• The determination of finger flexor critical force in rock climbers

      Giles, David; Chidley, Joe;; Taylor, Nicola; Torr, Ollie; Hadley, Josh; Randall, Tom; Fryer, Simon; University of Derby (Human Kinetics, 2019-04)
      Purpose: To determine if the mathematical model used for the estimation of critical force (CF) and the energy store component W’ is applicable to intermittent isometric muscle actions of the finger flexors of rock climbers, using a multi-session test. As a secondary aim, the agreement of estimates of CF and W’ from a single-session test were also determined. The CF was defined as the slope coefficient and W’ the intercept of the linear relationship between total “isometric work” (Wlim) and time to exhaustion (Tlim). Methods: Subjects performed three (separated by either 20 m or >24 h) tests to failure using intermittent isometric finger flexor contractions at 45, 60 and 80% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Results: Force plotted against Tlim displayed a hyperbolic relationship, correlation coefficients of the parameter estimates from the work–time CF model were consistently very high (R2 > 0.94). Climbers mean CF was 425.7 ± 82.8 N (41.0 ± 6.2% MVC) and W’ 30882 ± 11820 N·s. Good agreement was found between the single and multi-session protocol for CF (ICC(3,1) = 0.900, 95% Confidence Interval [CI95%] 0.616 – 0.979), but not for W’ (ICC(3,1) = 0.768, CI95% 0.190 – 0.949). Conclusions: The results demonstrated the sensitivity of a simple test for the determination of CF and W’, using equipment readily available in most climbing gyms. While further work is still necessary, the test of CF described is of value for understanding exercise tolerance and determine optimal training prescription to monitor improvements the performance of the finger flexors.
    • Developing an Australia wide approach to IPE leadership and sustainability

      Moran, Monica; Forman, Dawn; O’Keefe, Maree; Steketee, Carole; Rogers, Gary D.; Dunston, Roger; University of Western Australia, Geraldton, Australia; University of Derby; University of Adelaide, Australia; University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Australia; et al. (Springer International Publishing, 2020-07-28)
      Australia is a country and a continent. Whilst health standards are ranked amongst the best in the world, its immense size and distributed population creates unique challenges for the delivery of integrated health and social care services.
    • Developing and maintaining leadership, resilience and sustainability in interprofessional collaboration

      Forman, Dawn; University of Derby (Springer International Publishing, 2020-07-28)
      Interprofessional collaboration has grown significantly in health care organisations, becoming a critical part of the way in which health and social care is delivered. It is now seen as an essential part of effective health care delivery. Health professionals can be assigned to designated teams due to the increasing complexity of health care delivery, or more commonly a number of professionals with different expertise work together in collaborations which can be configured over some distance (Thistlethwaite, Dunston, & Yassine in Journal of Interprofessional Care 32:745–751, 2019).
    • Development and evaluation of student transition writing mentoring

      Elander, James; Westrup, Rebecca; Caldwell, Teresa; Foxcroft, Angela; Norton, Lin; Crooks, Sarah; Wardley, Karen; University of Derby; Liverpool Hope University (Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, 2011-09-01)
      Flying Start, an inter-institutional NTFS project, developed and evaluated programmes in which university students mentored A-level and other pre-university students in academic writing. Feedback showed that the pre-university mentees found the mentors easy to talk to and believed the programme would help them write better at university. Focus groups revealed that mentees would have liked better preparation for the programmes; that interpersonal mentor-mentee interactions affected both sets of students’ experiences; and that mentees valued working with mentors on the aspects of writing that were programme targets. Before-and-after measures showed limited changes in approaches to learning, no changes in understanding of the core criteria for university writing, but small improvements in quality of writing. The evaluation provides the basis for recommendations about wider use of pre-university interventions in academic writing, and about ways the approach could be adapted for different settings.
    • Development and preliminary evaluation of a new anatomically based prosthetic alignment method for below-knee prosthesis.

      Tafti, Nahid; Karimlou, Masoud; Mardani, Mohammad Ali; Jafarpisheh, Amir Salar; Aminian, Gholam Reza; Safari, Reza; University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; Islamic Azad University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-04-20)
      The objectives of current study were to a) assess similarities and relationships between anatomical landmark-based angles and distances of lower limbs in unilateral transtibial amputees and b) develop and evaluate a new anatomically based static prosthetic alignment method. First sub-study assessed the anthropometrical differences and relationships between the lower limbs in the photographs taken from amputees. Data were analysed via paired t-test and regression analysis. Results show no significant differences in frontal and transverse planes. In the sagittal plane, the anthropometric parameters of the amputated limb were significantly correlated to the corresponding variables of the sound limb. The results served as bases for the development of a new prosthetic alignment method. The method was evaluated on a single subject study. Prosthetic alignment carried out by an experienced prosthetist was compared with such alignment adjusted by an inexperienced prosthetist but with the use of the developed method. In sagittal and frontal planes, the socket angle was tuned with respect to the shin angle, and the position of the prosthetic foot was tuned in relation to the pelvic landmarks. Further study is needed to assess the proposed method on a larger sample of amputees and prosthetists.
    • Development of materials to support parents whose babies cry excessively: findings and health service implications.

