• 3-D Sound: Massive and minute

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (2006-06)
      A Technical, perceptual and aesthetic exploration of cellular "multi-scale" artificial auditory environments
    • 3D audio as an information-environment: manipulating perceptual significance for differntiation and pre-selection

      Lennox, Peter; Vaughan, John; Myatt, Tony; University of York (Laboratory of Acoustics and audio signal processing and the Telecommunications Software and Multimedia Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, 29/08/2001)
      Contemporary use of sound as artificial information display is rudimentary, with little 'depth of significance' to facilitate users' selective attention. We believe that this is due to conceptual neglect of 'context' or perceptual background information. This paper describes a systematic approach to developing 3D audio information environments that utilise known cognitive characteristics, in order to promote rapidity and ease of use. The key concepts are perceptual space, perceptual significance, ambience labelling information and cartoonification.
    • Are my cognitive maps the same as yours? …or even, the same as mine?

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (29/01/2013)
      Cognitive map metaphors have become ubiquitous in diverse spatial perception research fields. Tolman's original 1948 formulation referred to way-finding in mazes, O'Keefe and Nadel described particular neural structures that can support spatial behaviours. Other usages may be more metaphorical and may even be incommensurate, one with the other. This talk was a discussion piece to compare and contrast current usages
    • Audio-tactile multimodal perception of tissue-conducted sound fields

      Lennox, Peter; McKenzie, Ian; University of Derby (26/05/2017)
      Approximately 5% of the World’s population, that is, 360 million people, suffer from “disabling hearing loss” and the proportion of over-65s rises to about 33%. 13.4% of geriatric patients have significant conductive components to their hearing loss. For this segment of the population, “music deprivation” may have significant long-term health and wellbeing consequences amounting to diminished quality of life (QoL). Assistive technologies implementing sensory augmentation could ameliorate the effects of lack of ready access to music, the experiential attributes of music listening can be reinstated and tangible benefits might accrue.
    • The body as instrument: tissue conducted multimodal audio-tactile spatial music.

      Lennox, Peter; McKenzie, Ian; Brown, Michael; University of Derby (25/08/2017)
      We describe early progress in exploring the compositional potential for multimodal music of a multi-transducer audio-plus-vibrotactile apparatus, utilising ambisonics encoding; the tactile component is an incidental by-product, carried by the same transducers. An elicitation exercise with one hundred uninstructed listeners who gave responses in their own words was conducted and responses were transcribed and aggregated to identify emergent descriptive themes. The tactile components of the stimuli assume greater importance in the perceptual experience than originally considered, suggesting compositional opportunities in utilizing additive effects of audio-plus-tactile signals. This could engender assistive technologies for those with some degree of conductive hearing loss, ameliorating music-deprivation and addressing quality-of-life (QoL) issues.
    • Bonfire of the inanities

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (30/09/2010)
      Times are hard and cuts have to be made, so let’s start by putting an end to verbosity and all those mind-bogglingly long assignments, research papers and reports,writes Peter Lennox, succinctly
    • Causal contexts, cognitive cartoons and spatial sound

      Lennox, Peter; Myatt, Tony; University of Derby (Qu e e n M a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n, 20/12/2006)
      Based on previous work the proposal here is that spatial perception problems in artificial environments (e.g. spatial music displays) can be cast as a subset of the problems of cognitive mapping of the causal context that surrounds and supports the perceiver. The intuitively available distinctions in these contexts of foreground and background, previously couched in terms of perceptual significance exist as externally valid causal distinctions; the task of perception is to cognitively represent these distinctions sufficiently for appropriate interaction. Effectively, this means that some items will “naturally” occupy attention, whilst others should equally naturally appeal to background, inattentive processes. Hence, aspects of the causal context will be accorded differing cognitive resources according to their significance, and some may be very sparsely represented in cartoon form. That is, perception engages in sophisticated information reduction in cognitive representation in order to capitalise on available resources. This poster outlines how causal contexts (including spatial matters) can be physically cartoonified in reciprocal manner to the dedicated perceptual mechanisms’ operations, to economically and intuitively appeal to perception.
    • Cognitive maps and spatial sound

