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British urban trees: A social and cultural history, 1800-1914Whether we consider the great London Planes which are now the largest trees in many British urban streets, the exotic ornamentals from across the globe flourishing in numerous private gardens, the stately trees of public parks and squares or the dense colourful foliage of suburbia, the impact of trees and arboriculture upon modern towns and their ecosystems is clear. From the formal walks and squares of the Georgian town to Victorian tree-lined boulevards and commemorative oaks, trees are the organic statuary of modern urban society, providing continuity yet constantly changing through the day and over the seasons. Interfacing between humans and nature, connecting the continents and reaching back and forward through time to past and future generations, they have come to define urbanity while simultaneously evoking nature and the countryside. This book is the first major study of British urban arboriculture between 1800 and 1914 and draws upon fresh approaches in geographical, urban and environmental history. It makes a major contribution to our understanding of where, how and why trees grew in British towns in the period, the social and cultural impact of these and the attitudes taken towards them. CONTENTS Chapter One. Private Urban Garden Trees Chapter Two. Trees in Public Parks and Gardens Chapter Three. Trees in the Victorian Cemetery Chapter Four. Trees in Victorian Nottingham c. 1840–1880 Chapter Five. Victorian and Edwardian Glasgow Chapter Six. Towards a National Capital: Cardiff Chapter Seven. Urban Trees and Smoke Pollution Chapter Eight. Trees for Heath and Pleasure: Spa and Resort Towns
The Macaroni's ‘Ambrosial Essences’: Perfume, identity and public space in Eighteenth-Century England.The male antitype of the macaroni and the space of the pleasure gardens in which he reputedly existed have been primarily understood in terms of vision. This article seeks to re‐integrate other senses, particularly olfaction, into our understanding of these subjects. Sounds and smells, of individuals and urban spaces, undermined the idea of the pleasure garden as an enclosed space and the cultivation of the senses it attempted to encourage. The macaroni and his perfumes were an extreme example of this, linking the pleasure garden to the perfumer's shop and disrupting understandings of bodily comportment, masculinity and the proper use of the senses.
Re-odorization, disease and emotion in mid-nineteenth century EnglandThis article argues that smell’s place in nineteenth-century medicine and public health was distinctly ambiguous. Standard narratives in the history of smell argue that smell became less important in this period whilst also arguing that urban spaces were deodorized. The causal motor for the latter shift is medical theories about odour and miasma. By contrast, this article argues that sanitary practices of circulation, ventilation, and disinfection proceeded despite, not because of, medical attitudes to smell. Surgeons and physicians argued that odours were no indicator of disease causing matter and distrusted the use of smell because of its subjective qualities and resistance to linguistic definition. Yet these qualities made smell all the more powerful in sanitary literature, where it was used to generate a powerful emotional effect on readers. Histories of smell need to attend not just to deodorization but re-odorization; the disjuncture between practices of smelling and their textual or visual representation; and chronologies that track the shelving and re-deploying of ways of sensing in different times, places, and communities rather than tracking the de novo emergence of a modern western sensorium. In mid nineteenth-century England smell retained its power, but that power now came from its rhetorical rather than epistemological force.