Recent Submissions

  • A review of in-situ grown nanocomposite coatings for titanium alloy implants

    Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar; Le, Huirong; Pawlik, Marzena; University of Derby (MDPI AG, 2020-04-21)
    Composite coatings are commonly applied to medical metal implants in order to improve biocompatibility and/or bioactivity. In this context, two types of titanium-based composite coatings have been reviewed as biocompatible and anti-bacterial coatings. The different composites can be synthesised on the surface of titanium using various methods, which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Moving with the smart and nanotechnology, multifunctional nanocomposite coatings have been introduced on implants and scaffolds for tissue engineering with the aim of providing more than one properties when required. In this context, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes have been shown to enhance the properties of titanium-based implants as part of nanocomposite coatings.
  • Performance comparison of resin-infused thermoplastic and thermoset 3D fabric composites under impact loading

    Choudhry, Rizwan Saeed; Shah, S. Z. H.; Megat-Yusoff, P.S.M.; Karuppanan, S.; Ahmad, F.; Sajid, Z.; Gerard, P.; Sharp, K.; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-07-29)
    In this paper, the impact performance of a novel resin-infused acrylic thermoplastic matrix-based 3D glass fabric composite (3D-FRC) has been evaluated and compared with thermoset based 3D-FRC under single as well as recurring strike low velocity impact (LVI) events. The single impact tests revealed that the thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC exhibits up to 45% reduced damage area and can have up to 20% higher impact load-bearing capacity (peak force). The damage mode characterization showed that damage transition energy required for micro to macro damage transition is 27% higher, and back face damage extension is up to 3 times less for thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC. Meanwhile, the recurring strike impact test highlights that the thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC experiences a 50% less damaged area, better structural integrity, and survived more strikes. The comparison of single and repeated LVI tests have also allowed us to present a design criterion for estimating the safe number of repeated LVI events for a given impact energy. The superior impact resistance of thermoplastic-based 3D-FRC is attributed to their higher interlaminar fracture toughness, a tougher fiber-matrix interface, matrix ductility, and unique failure mechanism of yarn straining, which is not present in thermoset composites.
  • Rutting resistance of asphalt pavement mixes by Finite Element modelling and optimisation

    Phuong Ngo, Chau; Nguyen, Van Bac; Nguyen, Thanh Phong; Bay Pham, Ngoc; Le, Van Phuc; Hung Nguyen, Van; University of Transport and Communications, Campus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; University of Derby (Bilingual Publishing Co., 2020-01-14)
    Asphalt pavement rutting is a major safety concern and is one of the main distress modes of asphalt pavement. Research into asphalt pavement mixes that provide strong resistance for rutting is considered of great significance as it can help provide extended pavement life and significant cost savings in pavement maintenance and rehabilitation. The objectives of this study are to develop numerical models to investigate the rutting of asphalt concrete pavements and to find optimal design of asphalt pavement mix for rutting resistance. Three-dimensional Finite Element models were first developed to simulate both the axial compression and wheel track testing in which a visco-elastic-plastic material model was used to predict the rutting of the asphalt concrete pavements. A strain hardening creep model with the material parameters developed from experimental testing was employed to model the time-dependent characteristics of the asphalt concrete pavements. The results were validated against the previous experimental wheel track test results of different pavement mixes. Finally, optimisation techniques using the Design Of Experiments method were applied to the simulation rutting results by varying creep parameters to identify their effects on rutting resistance in order to obtain an optimal asphalt pavements mixes. The results of this paper clearly demonstrate an efficient and effective experimental-numerical method and tool set towards optimal design for asphalt concrete pavements for rutting resistance.
  • Disrupting resilient criminal networks through data analysis: The case of Sicilian Mafia