      Long, Jaqui; Powell, Charlotte; Bamber, Deborah; Garratt, Rosemary; Brown, Jayne; Dyson, Sue E.; St James-Roberts, Ian (Cambridge University Press, 2018-01-10)
      Aim: To develop evidence-based materials which provide information and support for parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. As well as meeting these parents' needs, the aim was to develop a package of materials suitable for use by the UK National Health Service (NHS). Background: Parents report that around 20% of 1-4 month-old infants in western countries cry excessively without apparent reason. Traditionally, research has focused on the crying and its causes. However, evidence is growing that how parents evaluate and respond to the crying needs to receive equal attention. This focus encompasses parental resources, vulnerabilities, wellbeing, and mental health. At present, the UK NHS lacks a set of routine provisions to support parents who are concerned about their baby's excessive crying. The rationales, methods and findings from a study developing materials for this purpose are reported. Method: Following a literature review, 20 parents whose babies previously cried excessively took part in focus groups or interviews. They provided reports on their experiences and the supports they would have liked when their baby was crying excessively. In addition, they identified their preferred delivery methods and devices for accessing information and rated four example support packages identified by the literature review. Findings: During the period their baby cried excessively, most parents visited a health service professional and most considered these direct contacts to have provided helpful information and support. Websites were similarly popular. Telephones and tablets were the preferred means of accessing online information. Groups to meet other parents were considered an important additional resource by all the parents. Three package elements - a Surviving Crying website, a printed version of the website, and a programme of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-based support sessions delivered to parents by a qualified practitioner, were developed for further evaluation.
    • Development of NURSE education in Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Ghana: From undergraduate to doctoral programmes

      Anthony, Denis; Alosaimi, Dalyal; Dyson, Sue E.; Saleh, Mohammad; Korsah, Kwadwo; University of Derby; King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; University of Ghana, Ghana; University of Jordan, Jordan (Elseiver, 2020-08-18)
      Doctoral programmes in nursing have a long history in the US where traditional research based PhDs and more clinically based doctoral programmes are common. In the rest of the world PhDs are better accepted though professional doctorates with a thesis component are common in the UK. In countries with newly established or planned doctoral programmes in nursing the research PhD seems the degree of choice. Here we discuss developments in Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Ghana. This study used official documents, strategic plans, curriculum developments and other documentary evidence from Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Ghana. We compared doctoral programmes and development with other countries by reference to the literature. We offer the example of public health and non-communicable diseases in particular as one area where doctorally trained nurses applying international standards in collaboration internationally may be of benefit.
    • The Digital House of Care: information solutions for integrated care

      Muirhead, Andrew; Howard, Brenda; Ward, Derek; University of Derby (Emerald, 2016-10-17)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a digital tool in an English county striving towards a vision of integrated information that is used to underpin an increasingly integrated future of health and social care delivery. Design/methodology/approach – It discusses the policy context nationally, the origins and implementation of the initiative, the authors’ experiences and viewpoint highlighting key challenges and learning, as well as examples of new work undertaken. Findings – In all, 12 health and care organisations have participated in this project. The ability for local commissioners and providers of services to now understand “flow” both between and within services at a granular level is unique. Costs are modest, and the opportunities for refining and better targeting as well as validating services are significant, thus demonstrating a return on investment. Key learning includes how organisational development was equally as important as the implementation of innovative new software, that change management from grass roots to strategic leaders is vital, and that the whole system is greater than the sum of its otherwise in-silo parts. Practical implications – Data linkage initiatives, whether local, regional or national in scale, need to be programme managed. A robust governance and accountability framework must be in place to realise the benefits of such as a solution, and IT infrastructure is paramount. Social implications – Organisational development, collaborative as well as distributed leadership, and managing a change in culture towards health and care information is critical in order to create a supportive environment that fosters learning across organisational boundaries. Originality/value – This paper draws on the recent experience of achieving large-scale data integration across the boundaries of health and social care, to help plan and commission services more effectively. This rich, multi-agency intelligence has already begun to change the way in which the system considers service planning, and learning from this county’s approach may assist others considering similar initiatives.
    • Digital interventions to promote self-management in people with osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis - Study protocol

