Recent Submissions

  • Celebrity Science Culture: Young people's inspiration or entertainment?

    Radford, Neil; Forman, Dawn; Dent, Maria Fay (University of Derby, 2019-11-07)
    This thesis explores the influence of celebrity scientists on the uptake of science by young people, post-GCSE; the phenomenon is based upon media assertions that young people were continuing with science as a result of the increased media presence of scientists: the ‘Brian Cox effect’. Research design is set within a constructivist-interpretivist paradigm and case study framework, employing a narrative, story-telling approach to data collection and presentation. Narratives require ‘actors’, and as such the ‘lead actors’ in this research are: the conceptual framework; a narrative approach to data presentation; and the sociological perspectives of science capital and habitus. Together they guide development of the ‘bricolaged’ methodology, underpin the innovative script-writing approach to data presentation, which are used to illuminate the phenomenon of celebrity science culture. Data collection includes two participant groups: eighteen science students (‘A’ Level, undergraduate, and postgraduate), and five celebrity scientists (Sir David Attenborough, Baroness Susan Greenfield, Professor Steve Jones, Professor Mark Miodownik MBE, and Roma Agrawal MBE). Interviews explore science memories and influences, as well as perceptions of the role of celebrity science and scientists. The rationale and significance of this research lies within two strands: knowledge-based and methodological. It offers new knowledge to the field of celebrity science influence, with the potential to inform science education policy makers, and the methodological bricolage of conceptual framework development and creative narrative practices offer new dimensions to narrative research. An intrinsic, long-standing ‘passion’ for science was found to be the most influential factor. Advanced subject knowledge of teachers and lecturers, alongside opportunities to work within authentic and meaningful contexts, were highlighted as important in raising aspirations, and building science capital. Celebrity scientists were perceived as having the potential to influence young people, with authentic, inspiring contexts, presented in an entertaining format potentially optimising this influence. Science per se, rather than the ‘scientist’ him/herself, was more influential, contrasting with the traditional view of celebrity influence. The perceptions of science students are reflected in the findings from celebrity scientists. Engagement with children and young people was considered part of their role, not only to raise aspirations, but also to increasingly embed science culturally; their own passion for science the impetus for involvement. Partnership with other stakeholders was recognised as key, especially teachers and parents. ‘Personification’ was also recognised as important, acknowledging the responsibility that brings for their work to be truthful and credible. The thesis concludes with recommendations for future policy and practice, offering a theoretical framework and bespoke checklist, derived from the data, to support dialogue between stakeholders. This includes exploring use of the narratives as a tool to engage pupils with their own science journeys, with the intention of enhancing their science capital. The concept of “message to a name” is introduced, in contrast to the “name to a message” phenomenon of celebrity influence.
  • Determining the factors which positively affect the intra-family chief executive officer succession of UK small and medium-sized companies

    Jones, Christine; Poultney, Val; Jones, Richard (University of Derby, 2019-10-02)
    A change in Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is a critical event in the life of any business. For family businesses the stakes can be higher, as failure may lead to the dual issues of business collapse and significant family harm. Intra-family business CEO succession is the transfer of leadership to a different member of the family and is a strategic direction family businesses take, even if sacrificing performance across generations to secure long-term control benefits. The research aims to determine the factors which positively affect the intra-family CEO succession of UK Small and Medium companies as gaps were identified in the research of businesses that had been through a succession across a range of areas. This research uses a deductive research design to test the existing theory and combines theoretical conceptualisations developed within the literature review with the aim of providing new theory and insight into the issues. Quantitative data was collected from primary and secondary sources from 230 UK Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) which identified as family businesses and had been through a succession. The questionnaires were completed by company directors and the questions consisted of measures relating to the succession event, processes and outcomes. The data collected was tested empirically using process tracing and regression analysis. Findings show that disagreements relating to the initial planning made an intra-family CEO more likely as did a discussion of passing control to a professional manager. It was found that a family business with higher proportions of senior management, higher levels of generational involvement and higher levels of experience led to an increasingly likely succession to an intra-family CEO. This finding took an additional step in the understanding of elements of the Family Influence on Power, Experience and Culture model. The thesis also found, empirically, that satisfaction with the succession process increased with the presence of advisors and that there was a positive relationship between director stability and profit and a negative relationship with management stability and profit. The findings indicated that a degree of externality in the succession contributes to a positive intra-family CEO succession outcome.
  • The economic, social & cultural impact of the social network site Facebook on the Irish radio industry 2011-2016

    Davies, Huw; McMahon, Daithí (University of DerbySchool of Arts: College of Arts, Humanities & Education, 2019-07-04)
    This thesis explores the relationship between radio and Facebook in Ireland during the period 2011-2016 and the ways in which radio production practices, audience participation and radio as a medium has changed over that time. From 2008, the Irish Radio Industry experienced a steep decline in advertising revenue which would continue for the next 8 years. Initially seen as a possible threat to the still largely analogue medium of radio, social media platforms such as Facebook were quickly adopted by radio stations and turned into tactical instruments to attract and engage audiences. Again, radio proved its resilience and adaptability to change. Although producers for the most part used Facebook creatively and skilfully to gather their audience in online communities, Facebook has unfortunately been found to be presenting some significant issues for the Irish Radio Industry. This thesis employed a multimethod approach to explore the research problem from the perspective of the audience, the producer, and the media texts. This triangulation approach allowed for a comprehensive examination and analysis of the research question and an objective set of findings. The research included interviews with Irish Radio Industry professionals (N=11) as well as direct observation of the presenters’/producers’ daily production routines. An extensive audience questionnaire was disseminated via Facebook and yielded a high response (N=416). Textual analysis of radio station Facebook pages offered insight into the bespoke nature of each station’s output including audience tastes and staff production strategies. A longitudinal content analysis allowed the researcher to measure the growth of radio station Facebook and Twitter followers over a two-and-a-half year period. This research highlights the importance of Facebook for radio stations in Ireland as an audio-visual tool to reach new young audiences who have grown up in the digital age, although it does expand the producers’ remit. I argue that radio stations can accumulate social, cultural and symbolic capital through Facebook, and in some instances, economic capital. This thesis highlights the changes that are representative of convergence culture where the audience play a much more active role in media production and dissemination, but their ‘play labour’ is simultaneously being commodified and profited from by Facebook and Google. This research offers case studies which include some best practice in terms of social media management and will therefore inform radio production teaching in higher education. Based on the research I propose that Irish radio needs to act fast while the industry is still afloat and engage in collaboration between commercial and public service radio, regulation of online advertisers and social network sites (SNSs) and innovation to engage further with digital media and find new revenue streams. Should action not be taken I predict the conglomeration of the commercial sector of the Irish Radio Industry and with it the loss of valuable and trusted public services from local communities.
  • BECOMING A MASTER OF EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF PART-TIME STUDENTS UNDERTAKING CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Cottle, Vanessa (University of Derby, 2019-05-25)
    This study is an exploration of students who study part-time to achieve a Master of Education award in the context of continuing professional development. Particularly interesting to this study is identity development and the effects on confidence/self-esteem as MA Education Students’ cope with the interacting dimensions of personal, professional and study contexts. The research found a triangle of tensions between professional, personal and developing postgraduate identities to be at the heart of transitions into becoming a postgraduate student. Students’ investments of finance, time, cognitive effort and reprioritisation of lifestyle is made without guarantee of return. They experience low professional self-concept; they are daunted by self-doubts about meeting the demands of master’s study; troubled by imposter feelings and preoccupied by their professional identities. However, confidence and self-esteem improve as study progresses and by harnessing personal qualities, and some support networks, students overcome barriers to achieve positive outcomes, which for some can be transformative. An interpretivist methodology has been adopted using a case study approach with data collected from MA Education students at one post-1992 university. Twenty-five students were included in: two focus group interviews (each of five participants); five individual interviews and ten students participated in a series of four sets of email questions posed at regular points in one year of their degree. Braun and Clarke’s (2013) approach to thematic analysis was adopted and themes emerged inductively. There are several recommendations arising for both practice and policy. For practice all aspects of curriculum design and delivery must be mindful of the professional and personal qualities, not just student academic competencies, which contribute to masterliness. However, programme and module specific induction must include strategies to encourage students’ envisioning of their possible selves as student in order to grow their confidence and self-esteem as students. Lecturers must be mindful about the motivations behind part-time, higher level study for continuing professional development and the factors which constrain deep learning. Recommendations for wider policy relate to urging government and educational leaders to validate the value of educationalists, of all types. This should be achieved by fully resourcing accredited master’s study in both practical and financial ways.  
  • What makes Geography a worthwhile school subject? An exploration of the current controversy in geography teaching

    Hayes, Dennis; Haden-Walker, James (University of DerbyPGR Student, 2019-05-16)
    Geography as a school subject is in controversy. This controversy is given expression in an on-going debate between the opposing views of two leading academics Alex Standish and David Lambert. The Standish/Lambert debate reflects the discussion by the philosopher Paul Hirst in the 1960s of the nature of geography as a ‘field’ of knowledge rather and an independent ‘form’ of knowledge. The ‘field’ that is geography is said by Standish (2007) to be politicised while Lambert (2009) argues that this is just geography in modern form. In this dissertation Standish, Lambert and other leading geographers were interviewed to explore the nature of their disagreement and how it relates to what Michael Young (2007) has described as the need to give all pupils ‘powerful knowledge’. In addition to interviews with experts and teachers, this study carried out a questionnaire of geography teachers in Staffordshire. This study found that this dispute in the academic world reflected real divisions in what teachers understood as the value and nature of geography. Some teachers saw knowledge, or skills, as more relevant while others emphasised values and attitudes. They had a varied range of views relating to geographical knowledge and the impact of wider environmental issues alongside concerns over time allocation for the subject and its hierarchical position in relation to other ‘core’ subjects such as Mathematics, Science, and English. The study concluded that geography will remain in controversy until the Standish/Lambert debate is more fully discussed and debated among teachers. This thesis is a contribution to that debate.
  • Memory screens: The body and technology in time and space

    Hudson, Robert; Campbell, Neil; Forde, Teresa (University of Derby, 2018-08-01)
    This critical review ascertains the development of the research into memory screens and the relationship between memory, history, the body and technology on film, television and related media experiences. The body of research develops from a consideration of the gendered body on screen. This theme is continued and refined throughout the research. I consider the conventional personification of technology as potentially threatening or recuperative in relation to concerns regarding bodily cohesion and individual identity in relation to history and memory formation. The main focus of the work becomes the negotiation of memory formation in relation to media at both a personal and social level and the relationship between viewers and film and television texts. I encompass and develop post-structural definitions of the body and the theoretical implications of engaging with contemporary media. The research also encompasses the experience of exhibition and fan activity in extending the process of memory screens and engagement with the media.
  • Surveillance of Modern Motherhood: An exploration of the experiences of mothers that have attended a Universal Parenting Course.

