• The cradle to gate life-cycle assessment of thermoelectric materials: A comparison of inorganic, organic and hybrid types

      Soleimani, Zohreh; Zoras, Stamatis; Ceranic, Boris; Shahzad, Sally; Cui, Yuanlong; University of Derby; Sheffield University (Elsevier, 2021-02-18)
      Using thermoelectric generators to convert waste heat into electricity is a renewable alternative to fossil energy sources. As thermoelectric materials are the main element of thermoelectric generators, so far numerous studies have attempted to optimize their energy conversion efficiency. However, no single study to date has examined their life cycle impacts, whilst it is the most important feature of any renewable technology. Accordingly, the aim of the present study is to assess the life cycle impacts of thermoelectric materials at their production stage (cradle to gate) using a life cycle assessment tool called GaBi v.4.4. Thus, the thermoelectric materials were categorized into inorganic, organic, and hybrid types. The five investigated impact categories were resource consumption, emission, waste, primary energy demand, and global warming potential. The results confirmed that the inorganic type caused significantly greater environmental impacts than the other two types. The only inorganic exception was Bi 2 Te 3 that its environmental impact was by far the lowest among all the studied thermoelectric materials. Notably, the inorganic type caused major harm to the environment due to its extremely energy-intensive manufacturing process. However, the core environmental drawback of the organic and hybrid types was driven from their raw materials supply.
    • Blockchain application in supply chain chemical substance reporting - a Delphi study

      Takhar, Sukhraj Singh; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (Inderscience, 2021-02-08)
      Blockchains utilise digital ledger technology to enable data to be traced in a more efficient manner than traditional paper-based systems. Smart contracts extend the capabilities of a blockchain by defining specific obligations. Chemical regulations impose the need on industry to record and report the use of hazardous chemicals within products. The process of collating supply chain chemical substance reporting information is a manually intensive and lengthy process in order to identify potential business risks and reporting of information to employees, consumers and chemical regulators. The research question answered in this paper relates to use of a blockchain with a smart contract to enable the automated collation of supply chain chemical substance information. This paper presents the findings from a Delphi study and a proposed 'supply chain chemical substance reporting' (SCCSR) blockchain. The SCCSR blockchain enables industry to implement greater efficiencies in collecting the required chemical substance information.
    • Compression and buckling after impact response of resin-infused thermoplastic and thermoset 3D woven composites

      Shah, S.Z.H; Megat-Yusoff, P.S.M; Karuppanan, S; Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Din, I.U; Othman, A.R; Sharp, K; Gerard, P; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia; University of Derby; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-12-29)
      Damage tolerance of a unique resin-infused thermoplastic (Elium) 3D fibre-reinforced composite (3D-FRC) is compared with the conventional resin-infused thermoset (Epoxy) 3D-FRC using compression after impact (CAI) tests and finite element simulations. Higher damage tolerance is demonstrated for the thermoplastic 3D-FRC as its CAI failure strength and CAI stiffness is nearly insensitive to the impact energy levels and subsequent damage, while in contrast, both these properties for the thermoset 3D-FRC get compromised significantly. The buckling performance shows a gradual, almost linear, reduction in critical buckling (44.5% reduction in 0–100 J) for the thermoplastic 3D-FRC. In comparison, the thermoset 3D-FRC shows a much steeper drop in critical buckling, which becomes more pronounced for the higher impact energy cases (84.5% reduction in 0–100 J). It is postulated that the local plastic deformation of the thermoplastic matrix at the impact site as well as better interfacial adhesion is responsible for its better damage tolerance.
    • Machinability of INCONEL718 alloy with a porous microstructure produced by laser melting powder bed fusion at higher energy densities

