• Financial Investigation: Establishing the Principles of a Generic and effective Philosophy

      Hicks, David; Hughes, C. (University of DerbyBusiness Law and social Science at University of Derbyn/a, 2021-03-26)
      Financial investigation is a term usually synonymous with asset recovery, an association which may be a significant inhibitor to its wider consideration and application outside the specialist sphere of the UK confiscation regime. This thesis brings an original contribution to the literature in this area through critically analysing the conceptual understanding of financial investigation and financial intelligence within UK law enforcement at strategic, mid management and practice levels. Attention also focuses upon why successive governments and commentators express continuing advocacy of the wider potential of the financial investigation skillset for general investigation which does not seem to translate into effective application. The work offers an empirical study of survey-based data collection involving three hundred and forty-five respondents (n=345) in four significant areas, financial investigation, financial investigation strategy, financial intelligence, and to what extent it is integrated with the National Intelligence Model for practical outcomes. Survey results appear to question current training arrangements for financial investigation within law enforcement and provide original insights into its use by specialists and generalists. This results in the identification of some potential inhibitors to more widespread application of financial investigation and intelligence techniques. The data and findings from its analysis highlight instances of good practice, while contemporaneously exposing potential issues which may contribute to a reduced application of financial investigation outside the specialist asset recovery arena.
    • THE INFLUENCE OF FIRM SIZE ON THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - CORPORATE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP

      Conway, Elaine (University of Derby, 2021-03-29)
      This thesis explores the impact of firm size on the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP). It examines the relationships between CSR and CFP (and the reverse relationship) and tests whether there is a change in that relationship depending on the size of the firm. It evaluates whether stakeholder theory, which predicts that good CSR ratings result in better CFP, holds in the US and the UK over an 11-year period. The study also considers the slack resources theory, which posits that in order to achieve a good CSR rating, firms need to have good CFP in order to afford to carry out the CSR activities on which the ratings are based. The resource-based view (RBV) is also evaluated in this study to consider whether firm size has an impact on CSR and CFP. Two datasets are used, the largest 1,180 firms in the US and 325 firms in the UK listed in their respective stock exchanges over a period of eleven years (2007 to 2017). Whilst the US CSR-CFP relationship has been studied extensively previously, the UK has not. Equally, with the exception of Orlitzky’s (2001) US-based study, the specific role of firm size has not been studied, and his study only addressed firm size as a mediator in the relationship, not a moderator. This study addresses both aspects of firm size on the CSR-CFP relationship. A traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methodology was used to test the relationships initially. The primary reason to use OLS was so that the results could be used to compare with previous studies. Both the US and UK findings were statistically significant and negative, refuting much prior literature. However, given the issue of simultaneity, these results are undermined and so a more novel approach was subsequently adopted. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to derive three new composite latent constructs to depict CSR, CFP and firm size for each country, from an iterative evaluation of thirty different variables. This resulted in different variables and different weightings of variables for the constructs for each country. The CSR-CFP and firm size relationship were re-tested using these constructs. Both countries demonstrated positive relationships between CSR and CFP (and the reverse). Firm size did alter these relationships, however, the magnitude of the effect of firm size was small. This research has contributed to the CSR-CFP field in various ways. The main contribution is methodological, as this thesis has introduced an approach which has not been widely used in the CSR-CFP field by developing multivariate latent constructs to encapsulate the multi-faceted nature of the CSR, CFP and firm size using SEM. A second contribution to knowledge is in the specific role of firm size in the CSR-CFP relationship which has hitherto not been specifically addressed. It has concluded that firm size can affect the relationship in some cases, although not to a degree which might have previously been assumed – the overall magnitude of the effect of firm size is small. A final contribution is theoretical: by using constructing country-specific multivariate constructs to reflect individual country jurisdictions, it has been proven that stakeholder and slack resources theories hold in different countries. This suggests a wider applicability of these theories to other countries other than the US where the majority of studies have been previously focused. This thesis, as all research, has some limitations. It examines only two countries, hence the generalisability of the findings outside those two countries may be limited. It also examines all industries together, and hence the findings of individual industries could differ from this overall picture. Equally, this research is taken at a point in time, using one data source: different results could be obtained using data from different periods or indeed from different data sources. These industry, time and data source effects could affect the variables used to construct the latent constructs, which could also alter the findings.
    • An Ethnographic Account of an Organisational Response To Transformation in a Not for Profit Context