    Cavallaro, Lucia; Ficara, Annamaria; De Meo, Pasquale; Fiumara, Giacomo; Catanese, Salvatore; Bagdasar, Ovidiu; Song, Wei; Liotta, Antonio; University of Derby; niversity of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2020-08-05)
    Compared to other types of social networks, criminal networks present particularly hard challenges, due to their strong resilience to disruption, which poses severe hurdles to Law-Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). Herein, we borrow methods and tools from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to (i) unveil the structure and organization of Sicilian Mafia gangs, based on two real-world datasets, and (ii) gain insights as to how to efficiently reduce the Largest Connected Component (LCC) of two networks derived from them. Mafia networks have peculiar features in terms of the links distribution and strength, which makes them very different from other social networks, and extremely robust to exogenous perturbations. Analysts also face difficulties in collecting reliable datasets that accurately describe the gangs’ internal structure and their relationships with the external world, which is why earlier studies are largely qualitative, elusive and incomplete. An added value of our work is the generation of two real-world datasets, based on raw data extracted from juridical acts, relating to a Mafia organization that operated in Sicily during the first decade of 2000s. We created two different networks, capturing phone calls and physical meetings, respectively. Our analysis simulated different intervention procedures: (i) arresting one criminal at a time (sequential node removal); and (ii) police raids (node block removal). In both the sequential, and the node block removal intervention procedures, the Betweenness centrality was the most effective strategy in prioritizing the nodes to be removed. For instance, when targeting the top 5% nodes with the largest Betweenness centrality, our simulations suggest a reduction of up to 70% in the size of the LCC. We also identified that, due the peculiar type of interactions in criminal networks (namely, the distribution of the interactions’ frequency), no significant differences exist between weighted and unweighted network analysis. Our work has significant practical applications for perturbing the operations of criminal and terrorist networks.
  • Experimental and numerical study on soot formation in laminar diffusion flames of biodiesels and methyl esters

    Tian, Bo; Anxiong, Liu; Chong, Cheng Tung; Fan, Luming; Ni, Shiyao; Jo-Han, Ng; Stelio, Rigopoulos; Kai, Luo; Hochgreb, Simone; University of Derby; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-05)
    Biodiesel and blends with petroleum diesel are promising renewable alternative fuels for engines. In the present study, the soot concentration generated from four biodiesels, two pure methyl esters, and their blends with petroleum diesel are measured in a series of fully pre-vapourised co-flow diffusion flames. The experimental measurements are conducted using planar laser induced-incandescence (LII) and laser extinction optical methods. The results show that the maximum local soot volume fractions of neat biodiesels are 24.4% - 41.2% of pure diesel, whereas the mean soot volume fraction of neat biodiesel cases was measured as 11.3% - 21.3% of pure diesel. The addition of biodiesel to diesel not only reduces the number of inception particles, but also inhibits their surface growth. The discretised population balance modelling of a complete set of soot processes is employed to compute the 2D soot volume fraction and size distribution across the tested flames. The results show that the model also demonstrates a reduction of both soot volume fraction and primary particle size by adding biodiesel fuels. However, it is not possible to clearly determine which factors are responsible for the reduction from the comparison alone. Moreover, analysis of the discrepancies between numerical and experimental results for diesel and low-blending cases offers an insight for the refinement of soot formation modelling of combustion with large-molecule fuels.
  • CRT-BIoV: A cognitive radio technique for blockchain-enabled internet of vehicles

    Rathee, Geetanjali; Farhan, Ahmad; Kurugollu, Fatih; Azad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Razi; Imran, Muhammad; Jaypee University of Information Technology, India; University of Derby; University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan; King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (IEEE, 2020-07-23)
    Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) is considered as a viable solution on Internet of Vehicle (IoV) where objects equipped with cognition make decisions intelligently through the understanding of both social and physical worlds. However, the spectrum availability and data sharing/transferring among vehicles are critical improving services and driving safety metrics where the presence of Malicious Devices (MD) further degrade the network performance. Recently, a blockchain technique in CRN-based IoV has been introduced to prevent data alteration from these MD and allowing the vehicles to track both legal and illegal activities in the network. In this paper, we provide the security to IoV during spectrum sensing and information transmission using CRN by sensing the channels through a decision-making technique known as \textit{Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)}, a technique that evokes the trust of its Cognitive Users (CU) by analyzing certain predefined attributes. Further, blockchain is maintained in the network to trace every activity of stored information. The proposed mechanism is validated rigorously against several security metrics using various spectrum sensing and security parameters against a baseline solution in IoV. Extensive simulations suggest that our proposed mechanism is approximately 70% more efficient in terms of malicious nodes identification and DoS threat against the baseline mechanism.
  • The impact of industry 4.0 on sustainability and the circular economy reporting requirements

    Takhar, Sukhraj; Liyanage, Kapila; University of Derby (Inderscience, 2020-06-18)
    The traditional linear economic system focuses on the mass production of products, using available resources, at the lowest possible cost. Sustainability recognises the impact of dwindling natural resources, as a result of mass production and directs us towards the use of more sustainable resources. The circular economy (CE) proposes the adoption of an open loop manufacturing system where products are designed using resources which enable products to be repaired, reused, repurposed and recycled. To analyse the impacts of sustainability and CE initiatives, accurate data needs to be collected. Industry 4.0 promotes interconnectivity, enabling real-time data collection, communication and data analytics. This paper contributes to existing literature by identifying a research gap on how sustainability and CE model data reporting needs may be met using Industry 4.0 technologies. Using a literature review and survey on real-world adoption, a set of reporting requirements for sustainability and CE models are identified. The conclusions provide an assessment of how Industry 4.0 may aid reporting needs.
  • Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes in rich hydrogen/air flames

    Zhang, Cen; Tian, Bo; Chong, Cheng Tung; Ding, Boning; Fan, Luming; Chang, Xin; Simone, Hochgreb; University of Cambridge; University of Derby; Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Elsevier, 2020-06-27)
    We explore the production of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a stream surrounded by rich premixedlaminar H2/air flames using a feedstock containing ethanol and ferrocene. The as-produced nanomaterialswere characterised by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopyand X-ray diffraction. A formation window of equivalence ratios of 1.00–1.20 was identified, and single-walledCNT bundles with individual CNTs of an average diameter of 1 nm were observed. The formation of CNTswas accompanied by the production of highly crystalline Fe3O4nanoparticles of a size of 20–100 nm. Theinvestigation of the limiting factors for the CNT synthesis was carried out systematically, assisted by numericalmodelling. We conclude that the key factors affecting CNT synthesis are the surrounding flame temperatures and the concentration of carbon available for CNT nucleation.
  • Energy performance and life cycle cost assessments of a photovoltaic/thermal assisted heat pump system

    Cui, Yuanlong; Zhu, Jie; Zoras, Stamatis; Qiao, Yaning; Zhang, Xin; University of Derby; University of Nottingham; China University of Mining and Technology; Cranfield University (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
    A photovoltaic/thermal module assisted heat pump system is investigated in this paper, which provides electrical and thermal energy for a domestic building. In-depth evaluation on the system energy production is conducted based on the finite difference method for a long-term operating period. The 25 years’ system life cycle cost is assessed via the Monte Carlo simulation under the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) and Renewable Heat Incentive schemes, the annual energy savings, income and payback period (PBP) are compared for the FiT and Smart Export Guarantee (SEG) schemes. The technical analysis results illustrate that the system is able to fulfil the building thermal and electrical energy demands from April to October and from May to August, respectively, and the extra electricity of 229.47 kWh is fed into the grid. The economic assessment results clarify that the system achieves a net present value (NPV) of £38,990 and has a PBP of 4.15 years. Meanwhile, the economic sensitive analyses reveal that the high discount rate reduces the system NPV whereas the high investment cost causes a long PBP to realize the positive NPV. Compared with the SEG scheme, the FiT is the most cost-effective method for renewable electricity generation and has the shortest PBP.
  • Numerical study of the coupling between the instantaneous blade loading/power of an axial wind turbine and upstream turbulence at high Reynolds numbers

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.B.; Yang, Zhiyin; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2020-07-06)
    Little is known about how the range of scales in the approaching turbulent flow can interact dynamically with wind turbines and influence its ability to produce power. Here, a numerical study of a horizontal-axis wind turbine at different Reynolds numbers (corresponding to different tip speed ratios) has been conducted to investigate the instantaneous turbine response to upstream turbulence. A computational approach, combining large eddy simulation with actuator line modelling, is adopted. Comparison between Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the turbine thrust/power and PSD of the velocity at the rotor plane and one rotor diameter upstream of it confirms that there is a coupling between the instantaneous turbine thrust/power and the upstream turbulence (one diameter upstream of the turbine) for frequencies below a critical frequency. Furthermore, it has been shown for the first time, that PSD of the turbine thrust/power and the velocity PSD at the rotor plane are very similar, indicating that the instantaneous turbine thrust/power and the velocity at the rotor plane are coupled for all frequencies. This means that the PSD of velocity at the rotor plane or shortly behind it can provide interesting information for the instantaneous turbine loads that are very important for the turbine operational life.
  • A multi-objective optimized service level agreement approach applied on a cloud computing ecosystem

    Azevedo, Leonildo Jose de Melo de; Estrella, Julio C.; Toledo, Claudia F. Motta; Reiff-Marganiec, Stephan; University of São Paulo (USP), São Carlos, SP, Brazil; University of Derby (IEEE, 2020-06-30)
    The cloud ecosystem provides transformative advantages that allow elastically offering ondemand services. However, it is not always possible to provide adequate services to all customers and thus to fulfill service level agreements (SLA). To enable compliance with these agreements, service providers leave the customer responsible for determining the service settings and expect that the client knows what to do. Some studies address SLA compliance, but the existing works do not adequately address the problem of resource allocation according to clients’ needs since they consider a limited set of objectives to be analyzed and fulfilled. In previous work, we have already addressed the problem considering a single-objective approach. In that work, we identified that the problem has a multi-objective characteristic since several attributes simultaneously influence the SLA agreement, which can lead to conflicts. This paper proposes a multi-objective combinatorial optimization approach for computational resources provisioning, seeking to optimize the efficient use of the infrastructure and provide the client with greater flexibility in contract closure.
  • Privacy-preserving crowd-sensed trust aggregation in the user-centeric internet of people networks

    Azad, Muhammad; Perera, Charith; Bag, Samiran; Barhamgi, Mahmoud; Hao, Feng; University of Derby; Cardiff University; University of Warwick; Universite Claude Bernard Lyon (ACM, 2020)
    Today we are relying on the Internet technologies for various types of services ranging from personal communication to the entertainment. The online social networks (Facebook, twitter, youtube) has seen an increase in subscribers in recent years developing a social network among people termed as the Internet of People. In such a network, subscribers use the content disseminated by other subscribers. The malicious users can also utilize such platforms for spreading the malicious and fake content that would bring catastrophic consequences to a social network if not identified on time. People crowd-sensing on the Internet of people system has seen a prospective solution for the large scale data collection by leveraging the feedback collections from the people of the internet that would not only help in identifying malicious subscribers of the network but would also help in defining better services. However, the human involvement in crowd-sensing would have challenges of privacy-preservation, intentional spread of false high score about certain user/content undermining the services, and assigning different trust scores to the peoples of the network without disclosing their trust weights. Therefore, having a privacy-preserving system for computing trust of people and their content in the network would play a crucial role in collecting high-quality data from the people. In this paper, a novel trust model is proposed for evaluating the trust of the people in the social network without compromising the privacy of the participating people. The proposed systems have inherent properties of the trust weight assignment to a different class of user i.e. it can assign different weights to different users of the network, has decentralized setup, and ensures privacy properties under the malicious and honest but curious adversarial model. We evaluated the performance of the system by developing a prototype and applying it to different online social network dataset.
  • Designing privacy-aware internet of things applications

    Perera, Charith; Barhamgi, Mahmoud; Bandara, Arosha K.; Ajmal, Muhammad; Price, Blaine; Nuseibeh, Bashar; Cardiff University; Universite Claude Bernard Lyon; Open University, United Kingdom; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2019-09-28)
    Internet of Things (IoT) applications typically collect and analyse personal data that can be used to derive sensitive information about individuals. However, thus far, privacy concerns have not been explicitly considered in software engineering processes when designing IoT applications. With the advent of behaviour driven security mechanisms, failing to address privacy concerns in the design of IoT applications can also have security implications. In this paper, we explore how a Privacy-by-Design (PbD) framework, formulated as a set of guidelines, can help software engineers integrate data privacy considerations into the design of IoT applications. We studied the utility of this PbD framework by studying how software engineers use it to design IoT applications. We also explore the challenges in using the set of guidelines to influence the IoT applications design process. In addition to highlighting the benefits of having a PbD framework to make privacy features explicit during the design of IoT applications, our studies also surfaced a number of challenges associated with the approach. A key finding of our research is that the PbD framework significantly increases both novice and expert software engineers’ ability to design privacy into IoT applications.
  • IoT forensics: A state-of-the-art review, callenges and future directions