      Wood, Paul; Díaz-Álvarez, Antonio; Díaz-Álvarez, José; Miguélez, María Henar; Rusinek, Alexis; Williams, Gavin; Bahi, Slim; Sienkiewicz, Judyta; Płatek, Paweł; Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; et al. (MDPI, 2020-12-15)
      Products produced by additive manufacturing (AM) seek to exploit net shape manufacturing by eliminating or minimizing post-process stages such as machining. However, many applications which include turbo machinery components with tight dimensional tolerances and a smooth surface finish will require at least a light machine finishing stage. This paper investigates the machinability of the additively fabricated INCONEL718 (IN718) alloy produced by laser melting powder bed fusion (LM-PBF) with different levels of spherical porosity in the microstructure. The literature suggests that the band width for laser energy density, which combines the various scan process parameters to obtain a low spherical type porosity in the LM-PBF IN718 alloy (~1%), has wide breadth. With the increasing laser energy density and above a threshold, there is a rapid increase in the spherical pore size. In this paper, three tube samples each with different levels of spherical porosity were fabricated by varying the laser energy density for LM-PBF of the IN718 alloy within the stable and higher energy density range and the porosity measured. A low laser energy density was avoided due to balling up, which promotes highly irregular lack of fusion defects and poor consolidation within the alloy microstructure. An orthogonal turning test instrumented, with a three-component dynamometer to measure the cutting forces, was performed on AM produced IN718 tube samples under light cut conditions to simulate a finish machining process. The orthogonal turning tests were also performed on a tube sample obtained from the wrought extruded stock. The machining process parameters, which were studied include varying the cutting speed at three levels, at a fixed feed and under dry cut conditions for a short duration to avoid the tool wear. The results obtained were discussed and a notable finding was the higher rate of built-up-edge formation on the tool tip from the AM samples with a higher porosity and especially at a higher cutting speed. The paper also discusses the mechanisms that underpin the findings.
    • Computational study of flow around 2D and 3D tandem bluff bodies

      Charles, Terrance; Yang, Zhiyin; Lu, Yiling; University of Derby (Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, 2020-11-21)
      Numerical simulations have been carried out to advance our current understanding of flow around two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) square shaped tandem bluff bodies at a Reynolds number of 22,000, especially to shed light on the sudden change of the downstream body’s drag coefficient. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach has been employed in the present study and the predicted drag coefficients compare reasonably well with available experimental data. Better understanding of flow fields has been achieved by analyzing streamlines, velocity vectors for both 2D and 3D cases in a horizontal plane and a vertical symmetric plane. The sudden jump in drag coefficient for the 2D case is well captured numerically, which is due to the flow over the upstream body impinging onto the front face of the downstream body at a critical gap size between those two bodies. For the 3D case the drag coefficient is predicted to increase gradually, consistent with the previous experimental finding. This is due to the fact that the vortical structures formed in the 3D case are very different, resulting in a reasonably smooth change of the flow field around the upstream body and hence leading to gradual, not sudden, increase in the drag coefficient of the downstream body.
    • Effective solder for improved thermo-mechanical reliability of solder joints in ball grid array (BGA) soldered on printed circuit board (PCB)

      Depiver, Joshua; Sabuj, Mallik; Amalu, Emeka H; University of Derby; Teeside University (Springer, 2020-11-05)
      Ball grid array (BGA) packages have increasing applications in mobile phones, disk drives, LC displays and automotive engine controllers. However, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the BGA solder joints challenges the device functionality amidst component and system miniaturisation as well as wider adoption of lead-free solders. This investigation determines the effective BGA solders for improved thermo-mechanical reliability of the devices. It utilised a conducted study on creep response of a lead-based eutectic Sn63Pb37 and four lead-free Tin-Silver-Copper (SnAgCu) [SAC305, SAC387, SAC396 and SAC405] solders subjected to thermal cycling loadings and isothermal ageing. The solders form the joints between the BGAs and printed circuit boards (PCBs). ANSYS R19.0 package is used to simulate isothermal ageing of some of the assemblies at -40℃, 25℃, 75℃ and 150℃ temperatures for 45 days and model the thermal cycling history of the other assemblies from 22℃ ambient temperature for six cycles. The response of the solders is simulated using Garofalo-Arrhenius creep model. Under thermal ageing, SAC396 solder joints demonstrate possession of least strain energy density, deformation and von-Mises stress in comparison to the other solders. Under thermal cycle loading conditions, SAC405 acquired the lowest amount of the damage parameters in comparison. Lead-free SAC405 and SAC387 joints accumulated the lowest and highest energy dissipation per cycle, respectively. It is concluded that SAC405 and SAC396 are the most effective solders for BGA in devices experiencing isothermal ageing and temperature cycling during operation, respectively. They are proposed as the suitable replacement of eutectic Sn63Pb37 solder for the various conditions.
    • Comparing and benchmarking fatigue behaviours of various sac solders under thermo-mechanical loading