    Poultney, Val; Luke, Anne; Simmons, Helen (University of Derby, 2019-03-29)
    This thesis explores the experiences of mothers of children aged 0-3 years that have attended universal parenting courses. The aim of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that motivate mothers to attend a universal parenting course and to explore the wider experiences of early modern motherhood in the UK. In order to develop this understanding, the research explored participant perceptions of any benefit or otherwise in attending a parenting course and also considered the different forms of parenting advice accessed by mothers and how this provides an insight into the wider constructs and experiences of modern motherhood. Ultimately, the goal of this research was to consider the social and cultural pressures within modern motherhood in relation to different levels of surveillance (Henderson et al., 2010) and to produce new knowledge for practice within the early years sector in relation to the support currently offered to new mothers. A feminist post-structuralist worldview was taken to explore the dominant discourses within modern motherhood. This approach provided a ‘productive contradiction’ (Baxter, 2003, p. 2) whereby multiple experiences could be considered, particularly in relation to feelings of oppression, empowerment and being ‘good enough’ (Winnicott, 1964) within modern motherhood. A qualitative methodology was developed with the first phase being a survey with a range of questions designed to generate insight into the experiences of mothers (30 participants), followed by qualitative interviews with a sample of mothers using semi-structured photo elicitation interviews (7 participants). Findings revealed that universal parenting courses can provide opportunities for new mothers to build daily structure, social networks and reduce feelings of isolation. Some negative experiences of parenting courses were reported when health professionals and early years practitioners were considered ‘pushy’ or ‘non neutral’ – particularly regarding sensitive areas such as breastfeeding or the reaching of developmental milestones. Participants demonstrated that there is a perceived place in society for parenting courses when they are practical, supportive and neutral rather than formulaic, homogenous or grounded in psychoanalytical or neurodevelopmental underpinnings, which can promote feelings of judgement or added pressure. Findings also link to the wider ‘parenting culture’ (Furedi, 2008; Lee et al., 2014) with societal pressures, motherhood ideologies, comparisons between mothers and other aspects of interpersonal surveillance including social media and celebrity culture all adding to the challenge of retaining an identity and of finding confidence and agency within the role. Overall, self-surveillance is identified as the most powerful aspect of modern motherhood with challenges relating to a reluctance to discuss ‘taboo’ aspects of motherhood including difficulty with attachment following birth and the internalisation of social and cultural pressures. It was important to note that, although there are clear levels of surveillance that are embedded into society which resulted in evidence of self-doubt and dependency, there was also evidence of agency and autonomy in the responses to these levels which were developed through strong social networks and support systems. Following on from this research; proactive, empathetic, practical and localised support from health professionals and early years practitioners is needed along with empowering opportunities for new mothers to develop confidence in an informal environment and foster truthful, non-judgmental interpersonal support networks. It is through these support systems that new mothers will continue to be able to resist or reshape the dominant discourses and ultimately, enjoy the experience to its full potential.
  • THE PHOTOGRAPH REFLECTED: APPROPRIATIONS OF THE VERNACULAR IN CONTEMPORARY ART

    Alves, Cesário; College of Arts, Humanities and Education of the University of Derby (2018)
  • Professionalisation of the Martial Arts: the perspectives of experts on the concept of an independently awarded teaching qualification.

    Spring, Charles; University of Derby (2019-01-09)
    In the United Kingdom there is an unregulated martial arts ‘industry’. The aim of this study was to examine whether this ‘industry’ required professionalisation through the rationalisation of qualifications for teaching, instructing or coaching practice. Currently, the martial arts consist of a very disparate set of organisations which have what, at best, could be called a varied range of professional standards across teaching, instructing and coaching. Professionalism struggles with the lassaiz-faire approach to qualifications and this creates differing expectations of the teachers, coaches and instructors within the organisations Viewpoints differ as to whether the individuals need more standards and qualifications. The study of a sample of expert views found that there is some recognition within the martial arts ‘industry’ that there needs a change in approach to tighten up the processes of determining who can and cannot coach, instruct or teach martial arts. Points of views expressed by the interviewees were: that standards and qualification should be demanding; that there is a need for a professional body and rationalised approach to qualifications but such general improvements must reflect the specific requirements of each particular art. Overall there was little optimism that professionalisation could be achieved. However, the desire for professionalisation was a significant finding. Recognising this, the recommendations from this study are set out in a ‘Manifesto for Change’ which aims to transform the current situation described by one expert as being one where ‘the organisations are out for themselves and keep people separate from each other.’ The essence of the manifesto concerns: the standardisation of teaching, coaching and instructing qualifications; the development of an overarching organisation to control the martial arts; recognition by other bodies outside of the martial arts of these standards.
  • A study of the uses of a blog-based critical incident questionnaire in further education.

