• School ethos and variation in health experience of young people with sickle cell disorder at school.

      Dyson, Sue E.; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine; Demaine, Jack; Dyson, Simon M. (Radcliffe Publishing, 2012-05)
      Young people with serious chronic illnesses, such as sickle cell disorder, report high levels of negative experiences at school that have adverse effects on their health. Disclosure of sickle cell status appears to be unrelated to improved experiences, and alternative explanations for variable health experiences at school are required. This paper draws on a multi-methods study of young people with sickle cell disorder in England in an attempt to make sense of variable experiences unrelated to disease severity or to teacher/peer awareness of sickle cell disorder. School ethos refers to the manner in which schoolbased interactions combine to bring into effect school values, including the attitudes expected of young people, the attitudes expected of teachers, how young people relate to each other, how young people relate to staff, how the school relates to the community, and a holistic concern with the spiritual, moral, cultural and social development of the young person. It is proposed that these interactions and resulting values are a key to understanding the variable health experiences of young people with sickle cell disorder at school.
    • Shoulder muscle activity in sport climbing in naturally chosen and corrected shoulder positions

      Baláš, Jiří; Duchačová, Alena; Giles, David; Kotalíková, Kateřina; Pánek, David; Draper, Nick; Charles University; University of Derby; University of Cantebury (Bentham Open, 2017-05-31)
      Objective: The aim of the study was to determine electromyographic activity of the scapula stabilizing muscles in naturally chosen and corrected shoulder positions in typical static climbing postures. Methods: Six male participants undertook surface electromyography measurement in four climbing postures for two different shoulder positions. The activity of the lower, middle and upper trapezius, serratus anterior, pectoralis major, and sternocleidomastoid was recorded. Electromyographic activity was expressed as the percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for each muscle. Results: Climbing postures induced higher activation of middle and lower trapezius in corrected shoulder positions (35.3 ± 11.8 and 61.7 ± 15.4% MVC respectively) than in naturally chosen shoulder positions (18.4 ± 8.9 and 30.1 ± 13.8% MVC respectively). The highest activity of the middle and lower trapezius was found in postures with the arm in external rotation and 90° abduction and in an overhanging posture. Low activation was stated for the other muscles in both shoulder conditions. Conclusion: Results showed that climbers naturally elevate the shoulder during typical static postures. Corrected shoulder positions induce higher activation of the scapula stabilizing muscles than naturally chosen shoulder positions.
    • Sickle cell, habitual dys-positions and fragile dispositions: young people with sickle cell at school.

      Dyson, Simon M.; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine A.; Dyson, Sue E.; Evans, Hala (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-03)
      The experiences of young people living with a sickle cell disorder in schools in England are reported through a thematic analysis of forty interviews, using Bourdieu’s notions of field, capital and habitus. Young people with sickle cell are found to be habitually dys-positioned between the demands of the clinic for health maintenance through self-care and the field of the school, with its emphases on routines, consistent attendance and contextual demands for active and passive pupil behaviour. The tactics or dispositions that young people living with sickle cell can then employ, during strategy and struggle at school, are therefore fragile: they work only contingently, transiently or have the unintended consequences of displacing other valued social relations. The dispositions of the young people with sickle cell are framed by other social struggles: innovations in school procedures merely address aspects of sickle cell in isolation and are not consolidated into comprehensive policies; mothers inform, liaise, negotiate and advocate in support of a child with sickle cell but with limited success. Reactions of teachers and peers to sickle cell have the enduring potential to drain the somatic, cultural and social capital of young people living with sickle cell.
    • Singing

      Irons, J. Yoon; Hancox, Grenville; University of Derby; Canterbury Christ Church University (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2021-03-18)
      We are 'hard-wired' to sing - singing has defined our evolution. Through singing we express our feelings, communicate and connect with others. We are all singers: singing is part of us and defines cultures worldwide. Singing also, importantly, makes us feel better: it is, undoubtedly, good for us. This book provides an important overview of current research showing the benefits of singing on our health and wellbeing. Case studies illustrate its power - for example, how singing helps hospitalised children and a man living with Parkinson's. The book also discusses potential barriers for singing and useful strategies needed to overcome them. An example of a community singing group is also demonstrated, alongside practical advice on facilitating community singing groups for health and wellbeing. The book will be valuable to professionals working in health and social care settings, to practitioners and educators interested in engaging in singing for health promotion, and individuals looking to find out more about the benefits and practicalities of singing.
    • Singing as an adjunct therapy for children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

      Irons, J. Yoon; Petocz, Peter; Kenny, Dianna Theadora; Chang, Anne B.; Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust (Cochrane Library, 2014-06-10)
      Background: Cystic fibrosis is a genetically inherited, life-threatening condition that affects major organs. The management of cystic fibrosis involves a multi-faceted daily treatment regimen that includes airway clearance techniques, pancreatic enzymes and other medications. Previous studies have found that compliance with this intensive treatment is poor, especially among adolescents. Because of both the nature and consequences of the illness and the relentless demands of the treatment, many individuals with cystic fibrosis have a poor quality of life. Anecdotal reports suggest that singing may provide both appropriate exercise for the whole respiratory system and a means of emotional expression which may enhance quality of life. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of singing as an adjunct therapy to standard treatment on the quality of life, morbidity, respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function of children and adults with cystic fibrosis. Search methods: We searched the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Date of latest search: 31 March 2014. We also searched major allied complementary data bases, and clinical trial registers. Additionally, we handsearched relevant conference proceedings and journals. Date of latest search: 24 May 2012. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials in which singing (as an adjunct intervention) is compared with either a control intervention (for example, playing computer games or doing craft activities) or no singing in people with cystic fibrosis. Data collection and analysis: Results of searches were reviewed against pre-determined criteria for inclusion. Only one eligible trial was available for analysis. Main results: Since only one small study was included, no meta-analysis could be performed. The included study was a parallel, randomised controlled trial undertaken at two paediatric hospitals in Australia. The study evaluated the effects of a singing program on the quality of life and respiratory muscle strength of hospitalised children with cystic fibrosis (mean age 11.6 years, 35% male). While the singing group received eight individual singing sessions, the control group participated in preferred recreational activities, such as playing computer games or watching movies. This study was limited by a small sample size (51 participants) and a high drop-out rate (21%). There were no significant differences between the groups at either post-intervention or follow up; although by the end of treatment there were some within-group statistically significant increases for both singing and control groups in some of the domains of the quality of life questionnaire Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (e.g. emotional, social and vitality domains). For the respiratory muscle strength indices, maximal expiratory pressure at follow up (six to eight weeks post-intervention) was higher in the singing group, mean difference 25.80 (95% confidence interval 5.94 to 45.66). There was no significant difference between groups for any of the other respiratory function parameters (maximal inspiratory pressure, spirometry) at either post-intervention or follow up. Authors' conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to determine the effects of singing on quality of life or on the respiratory parameters in people with cystic fibrosis. However, there is growing interest in non-medical treatments for cystic fibrosis and researchers may wish to investigate the impact of this inexpensive therapy on respiratory function and psychosocial well-being further in the future.
    • Singing as an adjunct therapy for children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

      Irons, J. Yoon; Petocz, Peter; Kenny, Dianna Theadora; Chang, Anne B.; Griffith University; South Bank Campus, Griffith University; Queensland Conservatorium Research Centre; 140 Grey Street Brisbane Australia QLD 4101; Macquarie University; Department of Statistics; Eastern Road Sydney NSW Australia 2109; University of Sydney; Behavioural and Social Sciences in Health, Faculty of Health Sciences; East St Lidcombe NSW Australia 1825; Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University; Child Health Division; PO Box 41096 Darwin Northern Territories Australia 0811 (Cochrane Library, 2016-09-15)
      People with cystic fibrosis are at risk of chest infections due to abnormally thick mucus in their airways. Airway clearance is therefore an important part of managing the condition. Increasing anecdotal reports suggest that singing may support lung function and enhance quality of life in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched for trials using the standard search methods of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group, and conducted extensive searches in other relevant databases and publications. This is an update of a previously published review.Participants from both the singing and recreation groups reported some improvement in quality of life measurements. Participants in the singing group demonstrated a greater increase in maximal expiratory pressure (a substitute measure of respiratory muscle strength test), while participants in the recreation group did not show improvement. No adverse events were reported. There is currently not enough evidence to assess the effect of singing on clinical outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. Future studies using robust methods are needed to assess the possible effects of singing for people with cystic fibrosis
    • Singing as an adjunct therapy for children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