      Amos , Margaret Mary (University of Derby, 2021-04-28)
      This research is an ethnographic account of a longitudinal study in the not-for-profit sector. The collaborating organisation is an Alternate Dispute Resolution (ADR) provider based in the north west of England and referred to as Company X throughout this thesis to protect its anonymity. Company X is a licensed ADR provider and a Not for Profit (NFP) organisation. It is licensed by the regulator to provide complaint handling services, from initial consumer enquiry through to investigation, for the companies who subscribe to their ADR scheme. The organisation has been struggling in recent years with a loss in market share. This has been caused by the digitalisation of the initial enquiry stage of the complaints handling service by new entrants to the sector. The digitalisation has facilitated new entrants into the market who have not only made the complaint handling process more efficient but maximised the information which they collect during the initial enquiry phase to offer an extended service to the subscribing companies to their ADR service. The additional service which the new competitors offer is outside of the traditional ADR licensed provision and represents an additional revenue opportunity for the ADR provider. The new entrants achieve this by selling data insights into the consumer behaviour which is derived from the consumer information obtained during the enquiry process. This thesis is a study of Company X’s response to this new competitive threat and their subsequent transformation programme.
    • Humanizing hospitality industry human resources management to improve recruitment and retention of resilient hospitable talents in the sector

      Rawlinson, Sarah; Naisola Ruiter, Victoria (University of Derby, 2021-02-15)
      Attracting, retaining, developing, and motivating hospitable talent is a perennial problem in hospitality industry talent management. This thesis sought to address this problem by examining how human resource (HR) practices can improve talent management (TM) to attract persons with the right personal characteristics and support them to thrive in a hospitality career. There has been a shift in the academic literature from a focus on the organisational practices of talent management to understanding the implications of the employee’s experience as they develop within an organisation. There remains much to be understood about the role of human resources management (HRM) practitioners in the attraction and retention of talents with the right personal attributes to succeed in hospitality careers. This thesis aims to advance the theoretical understanding of HR theories and strategies to improve recruitment and retention in the hospitality industry. To meet the aim of this research, a mixed method approach and a sequential data collection approach was adopted. A personality self-profiling questionnaire survey was used to profile 309 students from business management degree programmes on their hospitable personal characteristics to understand whether students selecting hospitality management degrees had more hospitable characteristics. A Delphi study was conducted with 14 hospitality experts with different national and international hospitality leadership and management experience. The study aimed to research consensus on the strategic HR approaches required to improve recruitment and retention in the hospitality industry. The main findings of the research study were the need to review HR strategies in the hospitality industry. These strategies need to address recruitment and retention by promoting careers in the sector, investing in training and development, rewards and wellbeing strategies appropriate for a younger work force, closer working with training institutions to develop graduate competencies that are multi-disciplinary HRM practices and policies that humanize HRM throughout the employee journey. This study makes an important contribution to understanding the role of humane HRM strategies in recruitment and retention of a skilled and resilient hospitality workforce. One of the outcomes of this study is the development of a theoretically supported and empirically validated strategic HRM recruitment and retention toolkit. The toolkit is an end-to-end process that operationalizes and maps the HRM strategies throughout the employee experience journey to facilitate HR managers to improve the process of recruitment and retention in the sector. It identifies empirically found strategies and reveals possibilities to integrate an end-to-end strategic approach in talent management prioritizing employee wellbeing, training and development to nurture employee emotional resilience. This is the first research study to illuminate an end-to-end strategic approach towards an employee journey in the hospitality industry. To identify the scope of research to be explored in the future, implications for future research and practice are outlined.
    • Studies in problem-based hospitality management education

      Rawlinson, Sarah; Zwaal, Wichard (University of DerbyStenden Hotel Management School Leeuwarden, 2021-01-05)
      This critical appraisal discusses and contextualizes the published works in order to demonstrate how the studies contribute to the knowledge about and development of problem-based learning (PBL) in the context of hospitality management education. Studies cover several aspects of problem-based learning illustrating strengths and challenges on both the conceptual and operational level related to the design and delivery of this educational concept in hospitality management education. First an overview will be provided of the basic principles for learning and a rationale for choosing problem-based learning as a promising educational concept for hospitality management education (HME). Next, research is reported on experiences and challenges with implementing and operationalising the key principles of PBL: constructive, collaborative, contextual, self-directed learning. Problem-based learning is an approach to education reflecting a constructivist conception of knowledge, teaching, learning and assessment. Studies were conducted to investigate whether these conceptions are shared and supported by staff and students, as a crucial condition for successful implementation of PBL. Regarding the operational level of PBL, results are reported of studies on some key drivers of the PBL process like the task, the seven-step procedure, teamwork, tutor interventions, and testing. In the final section of this critical appraisal some implications of the studies for the new educational concept design-based education (DBE) and curriculum configuration are discussed, including suggestions for further design-based research. The guiding question for this critical appraisal will be: what did the studies contribute to the knowledge about and development of problem-based learning and innovation in hospitality management education?
    • An Exploration of Human Dignity as a Foundation for Spiritual Leadership