      Depiver, Joshua Adeniyi; Mallik, Sabuj; Amalu, Emeka H; University of Derby (IEEE, 2020-10-23)
      While the fatigue behaviours (including fatigue life predictions) of lead-free solder joints have been extensively researched in the last 15 years, these are not adequately compared and benchmarked for different lead-free solders that are being used. As more and more fatigue properties of lead-free solders are becoming available, it is also critical to know how fatigue behaviours differ under different mathematical models. This paper addresses the challenges and presents a comparative study of fatigue behaviours of various mainstream lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders and benchmarked those with lead-based eutectic solder. Creep-induced fatigue and fatigue life of lead-based eutectic Sn63Pb37 and four lead-free SAC solder alloys: SAC305, SAC387, SAC396 and SAC405 are analysed through simulation studies. The Anand model is used to simulate the inelastic deformation behaviour of the solder joints under accelerated thermal cycling (ATC). It unifies the creep and rate-independent plastic behaviour and it is used to predict the complex stress-strain relationship of solders under different temperatures and strain rates, which are required in the prediction of fatigue life using the fatigue life models such as Engelmaier, Coffin-Mason and Solomon as the basis of our comparison. The ATC was carried out using temperature range from −40°C to 150°C. The fatigue damage propagation is determined with finite element (FE) simulation, which allows virtual prototyping in the design process of electronics devices. The simulation was carried out on a BGA (36 balls, 6 × 6 matrix) mounted onto Cu padded substrate. Results are analysed for plastic strain, Von mises stress, strain energy density, and stress-strain hysteresis loop. The simulation results show that the fatigue behaviours of lead-based eutectic Sn63Pb37 solder is comparable to those of lead-free SAC solders. Among the four SAC solders, SAC387 consistently produced higher plastic strain, strain energy and stress than the other solders. The fatigue life’s estimation of the solder joint was investigated using Engelmaier, Coffin-Manson, and Solomon models. Results obtained show that SAC405 has the highest fatigue life (25.7, 21.1 and 19.2 years) followed by SAC396 (18.7, 20.3 and 17.9 years) and SAC305 (15.2, 13.6 and 16.2 years) solder alloys respectively. Predicting the fatigue life of these solder joints averts problems in electronics design for reliability and quality, which if not taken care of, may result in lost revenue. Predictive fatigue analysis can also considerably reduce premature failure, and modern analysis technique such as one used in this research is progressively helping to provide comprehensive product life expectancy data.
    • Characterization of Sobradinho landslide in fluvial valley using MASW and ERT methods

      Hussain, Yawar; Hamza, Omar; Cárdenas-Soto, Martín; Borges, Welitom Rodrigues; Dou, Jie; Rebolledo, Juan Félix Rodriguez; Prado, Renato Luiz; Clemson University, South Carolina, USA; University of Derby; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; et al. (FapUNIFESP (SciELO), 2020-09-30)
      Landslides can substantially impact the fluvial systems, which is why the continuous mapping of their extent, evolution and stability assessment is crucial. However, in such environments, material identification (e.g. colluvium) and subsurface characterization by the methods used for geologic mapping and geotechnical investigation is often a challenging task. Thus, these classical invasive methods may benefit from geophysical techniques to enable and enhance our understanding of the subsurface in these areas. To examine such integrated approach, Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) combined with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were applied on a geomorphologically active fluvial valley in Sobradinho (the Federal District of Brazil). The subsurface materials showed a specific range of resistivity values as dry soil, saprolite, and landslide slip surface. The 1D shear wave velocity (Vs) model showed an increasing trend of Vs with depth at a location away from the landslide mass, while the longitudinal profile (over the landslide) showed an anomalous change in Vs (~ 250 to 400 m/sec). Based on the existing information about the landslide, the ERT appeared to be an effective method over MASW. This study shows how the integration of geophysical data with the geological and geotechnical investigation helps to obtain a more realistic or unambiguous model of the subsurface.
    • Optimal design of cold roll formed steel channel sections under bending considering both geometry and cold work effects