    Smith, Paul; University of Derby (2018-09)
    This study examines the use of a digital Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ), which was originally developed by Professor Stephen Brookfield, to extract perspectives of students on the lecture/lesson they had just conducted. Three FE colleges in the UK took part in the study and utilised a blog for students to post their comments. Students conducting media production courses at level three and four were the focus groups that submitted approaching two thousand CIQ responses over two academic years. The aim of utilising the CIQ was for a course tutor to receive additional perspectives on their practice and instant on-event feedback, resulting in identifying whether the learners mimicked the course tutor’s perspective. The findings indicate that the other perspectives gathered from the CIQ provided the course tutor with a greater understanding of their practice and assisted them in becoming more critically reflective. Additionally, some CIQ comments were different from the assumptions of the course tutor, which allowed them to adapt the delivery of the programme. Furthermore, utilising the data from the CIQ has identified that some of the comments students provide to the course tutor in-class do not mimic the comments of the CIQ. Moreover, comments received through the CIQ identify that there are also managerial implications, such as the usefulness and reliability of teaching observations, student induction and exit questionnaires. Utilising a blog format allowed students to submit their responses on a variety of digital devices, but some problems remained similar to Brookfield’s carbon paper-based system. There appears to be a definite place for using the CIQ in FE educational practice, and many best practice recommendations are constructed.
  • Appropriating, adapting and performing

    Bishton, Joanne; University of Derby (2018-07-18)
    This thesis is an interdisciplinary study of the lesbian fiction of Sarah Waters and it will demonstrate through a series of theoretical trajectories how her work creates new historical and cultural spaces for the representation of working-class female same-sex desire. Waters’ work exposes the fissures and instability of constructed social narratives, as her stories present women who have traditionally had their meaningful place in society denied to them. In response, this thesis illustrates how Waters’ work unearths the hidden histories of lesbians and shows them as meaningful participants in society. This thesis considers how it has been difficult for contemporary lesbians to locate a sense of their subjectivity with Sapphic icons of the past. Traditional literary representations of the lesbian-figure present a spectral and waif-life form. Such ethereal manifestations have helped ensure that lesbians are denied a visible legacy within society, because in many respects they are idealised forms, which are unattainable for women from ordinary backgrounds. In other words they have become a middle-class-specific form of identification. In this regard, this thesis demonstrates how Waters uses the concept of proximity to introduce alternative ways of meaning making into the text. For example, proximity enables the reader to experience in greater depth the relationship between space and place, whereby the social position of lesbians has been used to restrict the cultural spaces lesbian lived existence has conventionally had access to. In this way, paying attention to proximity enables the reader to challenge cultural assumptions of gender. Moreover, the closeness that Waters has to her subject matter, through the author-figure, gay activist and as public intellectual means that her function in the author role brings into being a series of authenticated examples of lesbian lived existence which come about through Waters’ own intention. Waters writes from a place that feels very intuitive to her. When she writes she says it feels very instinctive. In this regard her writing houses an interiority that other writers of marginal existence exhibit. For example, this thesis sees Waters as a co-producer of knowledge and argues that Waters creates a second authorial self that provides a governing consciousness for readers of her work. Waters has a long involvement in LBGT politics and it is shown how Waters’ work is influenced by a combination of her political and public selves. In this regard, this thesis draws attention to the palimpsestic nature of her work in relation to the inner and outer spaces that it occupies. In many respects Waters’ fiction deals with the notion and concept of the queer, emptying these relative positions of their negative stereotype and showing how the term ‘queer’ has been reclaimed by gay culture. In this regard, this thesis shows how the themes and issues that emanate from Waters’ fiction can be read as a series of queerings meant to challenge and intervene in ideas of fixity. Queerness locates textual inconsistencies that are gained from the momentum of revolving and evolving interpretations. In this way, this thesis argues that Waters’ writing exposes the imbricated nature of cultural and social hegemony and releases the pleasures within the text.
  • Exploring the lived experience of being an occupational therapy student with additional support requirements.

    Rushton, Teresa; University of Derby (2018-08-15)
    Abstract. This study explored the lived experience of being an occupational therapy student with additional support requirements. Individuals with disabilities have the right to access education and have unique skills and attributes which are highly desirable within Health and Social Care professions. The number of students with disabilities undertaking Health and Social Care programmes is increasing and Universities have sought to improve facilities, resources and support for these students. However, Occupational Therapy education which is truly inclusive remains elusive (Jung et al, 2008). No previous research exploring this phenomenon has been completed within the United Kingdom. Two small scale studies in USA (Velde et al, 2005) and in Canada (Jung et al, 2014) have been previous published, alongside a number of autobiographical descriptions of individual’s personal experiences of OT education from those with disabilities (Archer, 1999; Bennett, 1989; Guitard and Lirette, 2005; Sivanesan, 2003). However, the age and predominant international context limits applicability within the UK. Unlike previous studies, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate the phenomenon of being an Occupational Therapy student with a disability, from the individual’s unique perspective. Viewing each individual participant as a unique occupational being allowed me to reveal findings which have been previously unidentified and unexplored. This study illuminated a journey that all participants experienced as they engaged in the occupation of studying to become an Occupational Therapist. The journey was described by two participants using the metaphor ‘a rollercoaster’ and this became the overarching theme. Other themes generated from individual participant journeys, as described in their own words, were ‘like a bull at a gate’, ‘that was when the bubble burst’, ‘heal thy self’ and the ‘world is my oyster’. The findings indicated that there was a therapeutic benefit of studying to become an Occupational Therapist for those who had successfully completed the programme. Whilst never the original intention of the research, when interpreting the findings, I was drawn to how the concepts within Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) (Kielhofner, 1985) were evident within each participant’s journey and thus applied MOHO to each individual. It is recommended that further research is undertaken to explore if the findings of this study are only applicable to those who participated in the study or if studying Occupational Therapy is indeed therapeutic and the Model of Human Occupation is applicable to all students who study OT with or without additional support requirements.
  • The light ages: An investigation into the relationship between photography and the hegemony of light.

    Hall, Mark; University of Derby (2018-04)
    This study sets out to establish an hegemony of light and examine its relationship to the lens in photography. Through a series of sequenced photographs presented as an exhibition The Light Ages in May 2017. The photographs were 841mm x 1189 mm Giclee prints mounted on aluminum which explore the way in which difference sources of light contribute to the identity of different spaces by fracturing and separating the light and duration of the image. The thesis explores how light permeates the English language and is inscribed in terms used to define photography. As a source of energy, light provides the very essence of visibility and defines the perception of objectivity and its limits. The geometric relationship between the light axes and the lens axis is what forms the basis of my development of Gramsci’s concept of hegemony. Since all photographs rely on some kind of light it was important to identify one that was developed specifically for photographic use and controlled almost exclusively by the agents of photographic representation. It also appears to mark the ontology of the image, however, as this study examines it is only one of the temporal registers. The practice seeks to tear apart these temporal registers to show the dualism and hegemony of light, how it attempts to pin down one interpretation at the expense of another. One of the greatest challenges for researchers, is to consider new photographic discourses that attempt to understand how advances in technology affect the relationship between the aesthetic and the signified. Through practice, the study tests and explores the relationship between flash light and the lens axis. It questions whether our perception of the centrality of photographic representation is the defining characteristic of photography as a stable form of representation in contemporary culture.
  • Challenges in teaching gifted students with special learning difficulties: Using a strategy model of 'Asking, Analysing and Answering Questions' (AAA) to improve the learning environment.

    Salem, Nurit; University of Derby (2018-06-19)
    This study focuses on developing teaching strategies for teachers who teach in classes for students identified as Gifted and Talented with Special Learning Disabilities situated in Israeli secondary schools. The focus is on the challenges teachers meet while teaching Humanities Subjects (HS) to these students and the strategies they need in addressing their dual exceptionalities. The main purpose of this study is to examine how specific strategies may contribute towards both to quality of teaching and to a better learning environment. Research has shown that gifted students who are diagnosed with learning disabilities in writing skills (2ELs) have difficulties especially in HS and achieve less academically than may suggest their high abilities. The combination of giftedness with learning disabilities and underachievement creates special challenges for their teachers to counter, and for which they need specific Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programmes. In my study, I developed a model of teaching strategies which combines three strategies from the field of teaching gifted students and from the field of special education which are helpful in the humanities disciplines. I created a manual for teachers' CPD that includes this model and I conducted a seminar using this manual for the participant teachers in my research. This was followed by an implementation of the manual by these teachers in their classrooms that includes 2ELs. My qualitative research was based on the case studies of two teachers teaching HS in two high school classrooms, totalling sixty 2ELs. The information was collected through observations, interviews, and open questionnaires. I then analysed the information using an inductive approach as pattern recognition and inclusion into categories. The research findings of this study describe the difficulties that teachers may face with 2ELs and my claim to knowledge is the AAA Model of Strategies and the manual for teachers and their contribution to teachers of 2Els and their students. The recent research fills this particular gap in the literature, in the Israeli context, and the findings of this study bear policy implications and indicate the need for the tailoring of relevant teachers’ CPD' programmes to include strategies to better address the needs of 2ELs for optimal success in fulfilling their potential and overcoming their difficulties. Future research may achieve a deeper understanding of how to prepare teachers to use adjusted strategies that meet 2Els teachers in various disciplines in order to improve learning environment.
  • The student as customer: a study of the intensified marketisation of higher education in England.

    Banwait, Kuldeep; University of Derby (2017-12)
    The literature review revealed two opposing views of the ‘student as customer’; either it is considered to be a deliberate policy construct rooted in the marketisation of higher education, which encourages public universities to behave like private businesses. Or it is considered to be a natural extension of rising consumerism in society, rendering universities as ‘cathedrals of consumption’. Both perspectives recognise that there is an attempt at creating a market in English higher education. This study discusses a ‘paradigm shift’ signalling an intensification of marketisation that began in the early 1980s. The purpose is to identify how these policy changes are perceived, by interviewing a large sample of senior managers and policy analysts in English higher education. Four themes emerged from the interviews. First, universities were said to be becoming increasingly “business like” suggesting that senior managers of English universities were faced with an identity crisis in grappling with their purpose as businesses or educational institutions. Second, was the idea that they performed in a “market like” fashion, displaying an uncomfortable acceptance of the idea whilst being open to the discussion of a free market in the future. Third, was the characterisation of student relationships with the university as “customer like” revealing an uncertainty as to whether students are customers or not. Fourth, was “individualism” a concept accepting the fact that universities would have to see higher education as an individual investment by a student. The implication of these uncertain themes is that senior managers would need to get out of ‘debate mode’ to adopt a clear and radical stance instead of being locked in the indecisive “like” dilemmas. They must develop the ability to see through the ‘strategy illusion’ and either challenge or accept the policy-induced uncertainties of higher education in the 21st century.
  • Improving students' behaviour and academic achievement through a counselling intervention programme.

    Yahya, Sawsan; University of Derby (2018-06-05)
    In the cultural context of low achievement in Arab Israeli schools, this work-based study describes and evaluates a successful counselling intervention in one Israeli Arab elementary school. The intervention took place over six months and involved twenty activities. A mixed methods approach was adopted to evaluate the intervention. The use of both qualitative and quantitative methods provided an informative evaluation of the perceptions of students, teachers and parents about the effectiveness of the intervention. Students, parents and teachers reported that from their point of view, student behaviour, student/teacher/parent relationships and learning improved during the intervention. This positive analysis of perceptions was qualified by the possibility that other factors that were not analysed might be influential. The lessons learned from the intervention, such as the need for creating a teacher – parent strategic alliance, renouncing the use of aversive control and the adaptation of teaching styles to student learning styles, may prove to be a transformative approach to the education of Arab Israeli students.
  • The legal status of the Sulha in the criminal law of the State of Israel.

    Serhan, Shakieb; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2018-06-02)
    The research investigated the legal status of the Sulha in the criminal law of the State of Israel. This research is a qualitative-interpretative-exploratory single case study. Its main goal was to create scientific and professional knowledge with practical ramifications for the judicial world, as well as to develop a new theory and model of the Israeli criminal process that would allow for the incorporation of Sulha within the Israeli criminal process. The qualitative data collection methods and sources used were structured interviews, a Delphi survey, documents, the researcher's professional experience and a personal diary. The 16 interviewees were professional, credible, trustworthy and expert people in their field. Seven (7) experts in the field made up the Delphi panel. The research met all of its goals and objectives of the study questions: What is the legal status of Sulha in Israeli criminal law? How can the Sulha be incorporated in Israeli criminal law, and what contribution would Sulha make in this respect? What action is required for Sulha to be incorporated in Israeli criminal law? The findings showed that criminal statutory laws, Israeli courts, and parole committees do not recognize the Sulha as an alternative conflict settlement venue in criminal cases. The findings showed that Israeli courts and parole committees have two principal approaches to the question of the legal status of the institution of Sulha in Israeli criminal law. One approach refuses to grant the institution of Sulha any binding legal status in Israeli criminal law, while according to the other approach Sulha can serve as a consideration in a person’s favor, but not as a decisive consideration, and certainly not one that binds the courts or parole committees. The findings showed that it would be possible to enhance the Israeli criminal law by incorporating the Sulha within the criminal law. Incorporation of the Sulha in the Israeli criminal law would enhance and improve the Israeli criminal law by achieving speedy justice, by reducing the caseload of the courts, by increasing public confidence in the criminal process and the judicial activity, by reducing the frequency of erroneous judgments, by achieving restorative justice, by promoting reconciliation and by facilitating the achievement of peace between the parties affected by the criminal act. Further, the Sulha could contribute greatly to reconciliation and to the installment of peace in Israeli society and achieves restorative justice. A bill (law draft) has been prepared for the incorporation of the Sulha in the criminal law in Israel. The researcher is convinced that the Knesset (lsraeli Parlament) will approve it as soon as possible.
  • A phenomenological study of students with hidden disabilities in higher education: A cross sectional study of learning support needs in a University in the UK.

    Shepherd, Rosemary; University of Derby (2018-05)
    This phenomenological study was designed and conducted in a Post 1992 ‘new university’ situated in the UK. The aims of the study were a) to investigate inclusive practice amongst disabled students in higher education, b) to explore students’ perceptions on their lived experiences of the support provided c) to explore disabled students’ experiences of the process in gaining support d) to identify the kind of practices disabled students used to support their own effective learning in HE. A sample of 14 students, aged 19 to 56 volunteered to participate in the study. The study was underpinned by inclusive theory and equality policy provided for higher education institutions. Rich data from phenomenological interviews was analysed using thematic and narrative analysis. Analysis of the data uncovered new knowledge for lecturers and support staff in understanding disabled students’ lived experiences as they approached support systems and classrooms in higher education. The key findings involved a) barriers to communication and collaboration between students and lecturers, b) attitudes of staff and the asymmetries of power experienced by students in accessing support, c) issues around student anxiety, dependence and independence and ownership of learning, d) the idea that a reasonable adjustment could be unreasonable and embarrassing and evidence of tokenism in supporting students. The recommendations included a) the need for more in-depth training for all staff in equality and inclusive practice and inclusive course design, b) more support for students in negotiating their Study Needs Assessment, c) bridging the communication gap between Student Wellbeing, lecturers and students. The changes in funding to the Disabled Students’ Allowance came into force during 2016 which has consequently reduced or removed support for students who have disclosed a disability. Due to such changes, it will be even more important for universities to support the training of students, lecturers and support staff in creating and maintaining more inclusive environments in the future.

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