      Wond, Tracey; Phil, Henry; Kyle, John Wesley (University of DerbyCollege of Business, Law and Social Sciences, 2020-12-08)
      This research is situated at the nexus of human dignity and spiritual leadership theory. It critically explores human dignity, an expression of human value and worth, for its potential as the basis of an advancement to spiritual leadership, a contemporary organisational leadership theory. Following this critical exploration, the thesis proposes that human dignity is an implied element of spiritual leadership that, if made explicit, represents a valuable advancement to the theory. Based on the findings of the research, specific advancements to the theory are proposed that incorporate the acknowledgement of and respect for human dignity as spiritual leadership behaviours. In the research, these behaviours were seen to contribute positively to the desired outcome of spiritual leadership, namely an increase in the perception of well-being experienced by leaders and followers. The research offers a contribution to the field of organisational leadership by exploring the linkage between human dignity, the elements of spiritual leadership, and higher-order needs associated with well- being in the workplace, such as meaning-making, sense of purpose, and the sense of belonging. The research involved a qualitative field study of individual contributors, mid-level managers, and executives in a variety of organisations. Through semi-structured interviews, participants were invited to share their ideas and lived experiences regarding human dignity and the elements of spiritual leadership. The primary findings fall into three thematic categories, each of which is explored in detail in the thesis. The first theme is that participants perceived their dignity to be acknowledged and respected when leaders include them in decision-making processes. Inclusive decision-making is a leadership behaviour consistent with the ideals of spiritual leadership practice. Second, participants also reported that leadership behaviours that make them feel seen, known, and trusted, contribute to their sense of dignity as well as their sense of “mattering” in the workplace. Mattering and dignity are two related concepts that are, in turn, closely linked with the sense of calling and sense of membership. Finally, participants expressed that thoughts about human dignity are elements of the “inner life”, consisting of the values and attitudes that inform and motivate outward behaviour. These thematic findings are consistent with the expected outcomes of spiritual leadership and its emphasis on the inner life of the leader. Together, they form the basis for the human dignity advancements proposed to the theory.
    • Small business transition towards degrowth

      Nesterova, Iana (University of Derby, 2020-09-03)
      This work focuses on the relationship between small firms and degrowth. It aims to contribute to the understanding of what production by small firms should entail for a degrowth society and economy to be possible. It is proposed that for small firms to transition towards degrowth and consequently become part thereof, small firms should become degrowth businesses. This work proposes a framework of degrowth business informed by empirical insights derived from seven cases of small firms in England. The study claims that while small firms may indeed be suitable for degrowth, this entails transformation of their business on multiple levels, including worldviews of individuals involved. Moreover, it is claimed that in transition towards degrowth, small firms are likely to face barriers. It is concluded that to transition towards degrowth, transformation of small firms into degrowth businesses is not sufficient. For degrowth society and economy to be possible, these efforts must be supplemented by a larger societal transformation involving multiple agents and structures. This work’s contribution is theoretical in terms of advancing understanding of degrowth business and production by firms for degrowth, and practical since the framework developed aims to be useful for firms, policy-makers and in education.
    • Conspiracy Theories, MIllennialism, and the Nation: Understanding the collective voice in improvisational millennialism

      Henry, Phil; Weller, Paul; Wilson, Andrew Fergus (University of DerbyLaw and Social Science, University of Derby, 2020-07-10)
      The following critical appraisal presents eight interlinked works that apply and extend Michael Barkun’s (2003) concept of ‘improvisational millennialism’. This body of work demonstrates that, as Barkun suggests, the concept is widely applicable to the online communities in which stigmatized knowledge is widely accepted. Moreover, it extends the definition to consider how improvisational millennialism provides ill-defined or dispossessed communities a means of articulating a collective relationship to historical time as well as a crude means of shoring up basic assumptions of group membership. Mythical pasts and millennial expectation provide the opportunity for shared eschatological orientation whilst the dualism of conspiracy theories demarcates between the communities and their outsiders. This critical review demonstrates how the journal articles and book chapters collected in the appendices provide specific examples of the application and extension of improvisational millennialism. The examples chosen are varied but a persistent theme drawn out through analysis is the role that national cultures – official and official – are articulated through improvisational millennialism. The examples include consideration of how the depiction of millennial beliefs in the mass media contribute to national cultural constructs but more typically focus on the use of improvisational millennialism in online communities. Of the latter, the greater number of examples are concerned with improvisational millennialism within the neo-fascist milieu. Mobilised by conspiracy theories with apocalyptic subtexts, the far right reliance on improvisational millennialism demonstrates the implicit danger of the increased incursion of stigmatized knowledge into the cultural mainstream. This critical review serves to show that despite being typified by a syncretic bricolage of unconnected ideas and traditions, improvisational millennialism is reflective of both social and political realities.
    • Competition and collaboration in the extractive industries in a world of resource scarcity using a Game theory approach