      Qadir, Sangar; Nguyen, Van Bac; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Cartwright, Brian; English, Martin; University of Derby; University of Sheffield; Hadley Industries plc (Elsevier, 2020-09-17)
      Optimal design of a structural member is a design process of selecting alternative forms to obtain its maximum strength while maintaining the same weight, leading to the most economical and efficient structure. Amongst steel structures, cold rolled steel ones can effectively gain this requirement as they are thin-walled structures that offer the high ratio of strength over weight. However, the design is very challenging as these members are prone to buckling and failure at low loads. In this paper, the buckling and ultimate strength of cold rolled channel sections was studied using numerical modelling. In order to improve the section strength, the development of various alternative cold rolled formed sections included additional bends such as intermediate stiffeners. The section strength was optimised through a practical approach which altered the stiffener’s position and shape and searched for maximum buckling and ultimate strength under bending. In this approach, a nonlinear Finite Element model was first developed for an industrial channel beam subjected to four-point bending tests and this model was validated against experimental test data. The verified model was then used to conduct a parametric study in which the effects of a stiffener’s properties on the section strength including its position, shape, size and material properties by the cold work at bends were investigated in detail. Several different cold rolled channel sections having intermediate stiffeners at web and flanges with and without the cold work effect on material properties at the stiffener’s bends were considered for this investigation. In addition, a design method, the Direct Strength Method (DSM), was utilised to take into account the effects of a stiffener’s properties on the section strength and results were compared with the Finite Element modelling results. It was found that some significant improvements were obtained for the section strength of the optimised sections in comparison to the original sections. An optimal shape for the channel section with maximum ultimate strength in distortional buckling could be obtained with both the stiffeners’ position, shape, size and quantity, and the cold work effect. The cold work effect was found most significant in the cases of changing the width of the web stiffeners and the position of the flange stiffeners. It also revealed that, the currently available DSM beam design curve for distortional buckling provided good agreement in predicting buckling load and ultimate strength capacity for most of the considered sections with and without the cold work effect included; however, the DSM provided overestimate results compared to the Finite Element model results in the sections with web intermediate stiffeners, in particular, when the tip of web intermediate stiffener moved away from the web-flange junction in the horizontal direction.
    • Assessment of drag reduction devices mounted on a simplified tractor-trailer truck model

      Charles, Terrance; Yang, Zhiyin; Lu, Yiling; Coventry University; University of Derby (Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, 2020-09-14)
      Aerodynamic drag reduction of tractor-trailer combination trucks is critically important to improve their fuel consumption which consequently results in lower emissions. One practical method to reduce aerodynamic drag of a truck is by mounting drag reduction devices on the truck. This paper presents a numerical study of turbulent flow over a simplified tractortrailer truck with different drag reduction devices mounted on the truck using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to assess the effectiveness of those devices in drag reduction around the tractor-trailer gap region. Three cases with different drag reduction devices have been studied and significant drag reduction (above 30%) has been achieved for all three cases. Detailed analysis of the flow field has been carried out to understand drag reduction mechanisms, and it shows that no matter what drag reduction devices are deployed the drag reduction is mainly due to the reduced pressure on the front face of the trailer, and a small proportion of the drag reduction is due to the reduced turbulent kinetic energy in the gap region.
    • The challenges of teaching design in the 21st century, the age of the fourth industrial revolution

      Sole, Martin; Barber, Patrick; Harmanto, Dani; University of Derby (The Design Society - Institution of Engineering Designers, 2020-09-12)
      There is an ever-growing demand from industry for qualified design engineers. Many of these design engineers are trained at universities and colleges. This paper will explore how to keep this training as up to date and relevant as possible. It will look at the modern techniques and methods used by world-leading industries during the 21st century. This century, known also as the Fourth Industrial Revolution, or the Information Technology Revolution. It will show how these techniques and methods can be applied in academia. A challenge is also highlighted, how to get students to design to industry standards but at the same time make it possible to assess their work to satisfy the needs of academia and awarding bodies. These modern techniques and methods will be applied to actual university students and an assessment made of the results. Use of group working will be explored and an algorithm developed to grade the completed group work. What do students need now to equip them to become competent designers, and what will they need soon?
    • Large eddy simulation of the flow past a circular cylinder at super-critical Reynolds numbers