      Safari, Reza; Jackson, Jessica; Dhadda, Buk; Watkins, Merryl; Sheffield, David; Anthony, Denis; Ward, Derek; University of Derby; NHS Southern Derbyshire; Lincolnshire County Council (National Health Service (NHS), 2018-05-11)
      The proposed research is a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomised controlled trials of digital interventions to promote self-management in people with osteoarthritis. The effects of self-management programs, on patient outcomes such as pain, disability, function and quality of life will be analysed in direct pairwise meta-analysis. The health service outcomes and cost effectiveness data will also be extracted if reported in the papers and will be synthesised narratively.
    • Digital-based self-management interventions for people with osteoarthritis: Systematic review with meta-analysis

      Safari, Reza; Jackson, Jessica; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (JMIR Publications Inc., 2020-06)
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is not curable but the symptoms can be managed through Self-management programmes. Due to the growing burden of arthritis to the health system, and the need to ensure high quality integrated services, delivering Self-management programmes through digital technologies could be an economic and effective community-based model of care. To analyze the effectiveness of digital-based self-management programs on patient outcomes in people with OA. Seven online databases and three grey literature databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing digital-based structured self-management programs (D-SMP) on self-reported outcomes including pain, function, disability, and health-related quality of life in people with OA. Two reviewers independently screened the search results and reference list of identified papers and related reviews. Data about the intervention components and delivery, and behavioral change techniques were extracted. Meta-analysis, risk of bias sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed where appropriate. The GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of evidence. Eight studies were eligible including 2687 people with OA. Self-management programs were delivered via telephone plus audio/video, internet or mobile app. D-SMP compared to Treatment As Usual control group resulted in a significant, homogeneous, moderate reduction in pain (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.18) and improvement in physical function (-0.26 95% CI -0.35 to -0.16) at post-treatment. The D-SMP effect reduced slightly at 12 months follow-up but remained significant and moderate. Using the GRADE approach, the quality of evidence was rated as ‘moderate’. D-SMPs may result in a moderate improvement in pain symptoms and function in people with OA delivered. Further research is required to confirm the findings of the review and assess the effects of D-SMPs on other health-related outcomes. Clinical Trial: PROSPERO: CRD42018089322
    • Disclosure and sickle cell disorder: a mixed methods study of the young person with sickle cell at school.

      Dyson, Simon M.; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine A.; Dyson, Sue E.; Evans, Hala; Rowley, Dave T. (Elsevier, 2010)
      Sickle cell is a leading genetic condition, both globally and in England. Little research has been conducted into the experiences of young people with sickle cell at school. A mixed methods study (May 2007–September 2008) based on 569 questionnaires and 40 taped interviews with young people living with sickle cell disorder (SCD) in England found that students with SCD are faced with a dilemma as to whether or not to disclose their sickle cell to teachers and pupils: the latent and hidden characteristics of their symptoms make it possible, in Goffmanesque terms, to “pass”. However the variable and unpredictable course of sickle cell is a reminder of Goffman’s notion of being “discreditable”. We found that teacher or pupil knowledge that a young person has sickle cell is not statistically associated with reported better treatment of young people with SCD at school. Analysis of interviews suggests most young people favour disclosing their sickle cell status (on the basis that teachers will then know what actions to take in the face of bouts of illness and in terms of making allowances for illness or school absences). A minority disagreed because disclosure was felt to attract unwarranted attention or disabling attitudes. Attitudes to disclosing to peers were more varied: either for or against disclosure to peers, or ambivalent in that they felt a tension between acknowledging the reality of their sickle cell, and not wanting it to be a central part of their identity. Some health promotion advice appears to assume that teacher and/or peer awareness is the key to improving school experience for young people with SCD, but this is not borne out by this study. Rather a change in wider school environments is required such that young people with SCD are supported irrespective of whether they themselves foreground or play down their disabled identity.
    • Domestic violence and suicide attempt among married women: A case‐control study

