• Concepts of perceptual significance for composition and reproduction of explorable sound fields

      Lennox, Peter; Myatt, Tony; University of Derby; University of York (Schulich School of Music, McGill University, 26/06/2007)
      Recent work in audio and visual perception suggests that, over and above sensory acuities, exploration of an environment is a most powerful perceptual strategy. For some uses, the plausibility of artificial sound environments might be dramatically improved if exploratory perception is accommodated. The composition and reproduction of spatially explorable sound fields involves a different set of problems from the conventional surround sound paradigm, developed to display music and sound effects to an essentially passive audience. This paper is based upon contemporary models of perception and presents proposals for additional spatial characteristics beyond classical concepts of three-dimensional positioning of virtual objects.
    • Audio-tactile multimodal perception of tissue-conducted sound fields

      Lennox, Peter; McKenzie, Ian; University of Derby (26/05/2017)
      Approximately 5% of the World’s population, that is, 360 million people, suffer from “disabling hearing loss” and the proportion of over-65s rises to about 33%. 13.4% of geriatric patients have significant conductive components to their hearing loss. For this segment of the population, “music deprivation” may have significant long-term health and wellbeing consequences amounting to diminished quality of life (QoL). Assistive technologies implementing sensory augmentation could ameliorate the effects of lack of ready access to music, the experiential attributes of music listening can be reinstated and tangible benefits might accrue.
    • Music as artificial environment: Spatial, embodied multimodal experience

      Lennox, Peter; University of Derby (Routledge, 26/04/2017)
      This chapter is a speculative exploration of the near-future possibilities of spatial music. Technologically, we can control many hundreds of loudspeakers and, conceivably, many thousands. What would we do with them? Here, music is considered as a particular example of arti cial information environments, with consequences for the perception of space. Arti cial information environments are those environments in which information transactions are governed by design. The distinction is clear in comparison with natural environments, but a ner distinction can be drawn between man-made environments (such as buildings), where some information transactions are haphazard, and information environments whose main purpose is to display information.
    • Head space and Dark days.

      McNaney, Nicki; University of Derby (Broken Grey Wires, 26/02/2018)
      Broken Grey Wires is an ongoing investigation into art and mental health by developing a dialogue with leading contemporary artists. Two screen-printed illustrations,Head Space and Dark Days are included in an artist book Psycho published by Broken Grey Wires.
    • Work space II: attempts on Margarita

      Penna, Xristina; Eyes, Ben; Graham, Katherine; Carlsberg, Jennifer; Steggals, Lucy; Bradbury, Olivia; Kapsali, Maria; Turner, Alaena; Collins, Esther; University of Leeds (Stage@Leeds, 26/02/2015)
      Margarita is a pile of constantly changing drafts ready to be revised, retold, forgotten, erased… Can we keep Margarita going? This performance installation asks for the audiences’ participation in constructing a collective consciousness: Margarita. It is created as part of Xristina’s Practice Research on performance design, and cognition at PCI using recordings, live performance and ‘scenographic contraptions’. The project contributed to the collection of qualitative data (images, post-show interviews, and participant questionnaires) for the analysis of the interaction between audience-participants, and the scenographic environment. Xristina is testing here a methodological tool brought into her research from her performance design and practice background: the contraption. She situates the metaphorical notion of consciousness as ‘multiple drafts’ following Dennett, who, when trying to explain how consciousness works ‘avoids supposing that there must be a single narrative (the “final” or “published” draft, you might say)’ (Dennett 1991: 113), but rather that there are multiple drafts or ‘narrative fragments’ at various stages of editing in various places in the brain (Dennett 1991: 113). This metaphor is used as a critical design-practice tool (contraption) for generating dynamic and reflective exchange between the audience-participants, the artists-collaborators, the environment and the practitioner-researcher. The audiences’ engagement and experience with this environment is further analysed using embodiment, the socially collaborative and ecological nature of human cognition.The composition of the work consists of pre-recorded voices of friends/colleagues/acquaintances of the practitioner-researcher and of live-streamed voices of random passers-by, answering the same set of questions regarding themselves or a female person they know well. The show is divided in 11 chapters, which correspond to the above questions and form a sonic collage, heard through a surround sound system controlled live by the sound designer, and the lighting designer. Container-structures invite the audience to literally immerse in them and listen to the more intimate audio recordings (i.e. the secret pleasures of Margarita). A folk English song talking about an apple and a head is performed live every 15 minutes, while multiple transcripts of the recordings are printed out ad hoc and placed on the floor for the audience to read; a button box waits to be explored and the lighting designer intervenes live corresponding with different lighting atmospheres. The audience-participants visiting the installation are invited to freely explore this sonic, performed and material environment and piece together the experience of Margarita.
    • Interactive sound fountains