      Ahmadi, Mohammad; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (ASME, 2020-09)
      Turbulent flow past a circular cylinder at super-critical Reynolds numbers is simulated using large eddy simulation in this study. A novel combination of O- and H-grid structures is used to reduce mesh cells and, in turn, the computational cost. To investigate the influence of sub-grid scale (SGS) models on the accuracy of simulations, four different SGS models are applied to simulate the flow. In this study, the effect of mesh resolution near the wall on the accuracy of results is also evaluated by applying different y+ values at the wall. The results show that due to the complexity of the flow around the cylinder particularly at high Reynolds numbers, using very high resolution mesh near the cylinder wall, can not guarantee the accuracy of results and other parameters such as mesh resolutions at the top and bottom shear layers and the wake shortly behind the cylinder should be considered appropriately.
    • Nature connectedness, human behaviours, and blue infrastructure: the water effect to people in historical and contemporary masterplanning

      Al-Wali, Wafaa; Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby (Water Efficiency Network, University of Bath, 2020-09)
      Most urban designers and planners have produced anthropocentric masterplans since early twentieth century. Today green infrastructure in cities, including blue infrastructure, primarily expresses people’s relationship to the environment in terms of resource management. Often the natural world is converted into urban green arrangement or a replica of nature mainly for the economic and cultural benefit of humans. Water and related ecosystems were only part of industry as necessity until late twentieth century. Nowadays, water is valued as a very important element of life. Most experts believe that by offering people the opportunity to participate in running and preserving certain ecosystems could have a very positive impact to human health and wellbeing. Environmental psychology suggests that we can provoke heightened experiences in people’s minds by designing dynamic flowing water patterns in urban context. Natural or artificial landscapes, such as green parks should intertwine with the built environment, displaying human creativity and inventiveness. The authors of this paper discuss the importance of water changing culture and behaviours in regenerated green parks in vulnerable urban areas, such as the case study of Arboretum Derby. This particular case study was reviewed by both authors (tutor and PhD student) who shared research with undergraduate students in Urban Design module in this academic year. The student projects reveal the importance of nature connectedness to people seeking happiness and mental balance to counterbalance lockdown hardship, employment loss and social deprivation.
    • Simultaneous two-phase flame velocity measurement using laser-induced incandescence particle image velocimetry (LII-PIV)

      Fan, Luming; Chong, Cheng Tung; Tian, Bo; Zheng, Yutao; Dante, McGrath; Hochgreb, Simone; University of Cambridge; Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-08-25)
      In a previous study we demonstrated a novel two-phase PIV technique based on the laser-induced incandescence (LII) signal from black submicron tungsten carbide particles (WC), which achieved velocity measurements for both dispersed-form (large water droplet) and continuous-form (gas). Submicron WC particles are intentionally seeded into a two-phase flow, and heated by a light sheet generated by a double-pulsed PIV laser running at high energy. The 200 nm diameter, light absorbing WC particles are heated to several thousand degrees to emit strong incandescence signals, whilst the temperature rise in liquid droplets or large particles remains negligible. The small particles follow the gas phase flow, unlike the droplets which may have a different velocity. Droplets are detected via the Mie scatter signal at the same incident wavelength, whereas the LII signal from small WC particles is detected at a suitably different wavelength within the LII emission spectrum, thus allowing discrimination of velocities between phases. The LII-PIV technique had been implemented with a low-speed CCD PIV camera in non-reacting flows. In flames, the strong flame luminosity saturated the second frame due to the long exposure time as the characteristics of the device. To solve this problem, in the present study, we synchronized two high-speed CMOS cameras to a low speed laser. One records the LII signal and the other records the Mie scatter signal from 36.6 µm water droplets. The scattering from WC particles appears only as a weak background signal in the Mie image, which can be easily removed by applying a high-pass filter. Simultaneous velocity measurements for both gas and liquid phase are demonstrated in an air jet, a cold impinging flow, and finally in a Bunsen flame. The last two cases are repeated using the traditional two-phase PIV technique based on image segmentation so as to conduct a fair comparison of both techniques. We show that LII-PIV can achieve the same level of accuracy as the segmentation method in non-reacting flows, and can be applied to measure in flames with two-phase flows with less stringent requirements regarding seeding quality.
    • Comprehensive review of the recent advances in PV/T system with loop-pipe configuration and nanofluid