      Yekini, Sina; Baranova, Polina; Crowther, Shahla Seifi (University of Derby, 2020-07-20)
      Sustainability has become one of the most important issues for businesses, governments and society at large. Increasingly, it features in all planning for future activity. The topic is under much debate as to what it actually is and how it can be achieved, but it is completely certain that the resources of the planet are fixed in quantity, and once used, cannot be reused except through being reused in one form or another. This is particularly true of the mineral resources of the planet. These are finite in quantity, and once fully extracted, extra quantities are no longer available for future use. In this thesis, it is argued that the remaining mineral resources are diminishing significantly and heading towards extinction. Once mined and consumed, they are no longer available for future use other than what can be recycled and reused. What is becoming important therefore – both for the present and for future sustainability – is not the extraction of minerals, but their distribution. Future scarcity means that best use must be made of what exists, as sustainability depends upon this, and best use is defined in this thesis as utility rather than economic value, and this must be considered at a global level rather than a national level. This thesis investigates the alternative methods of achieving the global distribution of these mineral resources and proposes an optimum solution. It does so by showing the efficacy of Game theory for such strategic decision-making, and by developing the theory with some extensions pertinent to the environment being described, before performing the necessary mathematical manipulations to evaluate this environment, and then applying this to real world data. The findings are supported by using linear programming and sensitivity analysis, and by using real world data. Application of the results obtained would raise a number of problems with market regulations and with the geopolitical situation, and these also are explored at length. In achieving this research, the main contribution of this thesis is through identifying the new environment and the extending of Game theory into this environment and in developing the necessary extensions. Previous research has only proposed methods to deal with this, but never actually developed and tested any model; therefore, this model itself, is a contribution. An additional contribution has been made through the application of those extensions into the practical global arena, and in the consideration of the role of regulation in the management of the market for resources in a way which is effective globally rather than locally. Essentially, this is through an understanding of the dichotomy between competition and collaboration, where this thesis argues that the conventional economic mode does not work to best results. Therefore, this thesis adds to the discourse through the understanding of the importance of the depletion and finiteness of raw materials and their use for the present and the future, in order to achieve and maintain sustainability.
    • A conceptual framework for countering emergent systemic novelty in the critical national infrastructure

      Sheader, Christopher (University of Derby, 2020-05-05)
      The Defence and Security sector within Her Majesty’s Government (and beyond) undertakes significant development programmes that augment the Critical National Infrastructure. The Critical National Infrastructure is a collective term for those facilities, systems, sites, information, people, networks and processes, necessary for a country to function and upon which daily life depends (CPNI, 2019). Significant programme issues have been observed repeatedly within the study context – perhaps not surprising given the complex adaptive system in which it exists. Upon being commissioned by the organisation to explore and develop an intervention to reduce failures/enhance programme success, the notion of novelty emerged. It is this novelty across systems in the study context that is explored in this thesis taking the form of a Participatory Action Research Project, this thesis reviews the key literature and develops a multi-disciplinary Conceptual Framework—Countering Systemic Novelty (CSN). CSN incorporates across four theoretical areas: (1) The nature of Complex Adaptive Systems; (2) the notion of Novelty as an emergent phenomenon; (3) Understanding the Context, (4) and the level of System Response. The thesis then explores whether CSN can augment the overall capability of the system to respond to the emergence of Novelty and propose a mechanism for the delivery of the intervention into this system. The investigation is guided theoretically by both holism and pragmatism; it sits within a philosophy that sees actors as being part of the system and is takes a constructivist perspective to the research. Both the encompassing philosophy and the research are supported by the key principles of coevolution’ and ‘Requisite Variety’ that run throughout the evolution of this Practitioner Project. The research is based on a multi-round study, using the Delphi Technique, which examined the ‘Validity and Applicability’ of CSN with a senior expert panel drawn from the operational context, specifically programme and risk management. The results of the study were assessed using two ‘Thesis indicators’ and found the expert panel agreed that CSN was both valid and applicable. For Validity TI-1 Agreement Tendency achieved 91% and TI-2 Degree of Consensus achieved 86%. For Applicability, TI-1 Agreement Tendency achieved 92% and TI- 2 Degree of Consensus achieved 79%. The study confirms that CSN is a valid and applicable approach to help counter emergent Novelty in the defence and security sector and, as a result, system capability would improve following its adoption. It also confirms that CSN can be used to inform differing interventions, including discrete development programmes; as additions to existing programmes or as targeted intervention in the event of emergent threat.
    • From key account management to strategic partnerships: critical success factors for co-creation of value

