedback system. The system splits a 12K spool into two 6K tows. The quality of the 6K split tows has been determined statistically by recording real time data from the laser during the splitting process. It was demonstrated that the proposed process effectively controls filamentation and produces consistent tow quality.
    • The impact of Industry 4.0 on supply chains and sustainability.

      Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (2018-09-10)
      Industry 4.0 ushers in a new dawn of digitization, utilizing smart devices, communicating across manufacturing process and supply chains, gathering data on mass in a virtual model of a business to investigate areas for improvement, developing new product and service offerings. Industry 4.0 brings a potential shift from mass over production, to production system based on real end consumer demand requirements. Sustainability relates to reducing the amount of scarce resources being used in products, enabling repair, reuse and recycling of materials from products. Industry 4.0 has the potential to influence sustainability and supply chains. This paper establishes key concepts and issues, as well as a current state adoption review. Conclusions were drawn enabling the implementation of (1) industry 4.0; (2) sustainability and; (3) enhanced buyer-supplier supply relationships.
    • Renaturalising the water courses: dynamic interactions between communities and nature

      Tracada, Eleni; Varone, Francesco; University of Derby; University of Naples (WATEF Network/University of Bath, 2018-09)
      In ecology, an ecosystem is defined as a system of interconnected elements formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment. In all ecosystems, communities of organisms include people as main actors, either as designers of its infrastructure or as participants in its upgrading. Combined with urban design, landscape architecture has the power to stimulate human experiences by alluding to dynamic patterns of still or rushing water. We love landscapes as physical spaces and we also respond to landscape beauty with immense appreciation; our urban cultural ecosystems blend harmoniously with water. By being transformed into polluted artificial waterways or fiercely running rainwater discharges, sometimes our meandering water courses can endanger people as well as the environment. How can we re-establish a balance between our ecosystems and the anthropocentric remodelling of our cities? The authors discuss the trends of renaturalisation/renaturation of water courses in some European countries, where previously water management has implied working against nature to ensure progress for mankind. Instead of only containing rivers, the new paradigm shift makes nature an ally to stabilise water levels, prevent floods in densely urbanised areas, and safeguard water uses. Water managers and city planners pursue water systems with water rules and policies backing their claim: ‘living with water’ and ‘building with nature’. Recent projects could be easily compared with Leonardo’s hydrology ideas in Renaissance. In his Treatise on Water, Leonardo focuses on moving waters and trained rivers in relation to their water cycles and the tectonics of the earth’s surface with the aim of benefitting cities and people.
    • Renaturalising the water courses: dynamic interactions between communities and nature

      Tracada, Eleni; Varone, Francesco; University of Derby; University of Naples (2018-09)
    • Integrated quality and supply chain management business diagnostics for organizational sustainability improvement.

      Bastas, Ali; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-09)
      A growing number of organizations are integrating economic, ecologic and financial sustainability considerations into their management processes, driven by increased societal and stakeholder pressures. With a view to support organizations in this global challenge, this paper examines integration of sustainability into the two influential management approaches of quality management and supply chain management. To achieve this, a critical evaluation of the extant integrated models in the literature is undertaken, analyzing strengths and weaknesses and evidencing the limitations. Stemming from the gaps identified, a conceptual framework is formulated, holistically incorporating quality and supply chain management principles for organizational triple bottom line sustainable development. A road map for industrial practitioners is presented along with a business diagnostic tool that were constructed on the basis of novel, synergistic relationships established between the management principles of quality, supply chain integration and sustainability of organizations.