      Rahmani, F; Salmasi, S; Rahmani, F; Bird, J; ASghari, E; Robai, N; Asghari Jafarabadi, M; Gholizadeh, L; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-04-23)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of domestic violence‐related factors on suicide attempt in married women. Suicide is a global public health concern that poses significant burden on individuals, families and communities. There is limited research on factors predicting suicide attempt in women. A retrospective case‐control design was adopted. Using a convenience sampling method, 610 participants, admitted to a teaching referral hospital in Northwest of XXX, were recruited to the study and assigned to case or control groups based on whether or not they had attempted suicide. The participants in two groups were matched in the terms of important demographic characteristics. Domestic violence‐related factors were considered as independent variables and suicide attempt as dependent variable. Descriptive statistics, simple and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Odd ratios (OR) of domestic violence related factors were compared between the groups. We used STROBE checklist as an EQUATOR in this study. The mean age of participants in the case and control groups was 28.4 years and 29.45 years, respectively. The infidelity was the strongest predictor of suicide attempt in women (OR 44.57, 95%CI 6.08‐326. 63, p<0.001), followed by being threatened to physical assault by husband (OR 37.01, 95%CI 11.54‐118.67, p<0.001), jealousy of husband (OR 23.46, 95%CI 11.63‐47.30, p<0.001), and previous attempts to divorce (OR 16.55, 95%CI 5.91‐46.31, p<0.001). Suicide attempt was significantly lower in women who reported a sense of peace in life or lived with their mother or father‐in‐law (p<0.001). To reduce the risk of suicide in women, violence against women should be condemned and appropriate prevention measures be taken by health professionals. Recognizing risk, assessment and referral of victims of domestic violence should be an integral part of health care systems.
    • Education and young people with sickle cell disorder: a knowledge review.

      Abuateya, Hala; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine A.; Dyson, Sue E.; Dyson, Simon M. (Radcliffe Publishing, 2008-06)
      Sickle cell disorders (SCD) are a group of chronic inherited blood conditions. The majority of studies on SCD have a clinical focus and deal with how those living with SCD 'manage' what is constructed as a given: the 'condition' of SCD. Consequently, many studies present the psychological impact, referring uncritically to what are termed 'coping strategies'. Current debates on SCD and other chronic conditions rarely engage with the broader social context. In part response to this, our paper presents a critical review of the literature on SCD, young people and education. The paper evaluates literature that touches on education and SCD, before concluding with a broad discussion of future research and policy priorities. Throughout, we reflect on how the process of constructing a knowledge base from available literature is problematic. We specifically discuss how current research presents a skewed picture of the experience of SCD, which is of limited value to those responsible for education policy and practice. The paper concludes that research should move beyond describing the basic health needs of people with SCD by including the social context of their lives. Existing literature on the individual educational experiences of young people living with SCD is, however, either dated or limited by being based on conceptual argument rather than empirical data. Consequently, there is a need for well-designed studies to establish the best way to meet the educational needs of young people with SCD, reflecting not only their health needs in school, but the whole context of living with SCD, including interaction with disabling or racist structures. Furthermore, this holistic approach could contribute to a wider understanding of the educational needs of young people from minority ethnic backgrounds and of young people living with chronic illnesses.
    • Effect of exercise interventions on perceived fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis: synthesis of meta-analytic reviews

      Safari, Reza; Van der Linden, Marietta L.; Mercer, Tom H.; University of Derby; Queen Margaret University; Centre for Health & Social Care Research, College of Health & Social Care, University of Derby, Derby, DE22 1GB, UK; Centre for Health & Social Care Research, College of Health & Social Care, University of Derby, Derby, DE22 1GB, UK; Centre for Health & Social Care Research, College of Health & Social Care, University of Derby, Derby, DE22 1GB, UK (Future Medicine, 2017-06-20)
      Although exercise training has been advocated as a nonpharmacological treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) related fatigue, no consensus exists regarding its effectiveness. To address this, we collated meta-analytic reviews that explored the effectiveness of exercise training for the treatment of MS-related fatigue. We searched five online databases for relevant reviews, published since 2005, and identified 172 records. Five reviews were retained for systematic extraction of information and evidence quality analysis. Although our review synthesis indicated that exercise training interventions have a moderate effect on fatigue reduction in people with MS, no clear insight was obtained regarding the relative effectiveness of specific types or modes of exercise intervention. Moreover, Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation revealed that the overall quality of evidence emanating from these five reviews was ‘very low’.
    • The effectiveness of intrapartum ultrasonography in assessing cervical dilatation, head station and position: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Wiafe, Yaw Amo; Whitehead, Bill; Venables, Heather; Nakua, Emmanuel Kweku; University of Derby (2016-10-06)
    • Engaging Leaders: The challenge of inspiring collective commitment in universities

      Gentle, Paul; Forman, Dawn; University of Derby (Routledge, 2014)
      Addressing the question of how leadership can work most successfully in universities, Engaging Leaders strengthens the sense of shared professional knowledge and capability amongst leaders in higher education. Presenting a narrative of change which not only spells out why universities need to work differently, this book also takes the reader through clear practical steps which any practising leader can take in order to build a collaborative professional culture which supports and challenges all members of an academic community.
    • Envy's pathology: Historical contexts.