      Lawson, Alison; Longbottom, David; Veasey, Christian Michael (University of Derby, 2019-09-27)
      Background and rationale for this study: This study investigates Key Account Management (KAM) from a Marketing and Business to Business perspective. A review of literature finds that in recent years marketing scholars have proposed that KAM is developing from its traditional roots in sales management to a greater focus on relational aspects; for example, including elements of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Service Dominant Logic (SDL). However, whilst the principles of CRM and SDL are well grounded within the marketing literature there is little empirical evidence to show practical application within KAM, which this study will seek to address. Aim: To establish the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for KAM and the personal characteristics of Key Account Managers (KAMs) in order to develop a new model to inform and guide practitioners and academics. Methodology: The study aligns with a pragmatic research philosophy, where mixed methods are applied. The primary research includes a survey (n=71) and semi-structured interviews (n=15). Respondents were primarily KAMs from a variety of business sectors. The decision to follow pragmatism supported the use of mixed methods as well as modes of analysis and a continuous cycle of abductive reasoning while being guided by the research aim and objectives and the desire to produce socially meaningful knowledge. Pragmatism offers a strong emphasis on research questions, communication, and shared meaning making and seeks to achieve a balance between subjectivity and objectivity in research findings. Findings: This research captured a shifting contemporary KAM approach where KAM is seen as a facilitator of on-going processes of voluntary exchange through collaborative, value creating relationships, leading to the development of strategic partnerships. The study finds that amongst KAMs whilst there is strong recognition of CSFs in KAM, CRM, and SDL, there are inconsistent and weak applications in practice. The study explores the reasons for this and proposes that more work is needed to better interpret and translate the language and rhetoric and theoretical principles. Contribution: A new model for KAM is proposed showing the CSFs for implementation and a shift of emphasis from KAM to Key Account Relationships (KAR). The model covers the CSFs in CRM, and SDL, and provides guidance for issues in business processes, leadership roles, role clarity, remuneration and performance measurement, knowledge management, and skills, competencies and experience.
    • C-Lean, an Integrated Approach to Achieve Circularity in Manufacturing Operations of SMEs

      Garza-Reyes, Jose Arturo; Anosike, Anthony I.; Nadeem, Simon Peter (University of DerbyCentre for Supply Chain Improvement, College of Business, Law and Social Sciences, 2019-06-21)
      Purpose – The concept of Circular Economy has gained momentum both because its emergence is timely and that it proposes the solution that makes businesses more responsible, considerate and ethical. While the concept is straightforward to understand, its practical implementation is challenging, especially for manufacturing SMEs. Its popularity and adoption, mainly at the macro level is at rise, however, that is not the case at the micro and meso level (SMEs). Without the participation of SMEs in adopting Circular Economy, its full spectrum cannot be realised, since SMEs contribution to national GDP is nearly 50% globally. Therefore this research focuses on developing an integrated framework to achieve circularity in manufacturing operations of SMEs by combining the principles of Circular Economy and Lean, as they both focus on waste elimination and value creation/ preservation. The proposed framework (C-LEAN) utilises Lean tools and methods mingled with Circular Economy principles to achieve circularity as well as efficiency and effectiveness in manufacturing operations, especially at SMEs level. Design/ Methodology/ Approach – The framework’s design/ development is inspired by existing frameworks proposed by scholars. While the framework might seem a reflection of DMAIC, it, however, differ in its core nature/ purpose as the former focuses on problem-solving existing in operations, while for the proposed framework an operation might be functioning fine but would require a change to deal with bigger picture issues, such as resource scarcity and environmental damage. The conceptual framework is verified through Delphi study, where experts (both the academic and the practitioners) have been engaged to analyse the construct and practicality of the conceptual development. The framework has been modified/ updated in light of Delphi study’s results. Furthermore, the framework has been validated through a case study method with partial implementation, where its initial phases have been applied in two medium size manufacturing companies, to test its practical relevance. Findings – It was realised that there is both a massive lack of awareness/ understanding about Circular Economy as well as skills/ knowledge to identify the potential and adopt Circular Economy in the manufacturing operations among SMEs. However, at the same time, the existence of a Circular Economy practice was observed in a company where the purpose was solely for economic benefit, without any knowledge or intent of participating in Circular Economy goals. The analysis of companies pointed to potential improvements, that will lead towards achieving circularity in those respective companies. At the same time, the framework serves as a tool for the companies to continuously monitor and explore potential to improve their operations and achieve efficiency with effectiveness in a circular manner. Research implication/ Limitation – This research’s novelty lies in the fact that the convergence of Circular Economy and Lean has not been explored by scholars to its full extent and that no such framework has been developed earlier by combining the strengths of two concepts to benefit the management of manufacturing operations, especially at SMEs level. A major limitation is the partial implementation of the framework with the projected scenario of the potential outputs. The full implementation of the framework was not realistic, as it requires time to see the observable outcomes as well as changes in processes and capital to acquire resources. Practical implications – The proposed framework is of greater practical relevance as it is grounded in two concepts of Circular Economy and Lean, and benefits from the approach/ design of earlier developed frameworks. Moreover, an amalgamation of Circular Economy with Lean further affirms its relevance as Lean has been widely appraised and adopted among the manufacturing sector.
    • Identification of tourism developmental success factors: Benchmarking the Malawi tourism industry

      Heap, Tim; Kandaya, Hastings (University of Derby, 2019-07-05)
      This thesis explores the potential development of, and model for, tourism on Lake Malawi. It builds upon the historic associations attached to colonisation and how this led to the acceptance, for 30 years, of Western based models in formulating strategic plans for tourism development in Malawi. The study confirms that Lake Malawi has development potential to compete with existing successful destinations; both in the African region and the global tourism market. The thesis concentrates upon the power relationships between the current stakeholders involved in the development process and the potential mechanisms available to involve local people more in the heritage tourism dynamic. The study explores the concepts of historic tourism development within Malawi and assess the success or failure of those strategies within the context of sustainability. The primary research involved the local population within two areas on Lake Malawi, and the government employees responsible for the planning process. The literature pointed to there being a gap between theory and practice within Malawi. The study confirms the potential in the region by analysis of similar locations and their stages within the development process. The primary research confirmed the need to identify a successful model that could be adapted for the Lake Malawi. These are then adapted to country branding suggested for Malawi, as a basis for development models influenced by the branding imperative, which then concludes the circular argument built from the destination analysis.
    • Managing tourism across boundaries through Communities

      Clarke, Alan; Rawlinson, Sarah; Azara, Iride; Wiltshier, peter (University of Derby, 2019-05-07)
      Over more than a decade, observations of community based tourism inspired in me a series of publications that are detailed in this meta-analysis. These twenty five publications deal with the relationship between supply and demand in tourism from a socially constructed heuristic and hermeneutic perspective. Heuristic, as the work conducted was based around observations, even participation, in problem solving action with a wide range of stakeholders. Hermeneutic, as the research observations and participation undertaken identified root causes and opportunities pertinent to community development . Therefore this represents a study of tourism management designed to resolve complex, somewhat chaotic and wicked problems centred around the agendas for suppliers of tourism that challenged the existing management practices and perceived solutions. Solutions have been constructed built around an interpretation of habitus and beliefs that are predicated on a four component model. The first is the accrual of case studies with which to benchmark achievement that might be seen as best practice and worthy of emulation. The second is cohesion with fervently held beliefs and habitus adopted in parallel business cases, quite possibly in a competitive and quality-driven service sector. The third is enduring benchmarks in good practices that can be re-visited and adapted to meet the changing complex needs of communities. The fourth component is sharing the knowledge obtained, and maximising uptake of scarce resources used, across the varying sectors and destinations. These shared new experiences in learning are becoming embedded in education but now also need embedding in accessible repositories that conceivably are available at very low cost to a much wider range of interested stakeholders. “Being, thinking and doing” are the words that come to mind when I reflect on my publishing journey in academia from 2005 to the present day (Kassel, Rimanoczy, and Mitchell, 2016). “Being”, as I am a researcher with a passion for all that concerns the community and my role informing and advising the various stakeholders charged or expected to deliver for the visitor. “Thinking” as I am actively identifying practices for future consideration that incorporate identified exemplars of sustainable development that we can all learn from. "Doing”, as a measure of our achievements as communities and how we can embed both tacit and explicit knowledge in learning in the community and in Higher Education. My work embeds that knowledge in those stakeholders deemed jointly responsible for managing the tourism experience. Tourism can be a force for good in any community and typically relies on starting with beliefs, values and identity. Stakeholders should accept learning about the changing face of responsibility for development as that community evolves. This approach is both emancipatory and inclusive in the twenty first century and it is reflective of critical endogenous decision-making in academia and praxis. My studies in New Zealand and in the United Kingdom clarify that tourism as a “force for good” is collective, cross-border, interdisciplinary and cooperative. I believe that shared stories of effort, innovation and success are vital to future thinking, as destinations pride themselves on distinctiveness and reflect an evolving public/private partnership nature. This focus mirrors beliefs in dyadic partnerships that acknowledges the twin responsibilities to conservation and protection in the development of communities. Through an amalgam of soft-systems methodologies and phenomenology I have discovered the need for multi- and interdisciplinary approaches. I am committed to a constructivist, stakeholder focus for responsibility and gladly acknowledge the role that health services research and community development research cross the border with tourism management to inform the continuing agenda for learning destinations.
    • A CONCEPTUALISATION OF MANAGEMENT BASED ON THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF HOSPITALITY MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES

      Ramsbottom, Olivia (University of Derby, 2019-05-22)
      This research conceptualises management in response to the lack of an absolute definition in the management literature. Three concepts: Management as Learning ; the Co-dependency of management; and management as Doing and Thinking are developed from the literature and a two-stage study carried out in the context of hospitality management supports these concepts. The study results in a unique framework for the 21st century hospitality manager and recommendations for management development linked to management practice. The research is critical social constructivist and uses a phenomenological strategy. A two stage process of semi-structured interviews was employed to elucidate the experiences of 32 employees and managers in 4* and 5* hotels predominantly in London, UK with regards to the key themes of effective management. The work elicits a body of rich, living data that is interpreted to create a unique framework for the 21st century hospitality manager, which includes: - co-dependency and management as learning as linked concepts; key skills and activities for effective management; and an understanding of the required combination - confirmation that a balance of specific and universal skills are needed for hospitality management - a Manager Role mind map and table of key criteria for the transition from specialist to manager. The contributions of this research are threefold: - Theoretical: the work identifies three key fundamentals of management, filling a gap in the general management literature. - Contribution to Knowledge: the research is contextualised to hospitality management and is an application of an unusual paradigmatic approach: both contributions to the hospitality management literature. The research also fills a gap in the literature in the absence of definitions of management. - Practical: the work results in a model to be tested through application to hospitality management.
    • The digital dilemma: An investigation into social media marketing within organisations

      Longbottom, David; Lawson, Alison; Hanlon, Annmarie (University of Derby, 2019-03-18)
      This thesis investigates different application of social media marketing within organisations and identifies critical success factors resulting in a strategic social media application framework for organisations. The context of this research is the organisational application of social media and whilst social media networks have been present since 1997, the utilisation of social media by individuals has been examined by many scholars. However its application to organisations remains an area requiring further research. Thus, to understand differences in social media marketing within organisations, this thesis has problematised the notion of generational cohorts and the presence or absence of formal marketing qualifications.Following a pragmatist epistemology and ontology, this study has sought warranted assertions within a mixed-methods framework. An explanatory mixed-methods sequential design approach was adopted and for Research Phase One, an online survey within a set of closed online digital marketing groups was administered, to investigate the purposes of social media usage and affordances gained. This provided data from 448 respondents representing a variety of organisations, using social media at work. The second research phase was qualitative semi-structured interviews with participants drawn from Research Phase One, which involved 26 semi-structured mixed-mode interviews, based on the participant’s availability and location. The purpose of the semi-structured interviews was to explore critical issues raised in the online survey.The thesis is informed by the construct of affordances – which involve opportunities for action and positive affordances provide benefits. These were harnessed to delineate the benefits of social media, within an organisational context. This work provides original contributions to knowledge: The empirical research provides evidence of differences in social media marketing application between generational cohorts and those with and without formal marketing qualifications. There were statistically significant differences in the application of customer service, measuring results and managing social media interaction.The research found that there was no classification for different types of social media managers. Furthermore, digital skills gaps were identified as digital natives were more likely to have formal marketing qualifications than digital immigrants. Thus following the pragmatic principle, working typologies were presented for those using social media in organisations to better frame training and social media management. The critical success factors within organisations were justifiably warranted which asserted social media affordances for organisations: brand management, customer segmentation, customer service, interaction (engagement), entertainment, remuneration (offers), and sales cycle (testimonies and reviews). Two critical factors were confirmed: clear strategy and vision for social media management, and measure results from social media. These social media affordances were applied at varying levels of maturity and this led to the development of social media affordances maturity scale, that is grounded in a pragmatist epistemology bringing utility and understanding for organisations. This thesis identifies differences in social media marketing within organisations and in accordance with its aim, ascertains the critical success factors and develops frameworks for social media application in organisations.
    • The margin of appreciation doctrine and the interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights as a living instrument

