• Citizenship, community and democracy in India: from Bombay to Maharashtra, c. 1930 to 1960.

      Godsmark, Oliver; University of Sheffield (Routledge, 2018-02-05)
      This book delivers ground-breaking perspectives upon nascent conceptions and workings of citizenship and democracy during the colonial/postcolonial transition. It examines how processes of democratisation and provincialisation during the interwar years contributed to demands and concerns and offers a broadened and imaginative outlook on India’s partition. Drawing upon a novel body of archival research, the book ultimately suggests Pakistan might also be considered as just one paradigmatic example of a range of coterminous calls for regional autonomy and statehood, informed by a majoritarian democratic logic that had an extensive contemporary circulation. It will be of interest to academics in the fields of South Asian history in general and the Partition in particular as well as to those interested in British colonialism and postcolonial studies.
    • Citizenship, Reservations and the Regional Alternative in the All-India Services, ca. 1928–1950

      Godsmark, Oliver; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-04-08)
      This paper unearths an alternative paradigm through which to consider the discussions and debates between members of the Indian public, government bureaucrats and Congress Party politicians about the rights and interests of Indian citizens both before and immediately after India's Independence in 1947. It argues that much of the recent historical work on citizenship during this period has been preoccupied with issues of nationality and religious community as a result of the fallout from Partition. However, the demands and deliberations over the introduction of provincial forms of affirmative action in the all-India services at this time are indicative of a different narrative. First, many provincial representations of ‘minority’ rights often took into account differences of caste and language instead. Second, and perhaps more importantly, the term minority was employed not only to describe demographic minority status, but also to define under-represented groups in the all-India services. In doing so, these different provincial policies prioritised particular local rights to representation, in which citizenship was expressed through a regional idiom.
    • 'Civis Indianus Sum': ambedkar on democracy and territory during linguistic reorganisation (and partition).

      Godsmark, Oliver; University of Sheffield (Cambridge University Press., 2019-08-13)
      This article considers Ambedkar’s ideas about the implementation of democracy in India, in the context of the linguistic reorganisation of provincial administrative boundaries. In doing so, it looks to emphasise the importance of territorial configurations to Dalit politics during this period, and in particular the consequences of ‘provincialisation’, which has received little attention within the existing literature. Rethinking space by redrawing administrative territory provided Ambedkar with one potential avenue through which to escape the strictures of Dalits’ minority status. In this vision, linguistic reorganisation (and partition) were harbingers of greater democratisation and potential palliatives to the threat of Hindu majority rule at the centre. In turn, however, Ambedkar simultaneously came to perceive the creation of these new administrative spaces as marking a new form of provincial majoritarianism, despite his best efforts to form alliances with those making such demands. In this sense, the article also seeks to address some of the shared processes behind linguistic reorganisation and partition, as two related forms of territorial redrawing. In the face of these demands, and the failures of both commensuration and coalition politics, Ambedkar turned to the idea of separate settlements for Dalits, whereby they might themselves come to constitute a majority. Whilst such a novel attempt at separation and resettlement was not ultimately realised, its emergence within Ambedkar’s thought at this time points towards its significance in any history of caste and untouchability in twentieth-century South Asia.
    • Clientelism, community and collaboration: loyalism in nineteenth-century colonial India.

      Godsmark, Oliver; Gould, William; Loughborough University; University of Leeds (Boydell and Brewer, 2014-05)
      Loyalism in Britain and Ireland, which was once seen as a crude reaction against radicalism or nationalism, stimulated by the elite and blindly followed by plebeians, has recently been shown by historians to have been, on the contrary, a politically multi-faceted, socially enabling phenomenon which did much to shape identity in the British Isles. This book takes further this revised picture by considering loyalism in the wider British World. It considers the overall nature of loyalism, exploring its development in England, Ireland and Scotland, and goes on to examine its manifestation in a range of British colonies and former colonies, including the United States, Canada, India, Australia and New Zealand. It shows that whilst eighteenth-century Anglo-centric loyalism had a core of common ideological assumptions, associational structures and ritual behaviour, loyalism manifested itself differently in different territories. This divergence is explored through a discussion of the role of loyal associations and military institutions, loyalism's cultural and ritual dimensions and its key role in the formation of political identities. Chronologically, the book covers a pivotal period, comprehending the American and French Revolutions, the 1798 Irish rebellion and Irish Union, the Canadian rebellions of 1837, and Fenianism and Home Rule campaigns throughout the British World.
    • Searching for synergies, making majorities: the demands for Pakistan and Maharashtra.

      Godsmark, Oliver; University of Sheffield (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-03)
      This paper re-examines the Pakistan demand as part of a wider ‘federal moment’ in India, by addressing its connections with the coterminous calls for Samyukta Maharashtra in the context of the Cabinet Mission of spring/summer 1946. It highlights how the twinned processes of democratisation and provincialisation during the interwar years informed these demands. Both Muslim and Maratha representatives looked to locate and secure autonomous political spaces that would better secure their political representation. Their demands exemplified a shift away from a commensurative logic expressed through separate representation in the legislatures, and towards support for majority rule at the provincial level.