      Minou, Lina; Independent Researcher (F1000Research, 2017-05-23)
      This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early -modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur. The discussion begins by acknowledging the status of envy as a 'disease' and looks to the specific ways in which the discourse of envy conveys this sense. I find that in the early modern discourse envy is always pathological, that is, it is experienced as disease and signifies disease in general and several diseases in particular. Moreover, envy is uniquely placed to convey pathology on account of its being connected to inherently pathogenic elements of the humoural theory. Specifically, envy is physiologically connected to melancholy, and the way it is presented comes close to attributes assigned to black bile. In addition, envy realizes pathology, the occurrence of disease in the body, by impairing the vital process of digestion and thus depriving the person from proper nourishment and sustenance. The analysis further considers how this impairment of the body fits with the physiological manifestation of envy as 'corrosion' and 'consumption'. Finding commonalities with other maladies mediated by these physiological signs the article concludes by considering the function of pathology in the conception of early modern envy.
    • Evaluating an interprofessional disease state and medication management review model

      Hoti, Kreshnik; Forman, Dawn; Hughes, Jeffery; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-11-18)
      There is lack of literature data reporting an incorporation of medication management reviews in students’ interprofessional education (IPE) and practice programs in aged care settings. This pilot study reports how an interprofessional disease state and medication management review program (DSMMR) was established in a residential aged care facility in Perth, Western Australia. Students from the professions of nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy focused on a wellness check in the areas of cognition, falls and continence while integrating a medication management review. Students’ attitudes were explored using a pre- and post-placement questionnaire. Students indicated positive experience with the IPE DSMMR program which also resulted in their positive attitudinal shift towards IPE and practice. These findings indicated that aged care can be a suitable setting for student interprofessional programs focusing on DSMMR.
    • Evaluating clinical placements in Saudi Arabia with the CLES+T scale

      Anthony, Denis; Al-Anazi, Norah; Alosaimi, Dalyal; Pandaan, Isabelita; Dyson, Sue E.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-07-09)
      The clinical learning environment and supervision (CLES) tool has been enhanced with an additional sub-scale for measuring the quality of nurse teacher’s involvement to form the CLES+T scale. It has been widely used in many countries to evaluate clinical placements. Here we report data from Saudi Arabia. The CLES+T was employed to measure satisfaction among student nurses concerning their clinical learning environment. Linear regression was used to determine relationships of various variables to the outcomes of total CLES+T score and those of its subscales. Students were generally satisfied with their placements. For female students the number of visits of the nurse tutor was positively associated with most subscales and with the total score. For males, who had fewer visits of nurse tutor, there was no such association. Nurse tutor visits are positive in terms of clinical placement evaluation by female student nurses. Saudi nursing students are generally similar to students in other international studies in terms of their appraisal of clinical placements.
    • An exploratory study to identify risk factors for the development of capecitabine-induced Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE)

      Law, Annie; Dyson, Sue E.; Anthony, Denis; De Montfort University; University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust; UK; Middlesex University; UK; University of Leeds; UK (Wiley., 2015-02-20)
      AIMS: To identify pre-treatment risk factors for the development of Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia in participants receiving capecitabine monotherapy. Specifically the hypothesis that avoidance of activities that cause friction and pressure cause Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia was tested. BACKGROUND: Previous literature showed contradictory evidence on the subject of predictors of chemotherapy-induced Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia. There is a lack of empirical evidence to support the theory that Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia is caused by damage to the microcapillaries due to everyday activities that cause friction or pressure to the hands or feet. DESIGN: Prospective epidemiological study of risk factors. METHODS: Prospective data collection. All patients prior to commencing capecitabine monotherapy between 11 June 2009-31 December 2010, were offered recruitment into the study and followed up for six cycles of treatment (n = 174). Data were collected during semi-structured interviews, from participants' diaries, physical examination of the hands and feet and review of notes. Data relating to activities that cause friction, pressure or heat were collected. Data were analysed using bivariate (chi-square and independent groups Student's t) tests where each independent variable was analysed against Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia. RESULTS: The only variables that were associated with an increased risk of Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia were a tendency to have warm hands and pre-existing inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study gives no support for the hypothesis that avoidance of activities that cause friction and pressure cause Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia.