• An Ethnographic Account of an Organisational Response To Transformation in a Not for Profit Context

      Amos , Margaret Mary (University of Derby, 2021-04-28)
      This research is an ethnographic account of a longitudinal study in the not-for-profit sector. The collaborating organisation is an Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) provider based in the north west of England and referred to as Company X throughout this thesis to protect its anonymity. Company X is a licensed ADR provider and a Not for Profit (NFP) organisation. It is licensed by the regulator to provide complaint handling services, from initial consumer enquiry through to investigation, for the companies who subscribe to their ADR scheme. The organisation has been struggling in recent years with a loss in market share. This has been caused by the digitalisation of the initial enquiry stage of the complaints handling service by new entrants to the sector. The digitalisation has facilitated new entrants into the market who have not only made the complaint handling process more efficient but maximised the information which they collect during the initial enquiry phase to offer an extended service to the subscribing companies to their ADR service. The additional service which the new competitors offer is outside of the traditional ADR licensed provision and represents an additional revenue opportunity for the ADR provider. The new entrants achieve this by selling data insights into the consumer behaviour which is derived from the consumer information obtained during the enquiry process. This thesis is a study of Company X’s response to this new competitive threat and their subsequent transformation programme.
    • An Exploration of Human Dignity as a Foundation for Spiritual Leadership

      Wond, Tracey; Phil, Henry; Kyle, John Wesley (University of DerbyCollege of Business, Law and Social Sciences, 2020-12-08)
      This research is situated at the nexus of human dignity and spiritual leadership theory. It critically explores human dignity, an expression of human value and worth, for its potential as the basis of an advancement to spiritual leadership, a contemporary organisational leadership theory. Following this critical exploration, the thesis proposes that human dignity is an implied element of spiritual leadership that, if made explicit, represents a valuable advancement to the theory. Based on the findings of the research, specific advancements to the theory are proposed that incorporate the acknowledgement of and respect for human dignity as spiritual leadership behaviours. In the research, these behaviours were seen to contribute positively to the desired outcome of spiritual leadership, namely an increase in the perception of well-being experienced by leaders and followers. The research offers a contribution to the field of organisational leadership by exploring the linkage between human dignity, the elements of spiritual leadership, and higher-order needs associated with well- being in the workplace, such as meaning-making, sense of purpose, and the sense of belonging. The research involved a qualitative field study of individual contributors, mid-level managers, and executives in a variety of organisations. Through semi-structured interviews, participants were invited to share their ideas and lived experiences regarding human dignity and the elements of spiritual leadership. The primary findings fall into three thematic categories, each of which is explored in detail in the thesis. The first theme is that participants perceived their dignity to be acknowledged and respected when leaders include them in decision-making processes. Inclusive decision-making is a leadership behaviour consistent with the ideals of spiritual leadership practice. Second, participants also reported that leadership behaviours that make them feel seen, known, and trusted, contribute to their sense of dignity as well as their sense of “mattering” in the workplace. Mattering and dignity are two related concepts that are, in turn, closely linked with the sense of calling and sense of membership. Finally, participants expressed that thoughts about human dignity are elements of the “inner life”, consisting of the values and attitudes that inform and motivate outward behaviour. These thematic findings are consistent with the expected outcomes of spiritual leadership and its emphasis on the inner life of the leader. Together, they form the basis for the human dignity advancements proposed to the theory.
    • Financial Investigation: Establishing the Principles of a Generic and effective Philosophy

      Hicks, David; Hughes, C. (University of DerbyBusiness Law and social Science at University of Derbyn/a, 2021-03-26)
      Financial investigation is a term usually synonymous with asset recovery, an association which may be a significant inhibitor to its wider consideration and application outside the specialist sphere of the UK confiscation regime. This thesis brings an original contribution to the literature in this area through critically analysing the conceptual understanding of financial investigation and financial intelligence within UK law enforcement at strategic, mid management and practice levels. Attention also focuses upon why successive governments and commentators express continuing advocacy of the wider potential of the financial investigation skillset for general investigation which does not seem to translate into effective application. The work offers an empirical study of survey-based data collection involving three hundred and forty-five respondents (n=345) in four significant areas, financial investigation, financial investigation strategy, financial intelligence, and to what extent it is integrated with the National Intelligence Model for practical outcomes. Survey results appear to question current training arrangements for financial investigation within law enforcement and provide original insights into its use by specialists and generalists. This results in the identification of some potential inhibitors to more widespread application of financial investigation and intelligence techniques. The data and findings from its analysis highlight instances of good practice, while contemporaneously exposing potential issues which may contribute to a reduced application of financial investigation outside the specialist asset recovery arena.
    • From key account management to strategic partnerships: critical success factors for co-creation of value