      Locke, Caroline (25/11/2011)
    • The revival of the ancient technique of printing with mordants and dyeing in bi-colourants to achieve contemporary poly-chromic designs

      Wells, Kate; Churn, Kate; University of Derby (NOVA University of Lisbon Campus Caparica / Caparica Portugal, 25/10/2018)
      This paper explores the creation of a range of sustainable patterned fabrics by employing various Bio-colorants (natural dyes) in combination with a range of mordants that have a lesser impact upon the environment to create a poly-chromatic design within single dyeing process. Practice based research was undertaken into dyeing and printing with Madder, Logwood, Weld and Woad or Indigo in combination with a selection of mordants Alum, Copper Acetate, Iron Acetate and Tannins onto a range of fabric bases which includes the new regenerated fibres alongside traditional natural ones as a sustainable option (1, 2). Mordants that have been used from ancient times produce a pattern during the dyeing process. By looking at these historical (3, 4) and traditional applications (5) from across the globe, it was hoped that a more sustainable method of patterning either through printed (screen and block), stencilled or hand-painted techniques could be designed. According to Robinson (6): Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79), writing of the ancient Egyptians, stated that, ‘Garments are painted in Egypt in a wonderful manner, the white clothes being first coated, not with colours but with drugs which absorb the colours. Although the dyeing liquid is one colour, the garment is dyed several colours according to the different properties of the drugs which have been applied to the different parts: nor can this be washed out’ It is thought that this passage was describing madder dye alongside as the various mordants – alum, iron salts and copper salts as they were known at that time (7). Since this ancient time, the application of natural dyes evolved over the centuries into an advanced form of dyeing as this was only form of permanently colouring fabrics until the advent of synthetic dyes by Perkins in 1856. The ‘Art of Dyeing’ became a highly secretive and protected practice with the formation of Dyers Guilds from the 14th c. The technique of the application of different mordants to create more than one colour evolved within the Far East employed initially to produce the ‘Indienne mania’ (Chintz) madder dyed calicos of the 17th c. and 18th c. and later with the development of ‘Turkey Red’ prints, the secrete of which remained undisclosed until the late 18th c. (7). (1) Garcia. 2012, Natural Dye Workshop: Colors Of Provence Using Sustainable Methods, London: Studio Galli. (2) Dean, J, & Casselman, K. 1999, Wild Colour, London: Mitchell Beazley. (3) Bird. 1875. The Dyers Handbook. USA. (4) Hummel, J.J. 1885. The Dyeing of Textile Fabrics. London: Cassell & Company Ltd (5) Bilgrami, N. 1990. Singh jo Ajrak. Pakistan: Department of Culture and Tourism Government of Sindh. (6) Robinson, S. 1969. A History of Dyed Textiles, London: W & J Makckay & Co Ltd. (7) Chenciner, R. 2001. Madder Red: A History of Luxury and Trade. Richmond: Cuzon Press. (8) Storey, J. 1992 The Thames and Hudson Manual of Textile Printing. London: Thames and Hudson.
    • The body as instrument: tissue conducted multimodal audio-tactile spatial music.

      Lennox, Peter; McKenzie, Ian; Brown, Michael; University of Derby (25/08/2017)
      We describe early progress in exploring the compositional potential for multimodal music of a multi-transducer audio-plus-vibrotactile apparatus, utilising ambisonics encoding; the tactile component is an incidental by-product, carried by the same transducers. An elicitation exercise with one hundred uninstructed listeners who gave responses in their own words was conducted and responses were transcribed and aggregated to identify emergent descriptive themes. The tactile components of the stimuli assume greater importance in the perceptual experience than originally considered, suggesting compositional opportunities in utilizing additive effects of audio-plus-tactile signals. This could engender assistive technologies for those with some degree of conductive hearing loss, ameliorating music-deprivation and addressing quality-of-life (QoL) issues.
    • Sustainable solar surface decoration: the correlation between Anthotype principles with plant extractions as a form of eco-patterning for fabrics

      Wells, Kate; Greger, Ness; University of Derby (The Textile Institute, 25/04/2016)
      This paper discusses design research undertaken into the correlation between natural dyes (plant extractions) and the alternative photographic process of Anthotypes discovered in the early 19th Century. The paper explores the relationship between natural extracts (dyes) with their fastness properties in relation to the success of this photographic process and the potential this form of imaging has as a sustainable/health giving form of surface decoration for textiles: A form of Eco-patterning that relies upon light and natural substances/dyes not synthetic dyes as the colouring medium. Instigated by the output of collaborative research between two different disciplines: That of textile design and early colouration methods with historical photographic imaging techniques. The research project considered the symbiotic relationship between natural plant extracts with the success of Anthotypes. The aim of which was to consider the question: Could this kind of photographic image making be applied as a future, sustainable method of design generation, colouration and patterning of fabric for fashion and interiors? The objective was in creating an alternative sustainable surface design process that relies upon light and natural substances/dyes not chemical dyestuffs and pigments as the main patterning and processing medium. The outcomes of which could also provide medicinal healing qualities by wearing clothing or sleeping on material that has been coloured with natural plant extracts (dyes), an added health bonus.
    • Costume project(ion)-the costume rehearses

      Penna, Xristina; University of Leeds (Critical Costume, 25/03/2015)
    • Perceptual cartoonification in multi-spatial sound systems

      Lennox, Peter; Myatt, Tony; University of Derby; University of York (24/06/2011)
      This paper describes large scale implementations of spatial audio systems which focus on the presentation of simplified spatial cues that appeal to auditory spatial perception. It reports a series of successful implementations of nested and multiple spatial audio fields to provide listeners with opportunities to explore complex sound fields, to receives cues pertaining to source behaviors within complex audio environments. This included systems designed as public sculptures capable of presenting engaging sound fields for ambulant listeners. The paper also considers questions of sound field perception and reception in relation to audio object scaling according to the dimensions of a sound reproduction system and proposes that a series of multiple, coordinated sound fields may provide better solutions to large auditorial surround sound than traditional reproduction fields which surround the audience. Particular attention is paid to the experiences since 2008 with the multi-spatial The Morning Line sound system, which has been exhibited as a public sculpture in a number of European cities.
    • Inside-outside: 3-D music through tissue conduction

      McKenzie, Ian; Lennox, Peter; Wiggins, Bruce; University of Derby (24/03/2015)
      Eliciting an auditory perception by means of mechanical transduction bypassing the peripheral hearing apparatus has been recorded as early as the 16th century. Excluding its audiometric use to assess ear pathology, bone and soft tissue conduction has received very little interest until the last two decades. Previous work during this time (Stanley and Walker 2006, MacDonald and Letowski 2006) has indicated robust lateralization is feasible via mechanical transduction. We have extended this, adding the front-back and up-down axes.
    • Between excess and subtraction: Scenographic violence in Howard Barker’s Found in the Ground

      Kipp, Lara Maleen; University of Derby (Centre de recherche VALE, 23/06/2017)
      The article examines the violence produced by the scenography of Howard Barker's Found in the Ground, which emerges out of the play’s formal experimentation. Thematically, the play is rife with violence, such as former Nuremberg judge Toonelhuis’ consumption of the remains of high-ranking Nazis he sentenced to death, the continuous burning of books and the retelling of various murders by the war criminal Knox. Found in the Ground re-visions the collective European memory of the Holocaust; this thematic violence is expanded and subverted by scenographic means, radically reimagining the historical context. The particularity of the spatio-temporal, audio-visual rendering of violence in Barker’s text is the focus of this article. The article relates the play to Artaud’s conception of cruelty and to Lyotard’s thinking on the sublime. It contextualises the play through Barker’s theoretical writings, Lingis’ notion of catastrophic time (2000) and Aronson’s proposition of the stage as an abyss (2005).
    • Layers, traces and gaps: Collage, found footage and the contested past

      Bosward, Marc; University of Derby (23/06/2017)
      Critical realism is an anti-reductionist approach that asserts the independence of an external world whilst accepting that knowledge of that world is socially constructed and transient. It offers an intermediate position that reconciles the binary opposition of objectivism and subjectivism, challenging the ‘false choice’ (Lovell, 1981) between empiricist and idealist ontologies. In recognising the dense complexity of being and the social world, it advances a stratified reality comprised of co-dependent structures and mechanisms. The paper will describe a framework for practice research that uses found footage and animated collage within a critical realist methodology. The research deploys strategies that privilege simultaneity, overlap and hybridity in articulating layered temporalities that foreground a dialectical conception of history. The practice explores how critical realist collage can challenge essentialist, unitary historical narratives that suppress the interdependence and complexity of socio-historical phenomena. Can the partial and irregular experience of remembering, evoking the contingent and furtive conditions of personal and collective memory be rendered through the aesthetic of moving collage? In reference to animated documentary, the work investigates how spatial and temporal found footage collage can expand the language of non-fiction films that address memory and the past. The paper will argue that the deeper understanding of memory and history that critical realism offers could be apprehended through the construction and mediation that the vocabularies of animation and collage contain.
    • Destroying creativity

      Lennox, Peter; Wilson, Chris; Brown, Michael; University of Derby (23/06/2016)
    • 'I Speak about Myself to You' – Renegotiating the Voice of Documentary through Animation Aesthetics

      Bosward, Marc; Bevan, Greg; University of Derby; University of Salford (The Higher Education Academy, 23/06/2011)
      Documentary practice has long been encumbered with journalistic and pseudo-scientific expectations; the gathering of evidence, the balancing of material and the objective presentation of accurate and informative data. Overwhelmingly, documentary audiences are encouraged to believe in an objective reality and, by extension, to anticipate fidelity to it. Filmmakers' aesthetic choices are selected and organised to persuade the viewer that the resulting voice of the documentary is an honest, rational and sensible point of view. This paper will explore the documentary filmmaker's detachment from an obligation to deliver objective truth by applying the visual, aural and temporal distortions of animation to interrogate conventional notions of knowledge, reliability and authority. By taking a collaborative approach to the research project, the paper will explore the inherent transformative, non-representational and illusory nature of animation in relation to the construction of authorial voice for documentary. Drawing on the theory and practice of filmmakers Aleksandr Sokurov and Alexander Kluge, the paper will assess to what extent truth can be derived from expressionistic aesthetic components as readily as they can from the narration of factual information and photographic reality; can animation in documentary assimilate fiction into fact and synthesise truth and fantasy? Further, the paper will argue that the didactic voice of traditional, expository documentary encourages passive observation while animation can provoke a more poetic interpretation of the films' diegesis; how can the authenticity of documentary material be legitimised by foregrounding authorial mediation rather than attempting to camouflage subjectivity? The introduction of animation aesthetics into documentary realism offers the filmmaker a wider choice of expressive tools to define, extend and affirm their own personal voice. This paper will offer a practical assessment of these issues, offering new approaches for filmmakers to explore the epistemological resonance of their craft, and to extend the formal and thematic parameters that determine documentary's status as nonfiction testimony.
    • Applied theatre solo performance: “Acting Alone” – artist led research exploring boundaries of performer / audience relationships