      Cui, Yuanlong; Zhu, Jie; Zoras, Stamatis; Zhang, Jizhe; University of Derby; University of Nottingham; Shandong University (Elsevier, 2020-08-24)
      Solar photovoltaic/thermal technology has been widely utilized in building service area as it generates thermal and electrical energy simultaneously. In order to improve the photovoltaic/thermal system performance, nanofluids are employed as the thermal fluid owing to its high thermal conductivity. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the photovoltaic/thermal systems with different loop-pipe configurations (including heat pipe, vacuum tube, roll-bond, heat exchanger, micro-channel, U-tube, triangular tube and heat mat) and nanoparticles (including Copper-oxide, Aluminium-oxide, Silicon carbide, Tribute, Magnesium-oxide, Cerium-oxide, Tungsten-oxide, Titanium-oxide, Zirconia-oxide, Graphene and Carbon). The influences of the critical parameters like nanoparticle optical and thermal properties, volume fraction, mass flux and mass flow rates, on the photovoltaic/thermal system performance are for the optimum energy efficiency. Furthermore, the structure and manufacturing of solar cells, micro-thermometry analysis of solar cells and recycling process of photovoltaic panels are explored. At the end, the standpoints, recommendations and potential future development on the solar photovoltaic/thermal system with various configurations and nanofluids are deliberated to overcome the barriers and challenges for the practical application. This study demonstrates that the advanced photovoltaic/thermal configuration could improve the system energy efficiency approximately 15%–30% in comparison with the conventional type whereas the nanofluid is able to boost the efficiency around 10%–20% compared to that with traditional working fluid.
    • Computational analysis of turbulent flow over a bluff body with drag reduction devices

      Abikan, Adam; Yang, Zhiyin; Lu, Yiling; University of Derby (University of Ahvaz, 2020-08-23)
      Reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy trucks is crucially important for the reduction of fuel consumption and hence results in less air pollution. One way to reduce the aerodynamic drag is the deployment of drag reduction devices at the rear of trucks and this paper describes a numerical study of flow over a bluff body with rear drag devices using the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach to investigate the drag reduction mechanisms and also to assess accuracy of the RANS approach for this kind of flow. Four cases, a baseline case without any drag reduction devices and three cases with different drag reduction devices, have been studied and the predicted mean and turbulent quantities agree well with the experimental data. Drag reduction varies hugely from a few percent in one case to more than 40% in another case and detailed analysis of flow fields has been carried out to understand such a difference and to elucidate the drag reduction mechanism, which ultimately can lead to better design of future drag reduction devices.
    • The potential use of geophysical methods to identify cavities, sinkholes and pathways for water infiltration

      Hussain, Yawar; Uagoda, Rogerio; Borges, Welitom; Nunes, José; Hamza, Omar; Condori, Cristobal; Aslam, Khurram; Dou, Jie; Cárdenas-Soto, Martín; Clemson University (USA); et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-08-14)
      The use of geophysical characterization of karst systems can provide an economical and non-invasive alternative for extracting information about cavities, sinkholes, pathways for water infiltration as well as the degree of karstification of underlying carbonate rocks. In the present study, three geophysical techniques, namely, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLFEM) methods were applied at three different locations in relation to fluvial karst, which is listed as an environmentally sensitive area in Rio Vermelho, Mambaí, Goiás, Brazil. In the data acquisition phase, the GPR, direct-current (DC) resistivity and VLFEM profiles were obtained at the three locations in the area. Data were analyzed using commonly adopted processing workflows. The GPR results showed a well-defined lithology of the site based on the amplitude of the signal and radar typologies. On the other hand, the inverted resistivity cross-sections showed a three-layered stratigraphy, pathways of water infiltration and the weathered structures in carbonate (Bambui group). The interpretation of VLFEM as contours of current density resulted from Fraser and Karous–Hjelt filters, indicated the presence of conductive structures (high apparent current density) that might be linked to the weathered carbonate and other conductive and resistive anomalies associated with the water-filled and dry cavities (cave), respectively. The results encourage the integrated application of geophysical techniques such as the reconnaissance for further detailed characterization of the karst areas.
    • Progress in utilisation of waste cooking oil for sustainable biodiesel and biojet fuel production

      Goh, Brandon Han Hoe; Chong, Cheng Tung; Ge, Yu Qi; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Ng, Jo-Han; Bo, Tian; Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Lim, Steven; Seljak, Tine; Józsa, Viktor; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-13)
      The increase in human consumption of plant and animal oils has led to the rise in waste cooking oil (WCO) production. Instead of disposing the used cooking oil as waste, recent technological advance has enabled the use of WCO as a sustainable feedstock for biofuels production, thereby maximising the value of biowastes via energy recovery while concomitantly solving the disposal issue. The current regulatory frameworks for WCO collection and recycling practices imposed by major WCO producing countries are reviewed, followed by the overview of the progress in biodiesel conversion techniques, along with novel methods to improve the feasibility for upscaling. The factors which influence the efficiency of the reactions such as properties of feedstock, heterogenous catalytic processes, cost effectiveness and selectivity of reaction product are discussed. Ultrasonic-assisted transesterification is found to be the least energy intensive method for producing biodiesel. The production of bio-jet fuels from WCO, while scarce, provide diversity in waste utilisation if problems such as carbon chain length, requirements of bio-jet fuel properties, extreme reaction conditions and effectiveness of selected catalyst-support system can be solved. Technoeconomic studies revealed that WCO biofuels is financially viable with benefit of mitigating carbon emissions, provided that the price gap between the produced fuel and commercial fuels, sufficient supply of WCO and variation in the oil properties are addressed. This review shows that WCO is a biowaste with high potential for advanced transportation fuel production for ground and aviation industries. The advancement in fuel production technology and relevant policies would accelerate the application of sustainable WCO biofuels.
    • Experimental and numerical study on soot formation in laminar diffusion flames of biodiesels and methyl esters

      Tian, Bo; Anxiong, Liu; Chong, Cheng Tung; Fan, Luming; Ni, Shiyao; Jo-Han, Ng; Stelio, Rigopoulos; Kai, Luo; Hochgreb, Simone; University of Derby; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-05)
      Biodiesel and blends with petroleum diesel are promising renewable alternative fuels for engines. In the present study, the soot concentration generated from four biodiesels, two pure methyl esters, and their blends with petroleum diesel are measured in a series of fully pre-vapourised co-flow diffusion flames. The experimental measurements are conducted using planar laser induced-incandescence (LII) and laser extinction optical methods. The results show that the maximum local soot volume fractions of neat biodiesels are 24.4% - 41.2% of pure diesel, whereas the mean soot volume fraction of neat biodiesel cases was measured as 11.3% - 21.3% of pure diesel. The addition of biodiesel to diesel not only reduces the number of inception particles, but also inhibits their surface growth. The discretised population balance modelling of a complete set of soot processes is employed to compute the 2D soot volume fraction and size distribution across the tested flames. The results show that the model also demonstrates a reduction of both soot volume fraction and primary particle size by adding biodiesel fuels. However, it is not possible to clearly determine which factors are responsible for the reduction from the comparison alone. Moreover, analysis of the discrepancies between numerical and experimental results for diesel and low-blending cases offers an insight for the refinement of soot formation modelling of combustion with large-molecule fuels.
    • Performance comparison of resin-infused thermoplastic and thermoset 3D fabric composites under impact loading

      Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Shah, S. Z. H.; Megat-Yusoff, P.S.M.; Karuppanan, S.; Ahmad, F.; Sajid, Z.; Gerard, P.; Sharp, K.; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-07-29)
      In this paper, the impact performance of a novel resin-infused acrylic thermoplastic matrix-based 3D glass fabric composite (3D-FRC) has been evaluated and compared with thermoset based 3D-FRC under single as well as recurring strike low velocity impact (LVI) events. The single impact tests revealed that the thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC exhibits up to 45% reduced damage area and can have up to 20% higher impact load-bearing capacity (peak force). The damage mode characterization showed that damage transition energy required for micro to macro damage transition is 27% higher, and back face damage extension is up to 3 times less for thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC. Meanwhile, the recurring strike impact test highlights that the thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC experiences a 50% less damaged area, better structural integrity, and survived more strikes. The comparison of single and repeated LVI tests have also allowed us to present a design criterion for estimating the safe number of repeated LVI events for a given impact energy. The superior impact resistance of thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC is attributed to their higher interlaminar fracture toughness, a tougher fiber-matrix interface, matrix ductility, and unique failure mechanism of yarn straining, which is not present in thermoset composites.