    Alenezi, Ahmed; Atlam, Hany; Alsagri, Reem; Alassafi, Madini; Wills, Gary; University of Southampton (SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, 2019-05-10)
    The IoT is capable of communicating and connecting billions of things at the same time. The concept offers numerous benefits for consumers that alters how users interact with the technology. With this said, however, such monumental growth within IoT development also gives rise to a number of legal and technical challenges in the field of IoT forensics. Indeed, there exist many issues that must be overcome if effective IoT investigations are to be carried out. This paper presents a review of the IoT concept, digital forensics and the state-of-the-art on IoT forensics. Furthermore, an exploration of the possible solutions proposed in recent research and IoT forensics challenges that are identified in the current research literature are examined. Picks apart the challenges facing IoT forensics which have been established in recent literature. Overall, this paper draws attention to the obvious problems – open problems which require further efforts to be addressed properly.
  • Experts reviews of a cloud forensic readiness framework for organizations

    Alenezi, Ahmed; Atlam, Hany F.; Wills, Gary B.; University of Southampton (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-08-14)
    Cloud computing has drastically altered the ways in which it is possible to deliver information technologies (ITs) to consumers as a service. In addition, the concept has given rise to multiple benefits for consumers and organizations. However, such a fast surge in the adoption of cloud computing has led to the emergence of the cloud as a new cybercrime environment, thus giving rise to fresh legal, technical and organizational challenges. In addition to the vast number of attacks that have had an impact on cloud computing and the fact that cloud-based data processing is carried out in a decentralized manner, many other concerns have been noted. Among these concerns are how to conduct a thorough digital investigation in cloud environments and how to be prepared to gather data ahead of time before the occurrence of an incident; indeed, this kind of preparation would reduce the amount of money, time and effort that is expended. As a number of cloud forensics challenges have not received enough attention, this study is motivated by a particular gap in research on the technical, legal and organizational factors that facilitate forensic readiness in organizations that utilize an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) model. This paper presents a framework with which to investigate the factors that facilitate the forensic readiness of organizations. This framework was identified by critically reviewing previous studies in the literature and by performing an in-depth examination of the relevant industrial standards. The factors were comprehensively studied and extracted from the literature; then, the factors were analysed, duplicates were removed, and the factors were categorized and synthesized to produce the framework. To obtain reliable results, the research method involved two steps: a literature review, followed by expert reviews. These techniques help us paint a comprehensive picture of the research topic and validate and confirm the results.
  • Security, cybercrime and digital forensics for IoT

    Atlam, Hany F.; Alenezi, Ahmed; Alassafi, Madini O.; Alshdadi, Abdulrahman A.; Wills, Gary B.; University of Southampton; Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt; Northern Border University, Rafha, Saudi Arabia; King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Springer International Publishing, 2019-11-14)
    The Internet of Things (IoT) connects almost all the environment objects whether physical or virtual over the Internet to produce new digitized services that improve people’s lifestyle. Currently, several IoT applications have a direct impact on our daily life activities including smart agriculture, wearables, connected healthcare, connected vehicles, and others. Despite the countless benefits provided by the IoT system, it introduces several security challenges. Resolving these challenges should be one of the highest priorities for IoT manufacturers to continue the successful deployment of IoT applications. The owners of IoT devices should guarantee that effective security measures are built in their devices. With the developments of the Internet, the number of security attacks and cybercrimes has increased significantly. In addition, with poor security measures implemented in IoT devices, the IoT system creates more opportunities for cybercrimes to attack various application and services of the IoT system resulting in a direct impact on users. One of the approaches that tackle the increasing number of cybercrimes is digital forensics. Cybercrimes with the power of the IoT technology can cross the virtual space to threaten human life, therefore, IoT forensics is required to investigate and mitigate against such attacks. This chapter presents a review of IoT security and forensics. It started with reviewing the IoT system by discussing building blocks of an IoT device, essential characteristic, communication technologies and challenges of the IoT. Then, IoT security by highlighting threats and solutions regarding IoT architecture layers are discussed. Digital forensics is also discussed by presenting the main steps of the investigation process. In the end, IoT forensics is discussed by reviewing related IoT forensics frameworks, discussing the need for adopting real-time approaches and showing various IoT forensics.
  • A famework for data sharing between healthcare providers using blockchain