      Hunt, Ava; University of Derby (23/04/2016)
      Acting Alone is a solo performance based on seven years of artistic and creative research into the theatrical conventions used within Applied Theatre practice. Hunt’s solo performance research challenges the theatrical form, raises questions and provokes debate through the use of immersive conventions. Acting Alone toured extensively throughout the UK at festivals, theatre venues, in schools and colleges. The piece performed to a wide range of self-selecting audiences – age, class, religion, gender and cultural identity. Verbatim experiences of ordinary Palestinian people where told against documentary accounts of historical and autobiographical stories woven together to provide counter arguments against racist discourse. This applied theatre practice challenged the theatrical boundaries of performer/audience relationships through subtle moments of participation finishing with an invitation to make a difference.
    • Hearing Without Ears

      McKenzie, Ian; Lennox, Peter; Wiggins, Bruce; University of Derby (Georgia Institute of Technology, 22/06/2014)
      We report on on-going work investigating the feasibility of using tissue conduction to evince auditory spatial perception. Early results indicate that it is possible to coherently control externalization, range, directionality (including elevation), movement and some sense of spaciousness without presenting acoustic signals to the outer ear. Signal control techniques so far have utilised discrete signal feeds, stereo and 1st order ambisonic hierarchies. Some deficiencies in frontal externalization have been observed. We conclude that, whilst the putative components of the head related transfer function are absent, empirical tests indicate that coherent equivalents are perceptually utilisable. Some implications for perceptual theory and technological implementations are discussed along with potential practical applications and future lines of enquiry.
    • Here and There: two works, ten countries.

      Bartram, Angela; O'Neill, Mary; University of Lincoln (22/05/2015)
      The presence of the performing body is central to the experience of live art. It is this distinctive quality that enables an audience to engage with an unmediated work that incorporates contingencies of site and response. In this paper we will discuss two works by Bartram O’Neill (the authors’ collaborative name) that address the myth of presence through an interrogation of ‘liveness’ and what it constitutes in art practice when reliant on technological means. In 2013 Bartram O’Neill performed "I, I am, I am here, I am speaking here" as part of Performa 1, Art Basel Miami (USA). This was performed remotely, from the U.K. through two ‘bodies’ in Miami. Unlike the theatrical tradition of script, rehearsal, interpretation etc. this work required these ‘bodies’ to act as channels and ‘puppets’ for the performers in the UK. Using text messaging and Skype, the UK based ‘performers’ and authors of the work communicated to the audience in Miami through their Miami based translators. Meanwhile the UK authors listened to the performance through a telephone connection with an audience member, and thereby being both performers and audience of their work. Bartram O’Neill participated in “O/R” in the streamed Low Lives 4 Networked Performance Festival. From an empty gallery in Nottingham, UK, the pair performed at 2am GMT to an open laptop on the floor, reaching audiences in the USA, Japan, Trinidad & Tobago, Australia, France, Colombia, Norway, and Aruba, between 8- 9pm the calendar day before, depending on location. These works incorporated not just distance, but also time difference - in the former the performers were in a living room surrounded by their diurnal domestic trappings and in the latter they performed in the middle of the night having walked through deserted streets to occupy a gallery devoid of life. Both works distanced the body of the performer, who was in fact ‘present’. This paper explores the possibilities, complexities and contingencies of this dynamic seeking to analyse what it is to be presented as ‘live’ when geographically distant.