      Irons, J. Yoon; Petocz, Peter; Kenny, Dianna T; Chang, Ann B.; University of Derby (2019-07-12)
      Cystic fibrosis is a genetically inherited, life‐threatening condition that affects major organs. The management of cystic fibrosis involves a multi‐faceted daily treatment regimen that includes airway clearance techniques, pancreatic enzymes and other medications. Previous studies have found that compliance with this intensive treatment is poor, especially among adolescents. Because of both the nature and consequences of the illness and the relentless demands of the treatment, many individuals with cystic fibrosis have a poor quality of life. Anecdotal reports suggest that singing may provide both appropriate exercise for the whole respiratory system and a means of emotional expression which may enhance quality of life. This is an update of a previously published review. To evaluate the effects of singing as an adjunct therapy to standard treatment on the quality of life, morbidity, respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function of children and adults with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Date of latest search: 07 January 2019. We also searched major allied complementary data bases, and clinical trial registers. Additionally, we hand searched relevant conference proceedings and journals. Date of latest search: 28 March 2019. Randomised controlled trials in which singing (as an adjunct intervention) is compared with either a control intervention (for example, playing computer games or doing craft activities) or no singing in people with cystic fibrosis. Results of searches were reviewed against pre‐determined criteria for inclusion. Only one eligible trial was available for analysis. Since only one small study (n = 40) was included, no meta‐analysis could be performed. The included randomised controlled study was of parallel design and undertaken at two paediatric hospitals in Australia. The study evaluated the effects of a singing program on the quality of life and respiratory muscle strength of hospitalised children with cystic fibrosis (mean age 11.6 years, 35% male). While the singing group received eight individual singing sessions, the control group participated in preferred recreational activities, such as playing computer games or watching movies. This study was limited by a small sample size (51 participants) and a high drop‐out rate (21%). There were no differences between the groups at either post‐intervention or follow‐up; although by the end of treatment there were some improvements in some of the domains of the quality of life questionnaire Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire‐Revised (e.g. emotional, social and vitality domains) for both singing and control groups. For the respiratory muscle strength indices, maximal expiratory pressure at follow‐up (six to eight weeks post‐intervention) was higher in the singing group, mean difference 25.80 (95% confidence interval 5.94 to 45.66). There was no difference between groups for any of the other respiratory function parameters (maximal inspiratory pressure, spirometry) at either post‐intervention or follow‐up. No adverse effects were observed in the singing group; adverse events for the control group were not reported in the paper. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effects of singing on quality of life or on the respiratory parameters in people with cystic fibrosis. However, there is growing interest in non‐medical treatments for cystic fibrosis and researchers may wish to investigate the impact of this inexpensive therapy on respiratory function and psychosocial well‐being further in the future.
    • Singing for people with Parkinson's disease

      Irons, J. Yoon; coren, Esther; Young, Megan K; Stewart, Donald E; Gschwandtner, Manfred; Mellick, George D; Health and Social Care Research Centre, University of Derby; Queensland Conservatorium Research Centre, Griffith University, Australia (Cochrane, 2019-02-26)
      To compare the efficacy and effectiveness of singing interventions with non‐singing intervention or usual care on QoL, wellbeing, and speech and communication among people with PD. We will assess the QoL and the physical, psychological, and social health and wellbeing of people with PD who receive a singing intervention, compared to non‐singing intervention or usual care.
    • Social media: blurred lines between personal and professional behaviour

      Jackson, Jessica; University of Derby (Medical Education Solutions, 2019-04-17)
      It is now over twenty years since the birth of social media and, according to Statista, the number of people engaged in these types of online networking platforms has reached over 39 million in the UK alone. These users include a generation who have grown up with such fast social interactions in a virtual world of posts for ‘likes’, ‘friends’ and ‘followers’. These young adults’ desire to engage in social media is often intertwined with their everyday lives.
    • Socket interface pressure and amputee reported outcomes for comfortable and uncomfortable conditions of patellar tendon bearing socket: a pilot study

      Safari, Reza; Tafti, Nahid; Aminian, Gholamreza; University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (Taylor & Francis, 2015-03-11)
      The objectives of the current study were to compare intra-socket pressure differences between comfortable and uncomfortable socket conditions, and the usefulness of subject perception of satisfaction, activity limitations, and socket comfort in distinguishing between these two socket conditions. Five unilateral trans-tibial amputees took part in the study. They answered the Socket Comfort Score (SCS) and Trinity Amputation and Prosthetic Experience Scale (TAPES) questionnaires before the interface pressure (in standing and walking) was measured for the uncomfortable socket condition at five regions of the residual limb. Participants were then provided with a comfortable socket and wore it for two weeks. Participants who were satisfied with the socket fit after two weeks repeated the SCS and TAPES questionnaires and interface pressure measurements. The differences between the test results of the two conditions were not statistically significant, except for the interface pressure at the popliteal region during the early stance phase, TAPES socket fit subscale, and the SCS. Due to large variability of the data and the lack of statistical significance, no firm conclusion can be made on the possible relationship between the interface pressure values and the patient-reported outcomes of the two socket conditions. A larger sample size and longer acclimation period are required to locate significant differences.
    • Sonographic parameters for diagnosing fetal head engagement during labour.

      Wiafe, Yaw Amo; Whitehead, Bill; Venables, Heather; Odoi, Alexander T.; University of Derby; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technolog; Department of Nursing, Radiography and Healthcare, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department of Nursing, Radiography and Healthcare, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department of Nursing, Radiography and Healthcare, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana (Sage, 2018-02-01)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of the head–perineum distance, angle of progression, and the head–symphysis distance as intrapartum ultrasound parameters in the determination of an engaged fetal head. Two hundred and one women in labour underwent both ultrasound and digital vaginal examination in the estimation of fetal head station. The transperineal ultrasound measured head–perineum distance, angle of progression, and head–symphysis distance for values correlating with digital vaginal examination head station. Using station 0 as the minimum level of head engagement, correlating cutoff values for head–perineum distance, angle of progression, and head–symphysis distance were obtained. Receiver operating characteristics were used in determining the diagnostic performance of these cut-off values for the detection of fetal head engagement. With head–perineum distance of 3.6 cm the sensitivity and specificity of sonographic determination of engaged fetal head were 78.7 and 72.3%, respectively. A head–symphysis distance of 2.8 cm also had sensitivity and specificity of 74.5 and 70.8%, respectively, in determining engagement, whilst an angle of progression of 101 was consistent with engagement by digital vaginal examination with 68.1% sensitivity and 68.2% specificity. Ultrasound shows high diagnostic performance in determining engaged fetal head at a head–perineum distance of 3.6 cm, head–symphysis distance of 2.8 cm, and angle of progression of 101.
    • A Statutory youth service proposal: Multi-professionally located to build on the past yet equipped for the future

      Howell, T.J.; Robinson, N.; University of Derby (Youth and Policy, 2019-04-15)
      Austerity at its worst has left young people socially isolated, mentally ill and disempowered by their adult peers. The claim to making youth work a protected statutory service is growing momentum. The Civil Society Strategy praises the transformational impact of youth work on working with the most disadvantaged young people. However, the Youth Violence Commission goes one step further suggesting a statutory youth service is an essential preventative measure to tackle youth violence and gangs. With such momentum and cross-party support, sufficient thought must be given to what form a statutory youth service could take to build on existing infrastructure, rather than propose a rebuilding programme on the scale of Albemarle, maybe repurposing the 1000 closed Sure Start buildings could be the answer. This paper proposes a statutory youth service based on embedding lifelong informal education to avoid gaps in transition between life stages and public services, extending the reach of the Sure Start initiative through family community hubs. This offer would be a process curriculum with political education and praxis at its heart. It would be OFSTED inspected, measuring the quality of inputs rather than outputs with local organisation determined by local youth panels making decisions on local priorities.
    • Student midwives perspectives on the efficacy of feedback after objective structured clinical examination.

      Killingley, Jo; Dyson, Sue E. (MA Healthcare, 2016-05-02)
      Students' experience of feedback is considered an indicator of the efficacy of the assessment process. Negative experiences of feedback are unproductive in terms of the likelihood that students will act upon and learn from assessment. To understand the impact of feedback on learning this study explored the experiences of student midwives after receiving feedback following Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Data were collected from second year undergraduate student midwives who had recently completed OSCE, via a focus group. Students reported raised stress levels, concerns around legitimacy of feedback, and inconsistencies in the manner in which feedback was articulated. Assessment feedback in higher education should be used to empower students to become self-regulated learners. This is important for student midwives for whom a considerable amount of leaning is spent in practice. The study has implications for midwifery academics concerned with modes of assessment and quality of assessment feedback in midwifery education.
    • Student pro-sociality: measuring institutional and individual factors that predict pro-social behaviour at university

      Stiff, Chris; Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E. S.; Wake, Stephanie; Woodward, Amelia; Keele University; Durham University; York University, Toronto (Springer, 2019-04-18)
      Students operate within a bounded social context and often face decisions regarding whether to pursue selfish or group-level benefit. Yet little work has examined what predicts their behaviour towards fellow students. This work addresses this gap by investigating what factors may predict students’ performance of pro-social actions at university, and how an institution may maximise such behaviour. Study 1 created the student pro-sociality scale, used to measure these tendencies in students. In study 2, 428 students from 25 UK universities took part in an online survey study using this scale ,and several other pre-existing measures of possible predictors. Analysis suggested that of those factors examined, role clarity, affective commitment, empathy, and perspective-taking emerged as the most influential. This first foray into this area can now inspire further research in finding the effective ways of fostering pro-social behaviour in students.
    • Subjective experiences of participatory arts engagement of healthy older people and explorations of creative ageing

      Bradfield, E.; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-08-04)
      The aim of this article was to report findings from a qualitative focus group study conducted to understand the subjective experiences of community-dwelling healthy older people engaging in a range of participatory arts activities. The article also uses the participants' voices to consider nuances and interconnections of themes to unpack the complexities of ‘participatory arts’ engagement and support a conceptualisation of ‘creative ageing’. This study involved qualitative focus group interviews. Focus group interviews were conducted with five groups of healthy older people (aged ≥50 years) living in the community (i.e. not in residential care settings). Participants were recruited through self-selected sampling, and on the basis of self-reporting, no diagnosis of ill-health. Focus group interviews were digitally recorded and analysed using thematic analysis. Themes developed from a systematic review of participatory arts for promoting well-being in later life conducted previously by the author were used as the stimulus for conversation in the focus groups. Interviews were not transcribed, rather pseudonymised quotations are used to support the themes. The study also explored barriers to participation, although these findings are not reported here. Subjective experiences of participatory arts engagement of healthy older people focused on everyday creativity and reflections on the term ‘participation’, which challenge the traditional focus of arts and health research on the effects of active engagement. Healthy older people experienced a sense of achievement and ‘flow’ through creative engagement, which led to opportunities for social interaction and developing a sense of purpose. Through transitions of ageing, older people found creative ways of rediscovering their identity in later life, which supported resilience and highlighted a connection between body, mind and soul. Findings suggest that participation in everyday creative experiences can lead to a sense of achievement and purpose, which provides support and structure in the construction of changing identity in later life. Participatory arts engagement is particularly instrumental during transitions of ageing. This study provides a conceptualisation of ‘creative ageing’ which challenges traditional ideas of ‘participatory arts’ and audience engagement by focusing on subjectivities of the participant voice. The framework moves debate beyond a focus on the efficacy of arts engagement to consider the relevance of subjective experiences of everyday creativity in later life.
    • Successful up-scaled population interventions to reduce risk factors for non-communicable disease in adults: results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Project in China, India and Mexico.

      Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Stevens, Denise E; Champagne, Beatriz; Li, Li-Ming; Lv, Jun; Ramírez Hernández, Jorge; Thankappan, K R; Matthews, David R; et al. (PLOS, 2015-04-13)
      Non-communicable disease (NCD) is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC.
    • Synthesis of UK evidence based recommendations for adult obesity prevention and treatment for service improvement and implementation

      Bird, Lydia; Cross-Bardell, Laura; Ward, Derek; Kai, Joe; University of Derby (Academic Health Science Network, 2015-09)
      This is a synthesis of UK evidence-based recommendations for adult obesity prevention and treatment services, produced by the Why Weight East Midlands AHSN team. It is intended as a ‘user-friendly’ summary of existing multiple sets of, often overlapping, guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Public Health England (PHE) and other sources. This work has been produced in response to consultation with Local Authority, CCG and other public health stakeholders in the East Midlands in 2014-15, many of whom are newly tasked with commissioning, delivering and evaluating public health services in their localities. The aim of this synthesis is to help inform and facilitate service improvement, and the implementation of interventions based on best available evidence or practice. Links to sources and original references are provided in Appendix 1 for users to access further detail. A Why Weight Checklist has also been developed as part of this synthesis (Appendix 2). This is intended to enable users to easily assess ‘where they are at’ or may need to be supporting health improvement in their locale.
    • Systematic review of effects of current transtibial prosthetic socket designs—Part 1: Qualitative outcomes

      Safari, Reza; Meier, Margrit Regula; University Of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran;; Department for Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics, and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway (PLOS, 2015)
      This review is an attempt to untangle the complexity of transtibial prosthetic socket fit, determine the most important characteristic for a successful fitting, and perhaps find some indication of whether a particular prosthetic socket type might be best for a given situation. Further, it is intended to provide directions for future research. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and used medical subject headings and standard key words to search for articles in relevant databases. No restrictions were made on study design or type of outcome measure. From the obtained search results (n = 1,863), 35 articles were included. The relevant data were entered into a predefined data form that incorporated the Downs and Black risk of bias assessment checklist. Results for the qualitative outcomes (n = 19 articles) are synthesized. Total surface bearing sockets lead to greater activity levels and satisfaction in active persons with amputation, those with a traumatic cause of amputation, and younger persons with amputation than patellar tendon bearing sockets. Evidence on vacuum-assisted suction and hydrostatic sockets is inadequate, and further studies are much needed. To improve the scientific basis for prescription, comparison of and correlation between mechanical properties of interface material, socket designs, user characteristics, and outcome measures should be conducted and reported in future studies.
    • Systematic review of effects of current transtibial prosthetic socket designs—Part 2: Quantitative outcomes

      Safari, Reza; Meier, Margrit Regula; University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran;; Department for Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics, and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway (PLOS, 2015)
      This review is an attempt to untangle the complexity of transtibial prosthetic socket fit and perhaps find some indication of whether a particular prosthetic socket type might be best for a given situation. In addition, we identified knowledge gaps, thus providing direction for possible future research. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, using medical subject headings and standard key words to search for articles in relevant databases. No restrictions were made on study design and type of outcome measure used. From the obtained search results (n = 1,863), 35 articles were included. The relevant data were entered into a predefined data form that included the Downs and Black risk of bias assessment checklist. This article presents the results from the systematic review of the quantitative outcomes (n = 27 articles). Trends indicate that vacuum-assisted suction sockets improve gait symmetry, volume control, and residual limb health more than other socket designs. Hydrostatic sockets seem to create less inconsistent socket fittings, reducing a problem that greatly influences outcome measures. Knowledge gaps exist in the understanding of clinically meaningful changes in socket fit and its effect on biomechanical outcomes. Further, safe and comfortable pressure thresholds under various conditions should be determined through a systematic approach.
    • A systematic review of evidence about the role of alexithymia in chronic back pain

      Elander, James; Kapadi, Romaana; Bateman, Antony H.; University of Derby; Royal Derby Spinal Centre, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton NHS Foundation Trust (British Psychological Society, 2021-02-01)
      Individuals with alexithymia struggle to make sense of their emotions. Alexithymia has been associated with a range of physical illnesses, but may influence different illnesses differently, so to understand the role of alexithymia in illness it is important to focus on specific conditions. This article reviews evidence from ten reports published between 2000 and 2018 of studies with samples of adults with chronic back pain that used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). The studies were conducted in Germany, Israel, Italy, Russia, Turkey and the USA. Eight studies involved clinical samples and two involved public transit workers. Studies that compared participants with high and low alexithymia consistently found associations with measures of pain. The findings show that more severe alexithymia plays a role in the experience of chronic back pain, and support the incorporation of alexithymia-related elements in interventions to help people with chronic back pain improve their emotional regulation and reduce their pain-related distress.