    Alzahrani, Ahmed G.; Alenezi, Ahmed; Atlam, Hany F.; Wills, Gary; University of Southampton (SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, 2020-05)
    The healthcare data are considered as a highly valuable source of information that can improve healthcare systems to be more intelligent and improve the quality of the provided services. However, due to security and privacy issues, sharing data between healthcare organisations is challenging. This has led to data shortage in the healthcare sector which is considered as a significant issue not only in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) but also worldwide. The primary objective of conducting this paper is to investigate the various factors that enable secure sharing and exchange of healthcare information between different healthcare providers in the KSA. It starts by discussing the current literature and frameworks for managing healthcare data information and the challenges that health providers encounter, particularly when it comes to issues such as data security, patient privacy, and healthcare information exchange. These challenges in managing healthcare data have necessitated the nee d for implementing a solution that can allow medical providers to have access to updated healthcare information. Attention in the healthcare sector has been drawn to blockchain technology as a part of the solution, especially after the technology was successfully applied in the financial sector to improve the security of financial transactions, particularly involving digital currencies such as Bitcoin. Therefore, a framework based on the blockchain technology has been proposed to achieve the goals of the present research.
  • Intersections between IoT and distributed ledger

    Atlam, Hany F.; Wills, Gary B.; University of Southampton; Menoufia University, Shebeen El-Kom, Egypt (Elsevier, 2019-01-14)
    The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing exponentially. It allows not only humans but also all various devices and objects in the environment to be connected over the Internet to share their data to create new applications and services which result in a more convenient and connected lifestyle. However, the current centralized IoT architecture faces several issues. For instance, all computing operations of all nodes in the network are carried out using a single server. This creates a single point of failure in which if the server goes down, the entire system will be unavailable. Also, the IoT centralized architecture is an easy target of various types of security and privacy attacks, since all IoT data collected from different devices is under the full authority of a single server. Therefore, adopting one of the Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs) for the IoT may be the right decision. One of the popular types of DLTs is the blockchain. It provides an immutable ledger with the capability of maintaining the integrity of transactions by decentralizing the ledger among participating nodes in the blockchain network which eliminates the need for a central authority. Integrating the IoT system with the blockchain technology can provide several benefits which can resolve the issues associated with the IoT centralized architecture. Therefore, this chapter provides a discussion of the intersection between IoT and DLTs. It started by providing an overview of the DLT by highlighting its main components, benefits and challenges. The centralized IoT system is also discussed with highlighting its essential limitations. Then, the integration of blockchain with IoT is presented by highlighting the integration benefits. Various application and challenges of integrating blockchain with IoT are also discussed.
  • IoT security, privacy, safety and ethics

    Atlam, Hany F.; Wills, Gary B.; University of Southampton; Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt (Springer International Publishing, 2019-07-23)
    The Internet of Things (IoT) represents a revolution of the Internet which can connect nearly all environment devices over the Internet to share their data to create novel services and applications for improving our quality of life. Using cheap sensors, the IoT enables various devices and objects around us to be addressable, recognizable and locatable. Although the IoT brought infinite benefits, it creates several challenges, especially in security and privacy. Handling these issues and ensuring security and privacy for IoT products and services must be a fundamental priority. Users need to trust IoT devices and related services are secure. Moreover, the IoT safety must be considered to prevent the IoT system and its components from causing an unacceptable risk of injury or physical damage and at the same time considering social behaviour and ethical use of IoT technologies to enable effective security and safety. This chapter provides a discussion of IoT security, privacy, safety and ethics. It starts by providing an overview of the IoT system, its architecture and essential characteristics. This is followed by discussing IoT security challenges, requirements and best practices to protect IoT devices. The IoT privacy is also discussed by highlighting various IoT privacy threats and solutions to preserve the privacy of IoT devices. The IoT safety, ethics, the need for the ethical design and challenges encountered are also discussed. In the end, smart cities are introduced as a case study to investigate various security threats and suggested solutions to maintain a good security level in a smart city.
  • Understanding and managing sound exposure and noise pollution at outdoor events

    Hill, Adam J.; University of Derby (Audio Engineering Society, 2020-05-22)
    This report is intended to present the current state of affairs surrounding the issue of outdoor event-related sound and noise. The two principal areas of investigation are sound exposure on-site and noise pollution off-site. These issues are different in nature and require distinct approaches to mitigate the associated negative short-term and long-term effects. The key message that is presented throughout this report is that the problems/ambiguities with current regulations are due to a lack of unbiased, scientifically-based research. It is possible to deliver acceptably high sound levels to audience members in a safe manner (minimizing risk of hearing damage) while also minimizing annoyance in local communities, where solutions to the on-site and off-site problems should begin with a well-informed sound system design. Only with a properly designed sound system can sound/noise regulations be realistically applied.

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