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (2013-09)
      This presentation, accompanying a conference paper at the Audio Engineering Society's 52nd Annual Conference, is used as undergraduate teaching material at the University of Derby.The Paper paper discusses the applicability of the “cognitive map” metaphor to potential usages of artificial auditory environments. The theoretical contents of such maps are suggested. Maps are generally considered as having spatial, temporal, causal and territorial representational character, so that affordances in the environment can be utilized in timely fashion. A goal of this theorizing is that artificial auditory environments could appropriately represent affordances for interaction in entertainment, simulation and auditory cognitive training.
    • Composing and Capturing 3-D Soundscapes

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (2007-06)
    • Composing and capturing 3-D soundscapes

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2007-06)
      A poster report: A cohort of <50 final year BSc students were given access to proprietary hardware/software solutions to enable them to capture and manipulate large natural sound fields. Their task was to develop novel and innovative solutions to uncommon spatial sound problems. The results showed that it is theoretically possible to mount very large navigable sound fields and that the principles are (unlike domestic technologies) upwardly scalable to an unknown limit. The students had no technical precedents to follow, and developed their solutions empirically through ‘trial and error’ methods. They subsequently theoretically analysed the psychoacoustic results.
    • Composing space: the ecology of artificial auditory environments

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (University of Derby, 27/11/2012)
      Whilst various spatial formats for music reproduction exist their reason for existence is not always clear; “spatiality” as a set of musical parameters remains on the periphery of musical thought.Pioneering composers continue to explore the possibilities of spatial music, they sometimes face unnecessary (if not insurmountable) impediments in the form of unsuitable technological implementations. This work is part of on-going research to develop intuitive compositional spatial sound tools that can incorporate elements of naturally available spatiality into musical syntax. In highlighting unnecessary technical constraints that are underwritten by conceptual constraints, we hope to help to break the deadlock. We look forward to spatial composition becoming more ambitious, subtle, engaging, immersive and innovative.
    • Concepts of perceptual significance for composition and reproduction of explorable sound fields

      Lennox, Peter; Myatt, Tony; University of Derby; University of York (Schulich School of Music, McGill University, 26/06/2007)
      Recent work in audio and visual perception suggests that, over and above sensory acuities, exploration of an environment is a most powerful perceptual strategy. For some uses, the plausibility of artificial sound environments might be dramatically improved if exploratory perception is accommodated. The composition and reproduction of spatially explorable sound fields involves a different set of problems from the conventional surround sound paradigm, developed to display music and sound effects to an essentially passive audience. This paper is based upon contemporary models of perception and presents proposals for additional spatial characteristics beyond classical concepts of three-dimensional positioning of virtual objects.
    • Creative inhibition: how and why

      Lennox, Peter; Brown, Michael; Wilson, Chris; University of Derby (KIE Conference Publications, 2016)
      The aim in this chapter is to develop discourse on how we think (consciously or subconsciously) about creativity, how we treat it, why we do so and whether we are behaving toward creativity to the best of our ability. The proposal is that rational inquiry can build on what has been achieved by intuitive thinking. It is almost axiomatic that the people who most often say the word “creative” are not the most creative; the corollary is that the most creative people find the least occasion to use the word. Talking about the job is not doing the job. For very creative people, creativity isn’t a subject, it’s imbued in the very fabric of their universe; it doesn’t need external validation, it is its own reason. For the rest of us, it is as though we are color blind – we understand intellectually what people are talking about, but we don’t, deep down, feel it. If we did, we wouldn’t have to talk about it. Yet, there is an advantage in this; necessity is the mother of invention. That which we do not easily understand through intuition, drives us to seek rational understanding.
    • Destroying creativity

      Lennox, Peter; Wilson, Chris; Brown, Michael; University of Derby (23/06/2016)
    • Discussing the applicability of soundfield techniques for larger audience entertainment

      Dickins, Glenn; Lennox, Peter; Dolby Laboratories; The Australian National University; University of Derby (Audio Engineering Society, 14/07/2016)
      Sound field reconstruction techniques for recreating immersive audio in entertainment applications are well established. However, these techniques and their underlying principles do no readily upscale to cover larger listening areas with a sizable number of either static or ambulant listeners. In this work, we review the theory and considerations of sound field control and contrast that to the requirements for creating a consistent experience across a large audience. An argument is made that precise sound field control is neither necessary or sufficient, and we propose key challenges and hybrid approaches for further research and development beyond sound field control.
    • Education for innovation: exploring the place of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in Higher Education

      Wilson, Chris; Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (IETSD, 05/09/2012)
      This paper explores the increasing focus on the value of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in contemporary discourse and the challenge that this presents for established educational systems and traditional pedagogy. Through analysis of key literature and exploration od educational case studies, issues of definition and interpretation are explored in parallel with consideration of wider questions of operationalization and systemization. Focusing on how educational systems impact on the development and realization of these capacities through educational processes, the paper develops an overview of key perspectives, highlights examples of variation of interpretation of key terminology and presents points for consideration in the process of educational systems design. The paper concludes that there is an evident tension in educational models related to the definition and development of graduate attributes in particular but that there are educational strategies capabl;e of developing creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship as definable outcomes of learning and teaching processes.
    • The emotional contents of the ‘space’ in spatial music

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (International Conference on Music and Emotion, Durham, UK, 2009-09)
      Human spatial perception is how we understand places. Beyond understanding what is where (William James’ formulation of the psychological approach to perception); there are holistic qualities to places. We perceive places as busy, crowded, exciting, threatening or peaceful, calm, comfortable and so on. Designers of places spend a great deal of time and effort on these qualities; scientists rarely do. In the scientific world-view physical qualities and our emotive responses to them are neatly divided in the objective-subjective dichotomy. In this context, music has traditionally constituted an item in a place. Over the last two decades, development of “spatial music” has been within the prevailing engineering paradigm, informed by psychophysical data; here, space is an abstract, Euclidean 3-dimensional ‘container’ for events. The emotional consequence of spatial arrangements is not the main focus in this approach. This paper argues that a paradigm shift is appropriate, from ‘music-in-a-place’ to ‘music-as-a-place’ requiring a fundamental philosophical realignment of ‘meaning’ away from subjective response to include consequences-in-the-environment. Hence the hegemony of the subjective-objective dichotomy is questioned. There are precedents for this, for example in the ecological approach to perception (Gibson). An ecological approach to music-as-environment intrinsically treats the emotional consequences of spatio-musical arrangement holistically. A simplified taxonomy of the attributes of artificial spatial sound in this context will be discussed.
    • Feel it in my bones: Composing multimodal experience through tissue conduction

      Lennox, Peter; McKenzie, Ian; Brown, Michael; University of Derby (Les éditions de PRISM, 28/09/2017)
      We outline here the feasibility of coherently utilising tissue conduction for spatial audio and tactile input. Tissue conduction display-specific compositional concerns are discussed; it is hypothesised that the qualia available through this medium substantively differ from those for conventional artificial means of appealing to auditory spatial perception. The implications include that spatial music experienced in this manner constitutes a new kind of experience, and that the ground rules of composition are yet to be established. We refer to results from listening experiences with one hundred listeners in an unstructured attribute elicitation exercise, where prominent themes such as “strange”, “weird”, “positive”, “spatial” and “vibrations” emerged. We speculate on future directions aimed at taking maximal advantage of the principle of multimodal perception to broaden the informational bandwidth of the display system. Some implications for composition for hearing-impaired are elucidated.
    • From surround to true 3-D

      Lennox, Peter; Myatt, Tony; Vaughan, John; University of York (Audio Engineering Society, 1999-04)
      To progress from surround sound to true 3-D requires an updating of the psychoacoustical theories which underlie current technologies. This paper shows how J.J.Gibson’s ecological approach to perception can be applied to audio perception and used to derive 3-D audio technologies based on intelligent pattern recognition and active hypothesis testing. These technologies are suggested as methods which can be used to generate audio environments that are believable and can be explored.
    • Hearing Without Ears

      McKenzie, Ian; Lennox, Peter; Wiggins, Bruce; University of Derby (Georgia Institute of Technology, 22/06/2014)
      We report on on-going work investigating the feasibility of using tissue conduction to evince auditory spatial perception. Early results indicate that it is possible to coherently control externalization, range, directionality (including elevation), movement and some sense of spaciousness without presenting acoustic signals to the outer ear. Signal control techniques so far have utilised discrete signal feeds, stereo and 1st order ambisonic hierarchies. Some deficiencies in frontal externalization have been observed. We conclude that, whilst the putative components of the head related transfer function are absent, empirical tests indicate that coherent equivalents are perceptually utilisable. Some implications for perceptual theory and technological implementations are discussed along with potential practical applications and future lines of enquiry.