      Lawson, Alison; Longbottom, David; Veasey, Christian Michael (University of Derby, 2019-09-27)
      Background and rationale for this study: This study investigates Key Account Management (KAM) from a Marketing and Business to Business perspective. A review of literature finds that in recent years marketing scholars have proposed that KAM is developing from its traditional roots in sales management to a greater focus on relational aspects; for example, including elements of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Service Dominant Logic (SDL). However, whilst the principles of CRM and SDL are well grounded within the marketing literature there is little empirical evidence to show practical application within KAM, which this study will seek to address. Aim: To establish the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for KAM and the personal characteristics of Key Account Managers (KAMs) in order to develop a new model to inform and guide practitioners and academics. Methodology: The study aligns with a pragmatic research philosophy, where mixed methods are applied. The primary research includes a survey (n=71) and semi-structured interviews (n=15). Respondents were primarily KAMs from a variety of business sectors. The decision to follow pragmatism supported the use of mixed methods as well as modes of analysis and a continuous cycle of abductive reasoning while being guided by the research aim and objectives and the desire to produce socially meaningful knowledge. Pragmatism offers a strong emphasis on research questions, communication, and shared meaning making and seeks to achieve a balance between subjectivity and objectivity in research findings. Findings: This research captured a shifting contemporary KAM approach where KAM is seen as a facilitator of on-going processes of voluntary exchange through collaborative, value creating relationships, leading to the development of strategic partnerships. The study finds that amongst KAMs whilst there is strong recognition of CSFs in KAM, CRM, and SDL, there are inconsistent and weak applications in practice. The study explores the reasons for this and proposes that more work is needed to better interpret and translate the language and rhetoric and theoretical principles. Contribution: A new model for KAM is proposed showing the CSFs for implementation and a shift of emphasis from KAM to Key Account Relationships (KAR). The model covers the CSFs in CRM, and SDL, and provides guidance for issues in business processes, leadership roles, role clarity, remuneration and performance measurement, knowledge management, and skills, competencies and experience.
    • Humanizing hospitality industry human resources management to improve recruitment and retention of resilient hospitable talents in the sector

      Rawlinson, Sarah; Naisola Ruiter, Victoria (University of Derby, 2021-02-15)
      Attracting, retaining, developing, and motivating hospitable talent is a perennial problem in hospitality industry talent management. This thesis sought to address this problem by examining how human resource (HR) practices can improve talent management (TM) to attract persons with the right personal characteristics and support them to thrive in a hospitality career. There has been a shift in the academic literature from a focus on the organisational practices of talent management to understanding the implications of the employee’s experience as they develop within an organisation. There remains much to be understood about the role of human resources management (HRM) practitioners in the attraction and retention of talents with the right personal attributes to succeed in hospitality careers. This thesis aims to advance the theoretical understanding of HR theories and strategies to improve recruitment and retention in the hospitality industry. To meet the aim of this research, a mixed method approach and a sequential data collection approach was adopted. A personality self-profiling questionnaire survey was used to profile 309 students from business management degree programmes on their hospitable personal characteristics to understand whether students selecting hospitality management degrees had more hospitable characteristics. A Delphi study was conducted with 14 hospitality experts with different national and international hospitality leadership and management experience. The study aimed to research consensus on the strategic HR approaches required to improve recruitment and retention in the hospitality industry. The main findings of the research study were the need to review HR strategies in the hospitality industry. These strategies need to address recruitment and retention by promoting careers in the sector, investing in training and development, rewards and wellbeing strategies appropriate for a younger work force, closer working with training institutions to develop graduate competencies that are multi-disciplinary HRM practices and policies that humanize HRM throughout the employee journey. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the role of humane HRM strategies in recruitment and retention of a skilled and resilient hospitality workforce. One of the outcomes of this study is the development of a theoretically supported and empirically validated strategic HRM recruitment and retention toolkit. The toolkit is an end-to-end process that operationalizes and maps the HRM strategies throughout the employee experience journey to facilitate HR managers to improve the process of recruitment and retention in the sector. It identifies empirically found strategies and reveals possibilities to integrate an end-to-end strategic approach in talent management prioritizing employee wellbeing, training and development to nurture employee emotional resilience. This is the first research study to illuminate an end-to-end strategic approach towards an employee journey in the hospitality industry. To identify the scope of research to be explored in the future, implications for future research and practice are outlined.
    • Identification of tourism developmental success factors: Benchmarking the Malawi tourism industry

      Heap, Tim; Kandaya, Hastings (University of Derby, 2019-07-05)
      This thesis explores the potential development of, and model for, tourism on Lake Malawi. It builds upon the historic associations attached to colonisation and how this led to the acceptance, for 30 years, of Western based models in formulating strategic plans for tourism development in Malawi. The study confirms that Lake Malawi has development potential to compete with existing successful destinations; both in the African region and the global tourism market. The thesis concentrates upon the power relationships between the current stakeholders involved in the development process and the potential mechanisms available to involve local people more in the heritage tourism dynamic. The study explores the concepts of historic tourism development within Malawi and assess the success or failure of those strategies within the context of sustainability. The primary research involved the local population within two areas on Lake Malawi, and the government employees responsible for the planning process. The literature pointed to there being a gap between theory and practice within Malawi. The study confirms the potential in the region by analysis of similar locations and their stages within the development process. The primary research confirmed the need to identify a successful model that could be adapted for the Lake Malawi. These are then adapted to country branding suggested for Malawi, as a basis for development models influenced by the branding imperative, which then concludes the circular argument built from the destination analysis.
    • Implementing sustainability initiatives in business processes

      Gallotta, Bruno; University of Derby (2018-10)
      Purpose – The sustainability topic has been receiving a growing importance in the corporate environment in recent years. More and more companies are adopting sustainability practices in all their organisational levels, operations and business process as a whole; however, they have still failed to achieve the anticipated goal. Existing roadmaps, frameworks and systems do not comprehensively support sustainable business transformation. This research proposes a four phases framework, based on BPM, to help organisations to implement sustainability practices in the organisation business processes and has verified it with industry/academic specialists and validated it in a local organisation focused on sustainability initiatives. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework has been created, verified and validated. The framework is based on Business Process Management (BPM) principles, which was chosen because due its capability to work in a cross process way while providing the full control of the process performance. It was then verified using a Delphi study held with 21 specialists in Sustainable Operations Management from both academia and industry and validated using an action research study on a biomass company focused in the development of sustainable energy technologies that wished to improve the implementation of sustainability initiatives in its business processes and operations. Findings – It was identified that organisations still struggle to succeed the implementation of sustainability projects. The research outlined that the business process management (BPM) approach can be used as way to implement sustainability practices in an organisation’s business processes by using the conceptual framework. The benefits from this approach are the enablement of continuous process improvement, improvement of process quality; cost reduction; increase in the customer satisfaction; and better control 3 over process performance, which can be directly linked to the improvement of the sustainability improvement.Research limitations/implication – The main limitation of this research is the application of the framework in only one real-life scenario, which was expected due the research method chosen to validate it. Future work aims to apply the framework in different scenarios, in organisations with different sizes, different maturity level, different sector, and different locations. Further research will also investigate the symbiosis of the BPM approach with other management approaches, such as lean/green manufacturing, project management, and green supply chain and carbon footprint. In addition, in a further moment, once companies are familiarised with the project methodology, it is possible to create a centre of excellence (an area within the organisation with the best practices/ processes of the industry) in terms of sustainability bringing even more value, improving continuously and generating more innovation by the form of green reference process models. Practical implications – The proposed framework uses a Business Process Management (BPM) approach, which provides a systemic solution for the organisations adopt sustainability practices in their business processes.
    • THE INFLUENCE OF FIRM SIZE ON THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - CORPORATE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP

      Conway, Elaine (University of Derby, 2021-03-29)
      This thesis explores the impact of firm size on the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP). It examines the relationships between CSR and CFP (and the reverse relationship) and tests whether there is a change in that relationship depending on the size of the firm. It evaluates whether stakeholder theory, which predicts that good CSR ratings result in better CFP, holds in the US and the UK over an 11-year period. The study also considers the slack resources theory, which posits that in order to achieve a good CSR rating, firms need to have good CFP in order to afford to carry out the CSR activities on which the ratings are based. The resource-based view (RBV) is also evaluated in this study to consider whether firm size has an impact on CSR and CFP. Two datasets are used, the largest 1,180 firms in the US and 325 firms in the UK listed in their respective stock exchanges over a period of eleven years (2007 to 2017). Whilst the US CSR-CFP relationship has been studied extensively previously, the UK has not. Equally, with the exception of Orlitzky’s (2001) US-based study, the specific role of firm size has not been studied, and his study only addressed firm size as a mediator in the relationship, not a moderator. This study addresses both aspects of firm size on the CSR-CFP relationship. A traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methodology was used to test the relationships initially. The primary reason to use OLS was so that the results could be used to compare with previous studies. Both the US and UK findings were statistically significant and negative, refuting much prior literature. However, given the issue of simultaneity, these results are undermined and so a more novel approach was subsequently adopted. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to derive three new composite latent constructs to depict CSR, CFP and firm size for each country, from an iterative evaluation of thirty different variables. This resulted in different variables and different weightings of variables for the constructs for each country. The CSR-CFP and firm size relationship were re-tested using these constructs. Both countries demonstrated positive relationships between CSR and CFP (and the reverse). Firm size did alter these relationships, however, the magnitude of the effect of firm size was small. This research has contributed to the CSR-CFP field in various ways. The main contribution is methodological, as this thesis has introduced an approach which has not been widely used in the CSR-CFP field by developing multivariate latent constructs to encapsulate the multi-faceted nature of the CSR, CFP and firm size using SEM. A second contribution to knowledge is in the specific role of firm size in the CSR-CFP relationship which has hitherto not been specifically addressed. It has concluded that firm size can affect the relationship in some cases, although not to a degree which might have previously been assumed – the overall magnitude of the effect of firm size is small. A final contribution is theoretical: by using constructing country-specific multivariate constructs to reflect individual country jurisdictions, it has been proven that stakeholder and slack resources theories hold in different countries. This suggests a wider applicability of these theories to other countries other than the US where the majority of studies have been previously focused. This thesis, as all research, has some limitations. It examines only two countries, hence the generalisability of the findings outside those two countries may be limited. It also examines all industries together, and hence the findings of individual industries could differ from this overall picture. Equally, this research is taken at a point in time, using one data source: different results could be obtained using data from different periods or indeed from different data sources. These industry, time and data source effects could affect the variables used to construct the latent constructs, which could also alter the findings.
    • Influencing attitudes, changing behaviours and embedding a pro-sustainability mindset in the workplace.

      Hader, Khaled Farag Imhemed; University of Derby (2018-07-18)
      Although several sustainability implementation frameworks have been proposed, researchers have not yet proposed theories or models to help organisations speed up the rate of sustainability diffusion and narrow the gap between what is known and what is put into use. This study sought to fill this gap by proposing a sustainability diffusion model. The model was developed from an exhaustive review of the corresponding literature. It uses Rogers' (1962) diffusion of innovations theory and Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour as a theoretical foundation. The model was tested and its structural architecture was validated in three different sustainability contexts; namely, duplex printing in UK universities; sustainable computing in service-based businesses; and sustainability culture in UK universities. The primary data was analysed statistically using SPSS, and structural equation modelling (SEM) in particular was used to validate the structural architecture of the proposed model. The SEM results indicate that the structural architecture of the theory of planned behaviour is well-founded. All the hypotheses that underline the theory's paths were supported. In contrast, the structural architecture of the diffusion of innovations theory was weakly supported. Some of the paths were rejected in at least two occasions. For example, the relationship between pro-sustainability knowledge and attitude was neither statistically significant nor directional. Moreover, several components of the 'verified' model turned out to be statistically insignificant or were rejected altogether. These were knowledge, perceived self interest, perceived persuader legitimacy, perceived consequences, perceived argument quality, trialability and perceived source credibility. Accordingly, once these constructs were removed and the model was restructured in accordance with the results of SEM analysis, an entirely new version of the 'sustainability diffusion model' emerged (See Figure IX-2). The architecture of the new model suggests that in order to speed up the rate of sustainability diffusion, change agents must emphasise the relative advantage, compatibility, subjective norm and the urgency of the pro-sustainability initiative under implementation and de-emphasise any complexities or risks associated with its operationalisation. Unexpectedly, the new version of the proposed model relies more on Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour as a theoretical foundation than on Rogers' (1983) innovation-decision process model. In other words, the new model maintained almost all the features of the theory of planned behaviour, but it only absorbed some, but not all, of the components of Rogers' innovation-decision process model. Nevertheless, the new model maintained its holistic nature. It still takes into account both the person-specific and innovation-specific factors that influence the diffusion, adoption and actualisation of pro-sustainability behaviours/initiatives.
    • An integrated decision support framework for the adoption of lean, agile and green practices in product life cycle stages.

      Udokporo, Chinonso Kenneth; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2017-11-15)
      In order to stay competitive in today’s overly competitive market place, businesses must be engineered to match product characteristics and customer requirements. This increased emphasis on achieving highly adaptive manufacturing with reduction in manufacturing costs, better utilization of manufacturing resources and sound environmental management practices force organisations to adopt efficient management practices in their manufacturing operations. Some of the established practices in this context belong to the Lean, Agility and Green (LAG) paradigms. Adopting these practices in order to address customer requirements may require some level of expertise and understanding of the contribution (or lack of it) of the practices in meeting those requirements. Primarily, the wide choice of LAG practices available to address customer requirements can be confusing and/or challenging for those with limited knowledge of LAG practices and their efficacy. There is currently no systematic methodology available for selecting appropriate LAG practices considering of the product life cycle (PLC). Therefore, this research provides a novel framework for selecting appropriate LAG practices based on PLC stages for reducing costs, lead time and generated waste. The methodology describes the application of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), statistical inference and regression analysis as decision support tools, ensuring a systematic approach to the analysis with appropriate performance measures. The data collected were analysed with the aid of SPSS and Excel using a variety of statistical methods. The framework was verified through a Delphi study and validated using a case study. The key findings of the research include the various contributions of lean, agile and green practices towards improving performance measures, the importance of green in improving performance measures and the importance of selecting appropriate practices based on product life cycle stages. This research makes a clear contribution to existing body of knowledge by providing a methodological framework which could serve as a guide for companies in the FMCG industry to systematically integrate and adopt lean, agile and green to better manage their processes and meet customer requirements in their organisations. However, the framework developed in this research has not been tested in other areas.
    • Managing tourism across boundaries through Communities

      Clarke, Alan; Rawlinson, Sarah; Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, peter (University of Derby, 2019-05-07)
      Over more than a decade, observations of community based tourism inspired in me a series of publications that are detailed in this meta-analysis. These twenty five publications deal with the relationship between supply and demand in tourism from a socially constructed heuristic and hermeneutic perspective. Heuristic, as the work conducted was based around observations, even participation, in problem solving action with a wide range of stakeholders. Hermeneutic, as the research observations and participation undertaken identified root causes and opportunities pertinent to community development . Therefore this represents a study of tourism management designed to resolve complex, somewhat chaotic and wicked problems centred around the agendas for suppliers of tourism that challenged the existing management practices and perceived solutions. Solutions have been constructed built around an interpretation of habitus and beliefs that are predicated on a four component model. The first is the accrual of case studies with which to benchmark achievement that might be seen as best practice and worthy of emulation. The second is cohesion with fervently held beliefs and habitus adopted in parallel business cases, quite possibly in a competitive and quality-driven service sector. The third is enduring benchmarks in good practices that can be re-visited and adapted to meet the changing complex needs of communities. The fourth component is sharing the knowledge obtained, and maximising uptake of scarce resources used, across the varying sectors and destinations. These shared new experiences in learning are becoming embedded in education but now also need embedding in accessible repositories that conceivably are available at very low cost to a much wider range of interested stakeholders. “Being, thinking and doing” are the words that come to mind when I reflect on my publishing journey in academia from 2005 to the present day (Kassel, Rimanoczy, and Mitchell, 2016). “Being”, as I am a researcher with a passion for all that concerns the community and my role informing and advising the various stakeholders charged or expected to deliver for the visitor. “Thinking” as I am actively identifying practices for future consideration that incorporate identified exemplars of sustainable development that we can all learn from. "Doing”, as a measure of our achievements as communities and how we can embed both tacit and explicit knowledge in learning in the community and in Higher Education. My work embeds that knowledge in those stakeholders deemed jointly responsible for managing the tourism experience. Tourism can be a force for good in any community and typically relies on starting with beliefs, values and identity. Stakeholders should accept learning about the changing face of responsibility for development as that community evolves. This approach is both emancipatory and inclusive in the twenty first century and it is reflective of critical endogenous decision-making in academia and praxis. My studies in New Zealand and in the United Kingdom clarify that tourism as a “force for good” is collective, cross-border, interdisciplinary and cooperative. I believe that shared stories of effort, innovation and success are vital to future thinking, as destinations pride themselves on distinctiveness and reflect an evolving public/private partnership nature. This focus mirrors beliefs in dyadic partnerships that acknowledges the twin responsibilities to conservation and protection in the development of communities. Through an amalgam of soft-systems methodologies and phenomenology I have discovered the need for multi- and interdisciplinary approaches. I am committed to a constructivist, stakeholder focus for responsibility and gladly acknowledge the role that health services research and community development research cross the border with tourism management to inform the continuing agenda for learning destinations.
    • The margin of appreciation doctrine and the interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights as a living instrument

      Ita, Rachael Eguono; University of Derby (2018)
      The significance of the margin of appreciation doctrine has been underscored recently with the adoption of Protocol No 15 which calls for the inclusion of the terms ‘margin of appreciation’ and ‘subsidiarity’ in the Preamble of the European Convention on Human Rights. This development reflects the disquiet amongst member States to the Convention that the doctrine is not being given enough weight by the European Court of Human Rights in the determination of cases before it. One of the interpretive tools that is perceived to be having a negative effect on the margin of appreciation is the living instrument doctrine which has been blamed for narrowing the margin of appreciation afforded to States. This thesis brings an original contribution to the literature in this area by considering the interaction between the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines in the case law of the Court. The contribution is achieved in two ways: (a) methodologically: through the methodology adopted which is a combination of the quantitative method of descriptive statistics and the qualitative method of doctrinal textual analysis; (b) substantively: through the systematic examination of the case law of the Court from January 1979 to December 2016 in which both the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines are present. The lens of the relationship between rights and duties is applied to the case analysis. The case analysis is used to draw conclusions on the nature of the relationship and whether living instrument arguments are superseding the margin of appreciation doctrine where there is conflict. The results of the case analysis also shows distinctions in the interpretive approaches of the Court at the admissibility and compliance stages. The overall results of the study show that there are a variety of ways in which interaction takes place between both doctrines and the nature of both doctrines will continue to require a close interaction between the Court and the State parties in their compliance with obligations under the Convention.
    • (Mis)Use of Personal Technology by Employees in Financial Services Organisations

      Hicks, David; Henry, Phil; Hodgson, Philip; Collis, Raichel (University of DerbyBusiness, Law and Social Sciences, 2021-09-01)
      This work presents a single methodology design across three different groups to chart the challenges and potential of digital investigation and to offer an original contribution to researchers seeking purposive samples specific to topical research questions. Open-source online intelligence theorised from an attacker's perspective is underpinned by a novel cyber-orientated framework of routine activity theory (RAT) (Cohen and Felson, 1979) to highlight digital footprint as a vector for targeted social engineering. Seventy-six (N=76) demographically diverse financial services employees from occupations throughout the sector provide empirical data via a mixed methods online survey. Cyber-specific RAT evaluates the ‘average user’ (with no specialist training) as a potential contributor to human assisted cybercrime threatening corporate networks through use of personal technologies and internet-based activities. Robust discussion debates routine digital activity using smartphones, tablets, and consumer Internet of Things (IoT) devices as an unmitigated factor for workplace risk. Personal internet use, devices accessing corporate networks, self-promotion on social media, physical and virtual IoT, executive personnel practicing ‘unsafe’ behaviours and assumed device security as licence for unrestricted online activity are key findings of this study which offers original contributions to critical assessment of insider threat. Despite employee (mis)use of personal technology as a potential vector financial organisations are seemingly unprepared for small-scale and dynamic risk. Results recommend bespoke training at all levels to associate personal use and online behaviour with known cyber risks and capacity for loss or harm. Cyber-RAT as a framework to identify suitable targets and potential for guardianship will contribute value added and assist in a more holistic response to cybercrime where the human element complements technological solutions as a positive enhancement to enterprise security.
    • “New public Management reforms, an empirical study of human resources critical factors, in the context of the Greek Public sector”

      Liveris, Panagiotis D.; University of Derby (2015-08-25)
      This work is an endeavour on the subject of the Critical Success Factors imposed by Human Resources, in the process of reforms, under the context of New Public Management, particularly, as this applies in the Greek Public Sector and more specifically in the cases of ISO implementation. The fundamental issues it attempts to elucidate are the Human Resources policies that must be applied, so that employees become an integral element for the successful implementation of any introduced reforms. Many scholars have pointed out the gap in literature regarding the effect of New Public Management (NPM) reforms on the human factor. Moreover, in the current Greek reality, in the context of the economic recession and the debt crisis, where public administration reforms are mandatory, the thorough examination of the vital issues, pertaining to Human Resources, consists a major priority. The qualitative research method applied with the employees of the reformed organisations has further aspired to ponder and determine what really matters during the transformational process from the employees’ point of view. The conclusions we have reached underpin the importance of Human Resources motivational factors in the reform process, taking into consideration that the employee is the catalyst for any change effort. Some of those factors were found to be also part of the ISO concept per se, thus, their implementation would boost the employees’ morale, while others must be carefully analysed, planned and implemented by all the stakeholders to further facilitate the change process. We have to bear in mind that, especially under the current dire economic environment, quality reforms could be a challenge, as they combine fiscal discipline and at the same time aspire to increase the employees’ and citizens’ satisfaction. This study goes further to suggest that, the implementation of ISO reforms could help all the participants, provided that the decision makers take into serious consideration the Critical Success Factors outlined herewith, that have been extracted from a survey conducted pertinent to our research. This study focused on the reforms/ISO process as implemented by the Intermediate Managing Authority of the Ionian Islands. Further research on the implications from the implementation of NMP doctrines on Human Resources should be conducted in other Greek governmental organisations, in order to reaffirm the results and possibly enhance the suggested model. Conclusively, our ultimate target is to assist decision makers and encourage them to utilise the arguments depicted, towards the successful implementation of NPM doctrines.
    • The perceived and actual effects of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania: Case study of Leicester-based Tanzanian diaspora.

      Msuya, Asmahan Mssami; University of Derby (2017-12-07)
      Remittances to sub-Saharan Africa have steadily been on increase in recent decades. However, the full socio-economic benefits of remittances to some countries, such as Tanzania are far from clear. Consequently, the importance of this economic phenomenon in Tanzanian society is rather inconclusive, because their effects on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania are based largely on evidence from the regional area (i.e. sub-Saharan Africa) and from other developing countries. This study has examined the perceived and actual effects of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania from the viewpoint of Leicester-based Tanzanian diaspora and the remittance receivers’ in Tanzania. The study was, therefore, based in two places, Leicester (United Kingdom- UK) and Tanzania. It adopts an inductive approach to enquiry for which both qualitative and quantitative data were collect from the three case studies: The first case study is Leicester-based Tanzanian diaspora (the remittances senders), the second case study is remittance receivers in Tanzania (the remittances users), and third case study is Tanzanian government officials (i.e. researchers, policy makers and regulatory bodies). The significance of this study is that it is a two-way process conducted from the remittance senders’ (the Leicester-based Tanzanian diaspora) and remittance the receivers’ perspectives (the remittance users in Tanzania). The study, therefore, involve tracking of remittances from Leicester to Tanzania. The study provides better insight and understanding of the effects of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania. It help to understand how best to harness diaspora and remittances through the understanding of diaspora’s capabilities and interests, as well as types of remittances sent to Tanzania, channels of sending, and any obstacles that hamper the effectiveness of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania. The study also offers insight into why the Tanzanian diaspora continues to remit. Amongst other reasons, it includes the retained belief in the Ujamaa ideology (family-hood or brother-hood). In turn, this adds significant contributions on the theories of migration and development, and motives to remit. The overall finding of this study is that remittances remain important to Tanzanian society, because they help to increase the amount of disposable money for spending on education, health, consumption, business formation, and investments. Unlike other international aid, remittances go directly to receivers. Thus, remittances tend to have immediate and direct effects on the livelihoods of the receivers. Remittances received from Leicester, therefore, help to improve the quality of lives of the recipients. Hence, they help to reduce depth and severity of poverty on the receiving communities. Nevertheless, the findings of this study clearly show that from a developmental perspective, one of the major challenges to the effects of remittances on poverty reduction and development in Tanzania is to motivate the diaspora to conduct their remittance transfer operations through formal channels. This has remained a major challenge because of high fees associated with transfer of financial and material remittances, lack of formal channels in rural areas of Tanzania, and a total lack of appropriate formal channels for transmitting social remittances to Tanzania. The study recommends that policies on diaspora and remittances should be designed to encourage diaspora to send remittances through formal channels with low transaction costs. This is important because it will make easier to channel remittances into sustainable developmental projects that could fuel community and national development, thereby touching not only the direct recipients but also the general public. The study also recommends that both Tanzania and the UK government need to ensure social remittances (e.g. skills, technology-know-how, knowledge and experiences) are effectively being acquired, utilized and transmitted to Tanzania for the development of the country. This can be achieved by create a common platform for dialogue between diaspora, Tanzania and the UK governments, which will enable to understand local needs alongside the skills, knowledge, capacities and interests of the diaspora. The study concludes that in spite of other interventions and perhaps a lesser emphasis on social remittance sending to Tanzania nowadays, diaspora remittances remain a critical input into poverty reduction and development in Tanzania.
    • Small business transition towards degrowth

      Nesterova, Iana (University of Derby, 2020-09-03)
      This work focuses on the relationship between small firms and degrowth. It aims to contribute to the understanding of what production by small firms should entail for a degrowth society and economy to be possible. It is proposed that for small firms to transition towards degrowth and consequently become part thereof, small firms should become degrowth businesses. This work proposes a framework of degrowth business informed by empirical insights derived from seven cases of small firms in England. The study claims that while small firms may indeed be suitable for degrowth, this entails transformation of their business on multiple levels, including worldviews of individuals involved. Moreover, it is claimed that in transition towards degrowth, small firms are likely to face barriers. It is concluded that to transition towards degrowth, transformation of small firms into degrowth businesses is not sufficient. For degrowth society and economy to be possible, these efforts must be supplemented by a larger societal transformation involving multiple agents and structures. This work’s contribution is theoretical in terms of advancing understanding of degrowth business and production by firms for degrowth, and practical since the framework developed aims to be useful for firms, policy-makers and in education.
    • Spatial-existential authenticity and the production of heterotopia: The case of second homes in China.

      Yang, Kaihan; University of Derby (2018)
      China has achieved extraordinary economic growth since its profound social, political and economic reformation in 1978. Housing and tourism are two manifestations of such growth. However, problems related to the development of housing and tourism have become increasingly severe: environmentally sound rural areas are now the battlefield for the ostensible economic advancement of both sectors; the supposedly beneficial local communities in such areas end up as the sufferers of worsened living conditions; the policymakers, who are self-claimed leaders of the development in benefits of the local communities, are de facto heavily dependent upon the sales of land for tax generation. Under such circumstances, second homes - the intersection between tourism and housing - have emerged as a hot topic for industry participants, researchers and policymakers. The existing body of knowledge, in what is largely Western dominated second homes research, suggests that the key theories, assumptions and conclusions cannot be adapted to explain the development model in China. This is because of China’s unique scale, patterns, and dynamics of economic and socio-political linkages. This research therefore theorises second homes in China based on key space and tourism concepts. This thesis conceptualises second homes on an actual site in China named The Aqua, which is a tourism cluster intentionally constructed around the idea of second homes. The thesis examines the actor groups that are involved in the making of The Aqua, as well as their practice, representation and experience with it. Also, in order to uncover the potential impacts of the Aqua, this research investigates how justice is recognised and practiced between different actor groups. The outcomes of this research include: 1) a new model that visualises the power relations between different actor groups that are involved in the making of the Aqua, 2) a new theory building on Foucault’s heterotopia to help explain why the Aqua was produced as the representation of the imagined Western township, 3) new terms of apotopia and limbotopia as dismissive narratives to unwanted circumstances of tourism place-making, 4) a fresh perspective to examine the potential impacts of second homes through the lens of justice, instead of the traditional dualistic thinking of second homes as the curse or the blessing.