      Ita, Rachael Eguono; University of Derby (2018)
      The significance of the margin of appreciation doctrine has been underscored recently with the adoption of Protocol No 15 which calls for the inclusion of the terms ‘margin of appreciation’ and ‘subsidiarity’ in the Preamble of the European Convention on Human Rights. This development reflects the disquiet amongst member States to the Convention that the doctrine is not being given enough weight by the European Court of Human Rights in the determination of cases before it. One of the interpretive tools that is perceived to be having a negative effect on the margin of appreciation is the living instrument doctrine which has been blamed for narrowing the margin of appreciation afforded to States. This thesis brings an original contribution to the literature in this area by considering the interaction between the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines in the case law of the Court. The contribution is achieved in two ways: (a) methodologically: through the methodology adopted which is a combination of the quantitative method of descriptive statistics and the qualitative method of doctrinal textual analysis; (b) substantively: through the systematic examination of the case law of the Court from January 1979 to December 2016 in which both the margin of appreciation and living instrument doctrines are present. The lens of the relationship between rights and duties is applied to the case analysis. The case analysis is used to draw conclusions on the nature of the relationship and whether living instrument arguments are superseding the margin of appreciation doctrine where there is conflict. The results of the case analysis also shows distinctions in the interpretive approaches of the Court at the admissibility and compliance stages. The overall results of the study show that there are a variety of ways in which interaction takes place between both doctrines and the nature of both doctrines will continue to require a close interaction between the Court and the State parties in their compliance with obligations under the Convention.
    • Implementing sustainability initiatives in business processes

      Gallotta, Bruno; University of Derby (2018-10)
      Purpose – The sustainability topic has been receiving a growing importance in the corporate environment in recent years. More and more companies are adopting sustainability practices in all their organisational levels, operations and business process as a whole; however, they have still failed to achieve the anticipated goal. Existing roadmaps, frameworks and systems do not comprehensively support sustainable business transformation. This research proposes a four phases framework, based on BPM, to help organisations to implement sustainability practices in the organisation business processes and has verified it with industry/academic specialists and validated it in a local organisation focused on sustainability initiatives. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework has been created, verified and validated. The framework is based on Business Process Management (BPM) principles, which was chosen because due its capability to work in a cross process way while providing the full control of the process performance. It was then verified using a Delphi study held with 21 specialists in Sustainable Operations Management from both academia and industry and validated using an action research study on a biomass company focused in the development of sustainable energy technologies that wished to improve the implementation of sustainability initiatives in its business processes and operations. Findings – It was identified that organisations still struggle to succeed the implementation of sustainability projects. The research outlined that the business process management (BPM) approach can be used as way to implement sustainability practices in an organisation’s business processes by using the conceptual framework. The benefits from this approach are the enablement of continuous process improvement, improvement of process quality; cost reduction; increase in the customer satisfaction; and better control 3 over process performance, which can be directly linked to the improvement of the sustainability improvement.Research limitations/implication – The main limitation of this research is the application of the framework in only one real-life scenario, which was expected due the research method chosen to validate it. Future work aims to apply the framework in different scenarios, in organisations with different sizes, different maturity level, different sector, and different locations. Further research will also investigate the symbiosis of the BPM approach with other management approaches, such as lean/green manufacturing, project management, and green supply chain and carbon footprint. In addition, in a further moment, once companies are familiarised with the project methodology, it is possible to create a centre of excellence (an area within the organisation with the best practices/ processes of the industry) in terms of sustainability bringing even more value, improving continuously and generating more innovation by the form of green reference process models. Practical implications – The proposed framework uses a Business Process Management (BPM) approach, which provides a systemic solution for the organisations adopt sustainability practices in their business processes.
    • Strategic alignment or non-alignment:

      Anthonisz, Angela Jean; University of Derby (2018-10)
      This thesis focuses on the international hotel industry as part of the global economy and examines the implications that the strategic management of human capital has within the five-star sector of the hotel industry in Dubai, an emirate of the United Arab Emirates, and an economy based on the service sector. It examines the macro environmental factors influencing the potential strategic directions of two recognized international five-star hotel brands and considers the challenges this creates for the alignment of strategy, and the implications this has for management of human capital(people) as a key determinant of success that enhances organisational outcomes. In selecting this area of research, the author has adopted a grounded theory approach to the generation of new knowledge, allowing the literature to be guided by concerns raised by hotel managers and industry consultants working in the context of Dubai. This approach led to the employment of a case study method, through which the key influences of organisational culture and ownership are considered. Two international hotel chains were identified to represent the two strategic modes of entry into the destination. The first case being a locally owned and managed chain with 7 hotels in Dubai. The second case is a European chain operating 6 hotel properties under management contract in Dubai, with 6 different owners from the Middle East. Both companies operate within the luxury five-star market that is so prevalent in Dubai. The hospitality industry, by definition, relies heavily on human capital, both as a resource and a capability that may allow for the development of competitive advantage. However, the dynamics of the Dubai hotel environment, the strength of the Arab cultural values and the organisational conditions that exist in Dubai present HR managers with a number of unique challenges, including high levels of pastoral care, and approaches to managing the workforce that may be at odds with traditional ‘Western’ ideals. This thesis adds to the existing debate on the value and utilisation of existing theoretical frameworks attached to the alignment of strategy and the implications for managing human capital in the face of globalisation and presents a model of their application in a city that is characterised by power and control, predictability and change aversion.